Is It Necessary to Separate Retail Banking from Investment Banking? Discuss Possible Advantages and Disadvantages of Such a Separation Using Academic Literature

In: Business and Management

Submitted By jhanb
Words 4633
Pages 19
Origins and Responses to the Crisis
Barry Eichengreen
University of California, Berkeley
October 2008
Nearly two years after the outbreak of the credit crisis (which may be dated to March 2007 when major losses were announced by the U.S. subprime-based investors Accredited Home Lenders
Holding and New Century Financial), key issues remain to be resolved. At the most basic level the questions are two. What caused the crisis? And in light of one’s answer to this first question, what should be done to minimize the risk of repetition if not of identical events then at least of something similar?
To say that these questions remain to be satisfactorily answered is not the same as saying that there has been a shortage of attempts. Standard operating procedure starts by rounding up the usual suspects: unethical mortgage brokers, greedy bankers, naïve homeowners, and illinformed investors. Lists focusing less on individuals than mechanisms emphasize agency problems between brokers and banks, the originate-and-distribute model, excessive leverage and short-term funding, the perverse incentives created by executive compensation practices, conflicts of interest within the rating agencies, and permissive monetary policies. These long lists of causes lead to correspondingly long lists of reforms: regulate mortgage brokers, rating agencies, and executive compensation; force banks to keep a participation in any securities they originate; require banks to hold more capital; and revisit whether monetary policy should respond to credit booms and asset bubbles. This of course is only a very incomplete summary of a vast and rapidly-growing literature.
The limitations of this standard operating procedure will be apparent. However successful it is at pinpointing the immediate causes of the crisis, it fails to identify the deeper conditions that allowed those…...

Similar Documents

Investment Banking

...The UNOFFICIAL GUIDE to INVESTMENT BANKING Issued by CONTENTS MYTHS AND REALIT IES 6 OVERV IEW OF INVE STMEN T BANK ING INTRODUCTION 4 WHY AN UNOFFICIAL GUIDE TO INVESTMENT BANKING? 3 ASSET 8 MANAGEM ENT 12 GLOBAL BANKING FINANCE 10 GLOBAL MARKETS 16 HUMAN ES RESOURC 20 22 GROUP TECHNOL OG & OPERA Y TIONS LEGAL, RISK & CAPITAL 24 WORKING THE PROCESS TOP TIPS 28 30 GLOSSARY Why an “Unofficial Guide to Investment Banking?” The aim of this guide is to give you a fresh view of investment banking. A brochure is helpful, but can read a little like a catalog. We think you need to know what your life would really be like, challenging out-of-date myths and stereotypes, so you are able to make the most informed decision possible. This is an honest look at investment banking and is based on the experiences of people just like you, who have now gone through the graduate program and come out the other side with blossoming careers. It is the inside story of investment banking written by analysts for graduates, and you won’t hear this tale anywhere else. We’re going to tell you about all the divisions you could work for, what life’s really like for analysts and show you that there’s more to banking than pitch books, power lunches and pinstriped suits. And if you still want to go into banking once you’ve heard the inside scoop, we’ll tell you about how to get there......

Words: 13591 - Pages: 55

Investment Banking

...Difference Between Investment Banking and Merchant Banking Investment vs. Merchant Banking Bank is an organization that provides a range of financial and some non financial services to its customers. The main source of income, that makes the bank survive is the interest charged from those to whom the bank has given loan. A bank accepts deposits from its customers and pay interest to that deposited money, while it lends money to those who need finance and charge interest from them. The interest rate chargeable from the borrowers is higher than the interest rate payable to depositors. This is how a bank, which is traditionally known to normal people, earns revenue. Banks can be broadly categorized as retail banks and investment banks. The above mentioned revenue generating procedure is more applicable to a retail bank. The revenue models of investment and merchant banks are different, which we will discuss in this article. Investment Banking An investment bank is a financial institution that engages in the issuance of securities on behalf of its client. Investment banks are the banks, which facilitate both the investor, who is in search for good investment opportunity and the investee, who is searching for capital to invest in viable projects. Unlike other types of banks, investment banks are not accepting deposits from customers; that is, investment banks do not provide regular banking services to the general public. The main Investment banking activities are......

