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Information Lifecycle

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In this assessment, our aim is to give an explanation about five phases that information will go through in their extended life. This process is called Information Lifecycle. Information Lifecycle had been divided to five phases which is creation, distribution, use, maintenance and disposition. .All of information is been through this process is to ensure that there is no cases such as information overload or information explosion. The information life cycle is a concept in common use. It indicates that informations are not static, but have a life similar to that of biological organisms: they are born, live through youth and old age and then die. The idea was developed in North America by Schellenberg (1956, 37), who wrote about the ‘life span’ of records, this concept can also be employed in our brief explanation about the ‘information lifecycle’ models used in information management and technology. The purpose of this assessment is also to give some example of activities in our daily life that is related with each of five phases that information been through. These examples provide a ‘feel’ for each of the five phases of information lifecycle in today’s turbulent environments.

Five Phases of Information Lifecycle.
How information is created. Information is created through stages. For the first stage, information is created from some highly-intelligence individual , an author or a scholars. This group of individual usually create an information by generating an idea through various of activities. For example, brainstorming activity and problem solving activity. After that, the ideas will be studied and its preliminary results will be presented to colleagues. The ideas is being studied to ensure that this idea’s content is strong enough. We can strengthen the idea by create a group of individuals in formal organization or informal community for the purpose of exchanging information and furthering the profession or trade. Then, the ideas will be strengthened by research results and more widely reported to research community. After this group of scholar or peer have exchanging their information, they will shared it with interested researchers or scholars for the purpose of exchanging research result and conclusions. At fourth stage, after the research has reach its final conclusion, the research will be widespread to general public. The information produced for a general mass reading audience. Example of the distribution way is Public Opinion Poll. Next, after the research had been view by the public’s eye, the implications of the research will be integrated to public policy. The information beneath the research will be generated by federal state, or local government for the purpose of keeping records, statistics, and informing the public on government activities and policy. Lastly, after the research had been recorded, the research will be synthesized and summarized to be placed in larger context within discipline/ subject area. For example, encyclopedias.

Example of how information is created
Tragic history of September 11th, 2001
Purpose: To Inform Only a few minutes after the first plane crashed into the World Trade Center, television, radio, social website and the Internet began reporting news on the tragedy.
Purpose: To Inform The next day, newspapers around the world report on the attacks. TV, radio and the Internet continue to report on the aftermath, oftens including a chronology of events.
Purpose: To Inform Weeks later magazines, TV, radio and the Internet feature opinion pieces and commentaries. Magazines feature more in-depth coverage and photos on the attacks.
Purpose: To Analyze Months after the attacks the focus shifts to analyse of the event. Experts begin publishing in journals analyzing the attacks against a broader framework. These scholarly articles include bibliographies and references.
Purpose: To Analyze Years later, scholarly articles are still being published, but now books appear. They continue the in-depth conversation about the wider social and cultural impact of the 9/11 attacks.

How information is distributed. Information Media is a method used in distributing the information to the public. Media that been used to transfer information such as books, magazine, journal, newspaper, radio, TV, microfilm, microform, audiotape, videotape, laser disc, compact disc, compact disc, computer software, computer networks, satellite system. But, with the advent of the internet, and the explosion in popularity of online communities, "social media has changed the information landscape in many respects, and creates both new modes of communication and new types of information", changing the interpretation of the definition of distribution. The nature of social networks allows for faster diffusion of information than through organizational sources. The internet has changed the way we view, use, create, and store information, now it is time to re-evaluate the way we share and spread it.
Example of how information is distributed. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter maximizing their ‘breath’ of audience. Through social media people are directed to, or provided with, information by people they know. The ability to "share, like, and comment on...content" increases the reach further and wider than traditional methods.On top of that, the impact of popular opinion also can spread in unimaginable ways. For example, social media allowed interaction through simple to learn and access tools; The Wall Street Journal offers an app through Facebook, and The Washington Post goes a step further and offers an independent social app that was downloaded by 19.5 million users in 6 months, proving how interested people are in the new way of being provided information.