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7

Project on Retail Banking

...1 Introduction Retail banking is quite broad in nature - it refers to the dealing of commercial banks with individual customers, both on liabilities and assets sides of the balance sheet. Fixed, current / savings accounts on the liabilities side; and mortgages, loans (e.g., personal, housing, auto, and educational) on the assets side, are the more important of the products offered by banks. Related ancillary services include credit cards, or depository services. Today’s retail banking sector is characterized by three basic characteristics: * Multiple products (deposits, credit cards, insurance, investments and securities) * Multiple channels of distribution (call centre, branch, Internet and kiosk) * Multiple customer groups (consumer, small business, and corporate) Retail banking is banking in which banking institutions execute transactions directly with consumers, rather than corporations or other banks. A sound and evolved banking system is essential for sustained economic development. India is one of the fastest growing economies after financial and banking sector reforms since 1991. Banking sector evolution and growth has gone through innumerable twists and turns in the post independence era. Retail banking in the banking industry has always been important in India where banks were nationalized with the objective of reaching the masses. However, the growth in retail banking has been quite prominent retail in the recent years. Retail banking has been......

Words: 7281 - Pages: 30

Retail Banking

...World retail Banking report 2012 Contents 3 4 7 Preface Key Findings Chapter 1: 8 12 21 Unlocking Pathways to Greater Customer Loyalty Customers Express Conflicting Sentiments toward Banks The Need for a Customer Experience Index The Growth of Mobile Banking 25 Chapter 2: At a Crossroads, Retail Banks Must Identify and Prioritize Core Strengths The Ground Beneath Banks Is Shifting Traditional Tactics Are Less Effective in the Current Environment The Way Forward: Extreme Measures for Extreme Times 26 28 32 40 41 Methodology About Us Preface Capgemini and Efma are pleased to present the 2012 World Retail Banking Report. Retail banks around the world are struggling to maintain their competitiveness in the face of severe external challenges. Massive debt loads are threatening the global economy, while stringent regulations put in place as a result of the financial crisis of 2008 are staunching traditional revenue streams. Customers, still distrustful of the industry, have become increasingly accepting of nonbank alternatives, and social media is giving them an opportunity to publicly explore them. More than ever, retail banks must strive to create stronger bonds with their customers. The 2012 World Retail Banking Report addresses this imperative by establishing a new framework for identifying and measuring success in retail banking. Specifically, our Customer Experience Index (CEI) offers a mechanism for accurately taking stock of the critical...

Words: 17918 - Pages: 72

Retail Banking

...BANKING IN INDIA Banking in India originated in the first decade of 18th century. The first banks were, The General Bank of India, which started in 1786, and Bank of Hindustan, both of which are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated in the "The Bank of Bengal" in Calcutta in June 1806. This was one of the three presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras. The presidency banks were established under charters from the British East India Company. They merged in 1925 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India's independence, became the State Bank of India. For many years the Presidency banks acted as quasi-central banks, as did their successors. The Reserve Bank of India formally took on the responsibility of regulating the Indian banking sector from 1935. After India's independence in 1947, the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers. Early history The first fully Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank, established in 1865. However, at the end of late-18th century, there were hardly any banks in India in the modern sense of the term. The American Civil War stopped the supply of cotton to Lancashire from the Confederate States. Promoters opened banks to finance trading in Indian cotton. With large exposure to speculative ventures, most of the banks opened in India during that period failed. The depositors lost money and lost interest in keeping deposits...

Words: 6864 - Pages: 28

Retail Banking

...Abstract The objective of this study is to have practical knowledge on the Retail Banking services provided by the Private Conventional Banks and the Islamic banks in Bangladesh. Today, banks realize the importance of Retail Banking and its potential to help them acquire new customers, retain existing ones and maximize their lifetime value. this report provides an overall view of Retail Banking services in Bangladesh. the services provided by Private Conventional Banks and the Islamic banks are mentioned. Followed by are the products that are being used to provide these services. A trend of the retail banking services is done in the analysis part of this report. The Islamic banking concept is being adopted by some of the Private Commercial Banks to generate better understanding of the customer for product development, segmentation, appropriate targeting, campaign management and maintenance of long term profitable and mutually beneficial relationships with customers. The concept of Islamic Banking has been implemented on a vast scale. To meet the objective of the report a trend analysis of the retail deposit indicators,retail deposits and loans and advances is done in the fifth part of the report. there growth is also shown with line graphs. A comparison is also made between the PCB's retail banking services and that of IB's. In part six findings are listed and some recommendations are also made accordingly. Table of Contents Sl No | Topic | Page No. | 1.0 | ......

Words: 14653 - Pages: 59

Software as a Tool of Competitive Advantage: International Retail Banking

...TOOL OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: INTERNATIONAL RETAIL BANKING 1 2 3 4 5 Introduction: Objectives of this Benchmarking Study……………………………………2 Approach: Methodology and Questions…………………………………………………..9 Introduction to Case………………………………………………………………………10 The Industry Context: Global Financial Services and the Retail Consumer……………...12 Organization, E-Citi and Citi’s Global Consumer Strategy Product Market Segmentation, Cross-selling and International Leverage…………....24 Mobile Phone Basis Citi’s Future Global Retail Banking Strategy…………………..30 Products, Service Support and IT Selection Strategies……………………………….34 6 7 8 Japan, A Microcosm – Synergies, Affiliations and Reach ……………………………….36 Trust Bank, Complementary Services, and Interactive Strategic Benefits……………….55 Summary - Owning the Future of International Retail Banking……………………….…57 Appendix I - Summary Answers to Questions for Citigroup - IRB Strategy & Operations….65 Appendix II - Some Firm and Market Data Tables 1-6…………………………………………………………………………......73 Highlights from Citi’s Assessment of Global Consumer Business 1999 and 1998…..83 Bibliography and References………………………………………………………………….89 Introduction: Objectives of this Benchmarking Study This international retail banking study for Citigroup (CG)1 was completed under a three-year research grant from the Sloan Foundation. The project’s overall purpose has been to examine in a series of case studies how U.S. and Japanese firms who are recognized leaders in using information......

Words: 35090 - Pages: 141

Investment Banking

...Investment Banking Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers & Acquisitions JOSHUA ROSENBAUM JOSHUA PEARL FOREWORD BY JOSEPH R. PERELLA Investment Banking Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons is the oldest independent publishing company in the United States. With offices in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, Wiley is globally committed to developing and marketing print and electronic products and services for our customers’ professional and personal knowledge and understanding. The Wiley Finance series contains books written specifically for finance and investment professionals as well as sophisticated individual investors and their financial advisors. Book topics range from portfolio management to e-commerce, risk management, financial engineering, valuation, and financial instrument analysis, as well as much more. For a list of available titles, please visit our Web site at Investment Banking Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers & Acquisitions JOSHUA ROSENBAUM JOSHUA PEARL John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright C 2009 by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the......

Words: 138300 - Pages: 554

Retail Banking

...Retail Banking - Opportunities and Challenges Shyamala Gopinath* The issue of retail banking is extremely important and topical. Across the globe, retail lending has been a spectacular innovation in the commercial banking sector in recent years. The growth of retail lending, especially, in emerging economies, is attributable to the rapid advances in information technology, the evolving macroeconomic environment, financial market reform, and several micro-level demand and supply side factors. India too experienced a surge in retail banking. There are various pointers towards this. Retail loan is estimated to have accounted for nearly one-fifth of all bank credit. Housing sector is experiencing a boom in its credit. The retail loan market has decisively got transformed from a sellers’ market to a buyers’ market. Gone are the days where getting a retail loan was somewhat cumbersome. All these emphasise the momentum that retail banking is experiencing in the Indian economy in recent years. What is Retail Banking? Retail banking is, however, quite broad in nature - it refers to the dealing of commercial banks with individual customers, both on liabilities and assets sides of the balance sheet. Fixed, current / savings accounts on the liabilities side; and mortgages, loans (e.g., personal, housing, auto, and educational) on the assets side, are the more important of the products offered by banks. Related ancillary services include credit...