How information is used. To use information effectively, you need to have Information Literacy Skills (ILS). ILS is the ability to find, organize, evaluate & use information effectively. ILS can be summarized in three concepts. 1) The ICT concept.Information literacy refers to the competence to use ICT to retrieve and disseminate information. 2)The information (re)sources concept. Information literacy refers to the competence to find and use information independently or with the aid of intermediaries. 3) The information process concept. Information literacy refers to the process of identifying information need, the retrieving, evaluating, use and dissemination of information to acquire or extend knowledge. Over the years quite a number of ``literacies'' have been introduced. Others need less differentiation and distinguish six types of digital age literacy NCREL, (2002):

1) Basic Literacy Language proficiency
(reading, writing, listening, and speaking) using conventional and technology-based media 2) Scientific Literacy Knowledge of science, scientific thinking, mathematics, and the relationships between science, mathematics, and technology

3) Technological Literacy Competence in the use of computers, networks, and applications 4) Visual Literacy The ability to decipher, interpret, and express ideas using images, graphics, icons, charts, graphs, and video

5) Information Literacy The competence to find, evaluate, and make use of information appropriately

6) Cultural Literacy A recognition and appreciation of the diversity of peoples and cultures

Therefore, Evaluating and using information are really ``higher order'' cognitive skills, which may be employed to develop new ideas and knowledge.

Example how information is used effectively.
Technological literacy.

Use of Technology in Business: Today businesses can save money by using technology to perform certain tasks. When you compare the amount of money spent on hiring an individual to perform a certain task and to guarantee delivery on time, it is totally expensive. When it comes to technology a small business can scale out and deliver more with less human resource.
For example: If you operate a manufacturing business, instead of hiring so many people to work in certain section , you can replace that labor with a ”PLC” programmed production line which will automate the all process of manufacturing . The benefits of using a ”PLC” , is that productivity and accuracy will be better and first compared to using individuals.

How information is preserved Information is being preserved when information and records are filed or stored according to a logical scheme to permit subsequent retrieval, housed in some type of storage device, and protected and maintained so as to safeguard the integrity of the information. During this stage, the information is active; it is frequently referred to and is thus usually stored close to its users. For example, Digital Preservation. According to the Harrod's Librarian Glossary, digital preservation is the method of keeping digital material alive so that they remain usable as technological advances render original hardware and software specification obsolete (Nabeela).
Example how information is preserved. Through digitization and reformatting, preservation librarians are able to retain material while at the same time adapting to new methods. In this way, libraries can adapt to the changes in user needs without changing the quality of the material itself. Through preservation efforts, patrons can rest assured that although materials are constantly deteriorating over time, the library itself will remain a stable, reliable environment for their information needs. Another sacred ability of the library is to provide information and a connection to the past. By working to slow down the processes of deterioration and decay of library materials, preservation practices help keep this link to the past alive.
How information is disposed. When information and records reach the end of their retention and have no further legal, fiscal, or administrative value they are: (1) safely destroyed or (2) preserved permanently in an archive for on-going historical reference or research purposes.

Example how information is disposed.
Paper records can be destroyed by shredding or more securely by pulping or incineration. The use of standard waste bin or other non-secure facilities is not acceptable.
Electronic records can be erased by reformatting degaussing or physically destroying their storage media.

Conclusion. In this paper we started by discussing the information life cycle by providing a view where information is regarded to evolved. Information lives longer than people, organizations and tools. . All of information is been through this process is to ensure that there is no cases such as information overload or information explosion. . Now we already know the five phases of information lifecycle and how it’s created, the conclusion to be drawn is that both visual content information and context information need to be preserved to ensure future interpretation and understanding of the archived information. This leads us to the conclusion that archivists need new awareness, skills, routines and work methods that can deal with long term preservation strategies and management. When this is achieved, the archivists can have a pro-active role and the archives can move from being houses of memory to a more active participation in the information life cycle and thereby providing the society with information.

Allan, B. (2004). Project management: Tools and techniques for today's ILS professional. London: Facet. Page 73-74

Albert K. Boekhorst, (2003) "Becoming information literate in The Netherlands", Library Review, Vol. 52 Iss: 7, pp.298 - 309

Information science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2015, from

Shepherd, E. J., & Yeo, G. (2003). Managing records: A handbook of principles and practice. London: Facet Pub (page 3-10)

How Information is Created. SWITCH Information Literacy Tutorial. (n.d.)Retrieved July 25, 2015, from

Use of Technology in Our Daily Life | Use of Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2015, from…...

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