Words: 3552 - Pages: 15

Investment Banking

...Investment Banking: Past, Present, and Future by Alan D. Morrison, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford and William J. Wilhelm, Jr., McIntire School of Commerce, University of Virginia investment banks are changing fast. Forty years ago the industry was dominated by a few small partnerships that made the bulk of their income from the commissions they earned floating securities on behalf of their clients. Today’s investment banks are huge full-service firms that make a substantial proportion of their revenues in technical trading businesses that started to attain their current prominence only in the 1980s. The CPI-adjusted capitalization of the top ten investment banks soared from $1 billion in 1960 to $194 billion in 2000. Between 1979 and 2000, the number of professionals1 employed by the top five investment banks (ranked by capitalization) rose from 56,000 to 205,000.2 The enormous upheavals documented in the previous paragraph raise a number of difficult questions. What have the investment banks of today got in common with their predecessors? Is it possible to draw any meaningful parallels between businesses that today call themselves investment banks and the investment banks of 20, 40, or even 100 years ago? What is the source of the recent changes to the investment banking landscape, and can we say anything about the likely future direction of the industry? These questions point to a more fundamental one: namely, if investment banks did not exist, would we need to......

Words: 11416 - Pages: 46

Middle Market Investment Banking

...coverage. “For those hoping to climb the ladder of success, [Vault’s] insights are priceless.” – Money magazine “The best place on the Web to prepare for a job search.” – Fortune “[Vault guides] make for excellent starting points for job hunters and should be purchased by academic libraries for their career sections [and] university career centers.” – Library Journal “The granddaddy of worker sites.” – U.S. News & World Report “A killer app.” – The New York Times One of Forbes’ 33 “Favorite Sites.” – Forbes “To get the unvarnished scoop, check out Vault.” – SmartMoney Magazine “Vault has a wealth of information about major employers and job searching strategies as well as comments from workers about their experiences at specific companies.” – The Washington Post “A key reference for those who want to know what it takes to get hired by a law firm and what to expect once they get there.” – New York Law Journal “Vault [provides] the skinny on working conditions at all kinds of companies from current and former employees.” – USA Today Customized for: Mian Badr ( Customized for: Mian Badr ( VAULT CAREER GUIDE TO MIDDLE MARKET INVESTMENT BANKING JOE BEL BRUNO AND THE STAFF OF VAULT Customized for: Mian Badr ( Customized for: Mian Badr ( Copyright © 2009 by, Inc. All rights reserved. All information in this book is subject to change......

Words: 71250 - Pages: 285

Is It Necessary to Combine Investment Banking and Commercial Banking?

...Is it necessary to combine Investment Banking and Commercial Banking? Separation of Retail Banking and Investment Banking was a hot topic with President Obama’s proposal in January 2010 regarding a ban on US Banks on retail banks from using their own funds in investments and limiting to invest their customer’s funds. This news made many to wonder whether the world is going back to replace Glass Steagall Act which was abolished in 1999.(BBC,21January2010) Glass-Steagall Act(GSA)commonly known as Banking Act 1933 made the investment banks and Commercial Banks to function separately in order to refrain Commercial Banks from greater in securities business activities. This Act prohibited Commercial Banks to underwrite securities to public while it prohibited Investment Banks to accept deposits from customers. (Investopedia,2003). Many argue that commercial banks should not involve in securities(stock/bond)market investments as commercial banks divert funds in investment banking. In other words internal transparency of movements of funds not very clear when operating as a ‘Universal Bank’. Prior to 2007-2009 financial crisis Commercial Banks were greedily involved merely because of profits in securitization business where subprime mortgages were involved. During the rise in property market in 2006,banks created and traded in securitized assets, backed by subprime mortgages. Banks became greedy of making more money through SPV(Special Purpose Vehicle)taking high risks.......

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

Investment Banking: Information

...GET A JOB IN BANKING: The single most important thing you can do is to talk to as many people as you can. Talk to bankers and second years at SOM, learn about their experiences and views, and above all think for yourself. Getting a job in investment banking should involve two efforts on your part: (1) Learning your own needs - what is it you want in a job? (2) Learning what an investment bank is and does - does this type of job meets your needs? As a final warning, there is an allure to investment banking, namely that it is a high powered, fast-paced, exciting, dynamic career that can make you rich. This can be true, but it is also just a job - particularly as a first-year associate when it may not be as glamorous as you thought it would be. QUALITIES THAT INVESTMENT BANKS LOOK FOR It is important to see yourself as a portfolio of skills and qualities conducting an internet job search as well as any other. There are a number of skills and qualities that banks look for, and a successful candidate needs to put together several, but certainly not all of them. Additionally, it is probably a good idea to have some balance in your portfolio. Some qualities that banks look for on a resume or in the interview and some suggested ways to demonstrate them (these are just a few, and some banks will emphasize some more than others): Show a strong interest in Finance:  Be able to convey to an interviewer/contact that you understand what investment banking is,......

Words: 10941 - Pages: 44

Is It Necessary to Separate Retail Banking from Investment Banking? Discuss Possible Advantages and Disadvantages of Such a Separation Using Academic Literature

... Introduction Over the last years, there has been a debate on whether commercial and investment banks should be separated or not. Especially after the crisis in 2007 when taxpayers had to pay billion in the US to bail out the banks, the need for a “ring fence” around retail banking operations became urgent. Universal banks use the retail deposit for their investment operations which engage great risks. When their investments fail, the states have to rescue them. These mega banks emerged after the Great Depression when such a mergence became possible mainly because of the deregulation of western financial services. However, if global capital markets agree in a ring fence or total separation, it is a procedure that will take place over a period of years. In this project a brief review of the debate that takes place around this matter will be presented, mainly by stating some of the ideas that are commonly discussed.  The Glass-Steagall Act and how we got here Recently President Obama proposed the separation of investment and retail banks, as it is believed that they were the main reason of the last financial crisis that started in 2007. Avgouleas (2010) points out that the mega banks were created after 1990’s due to the deregulation of the financial industry and they engaged great risk in their investment activities as the deposits (that were used for these purposes) were guaranteed by the government. Benston, G.J. (1994) points out that these mega banks became so large,...

Words: 953 - Pages: 4

Is It Necessary to Separate Retail Banking from Investment Banking? Discuss Possible Advantages and Disadvantages of Such a Separation Using Academic Literature

...Graphic [pic] [pic] [pic] Disadvantage of increase Chinese Exchange for China - International Trade Why USA want to increase Chinese Exchange Rate As we all know, China is a big processing and export country, we can see many products all be made in China. Therefore, when the Chinese exchange rate increased, the demand of Chinese product for American companies and residents will be reduced, because the Chinese exchange rate increase, the cost of Chinese products will be increased at the same time, so they have to expend more dollars for Chinese products. The competition of Chinese products will be decreased in American market. For example, the price of one Chinese phone is 100 RMB that be exported to America with 8.264 exchange rate, so the price of this phone in America is $12.1. However, if the exchange increased to 7.0, and the price of this phone is $14.2. According to increase Chinese exchange rate, USA can reduce imports from China and this can be as a Non-tariff barriers. In addition, with the increase of Chinese exchange rate, China will import more products from USA, duo to the lower cost. Therefore, USA want to increase Chinese Exchange not only reduce the export of China, also increase the amount of export to China. Finally, China is the biggest creditor country for America and the amount of national debts is about 1.4 trillion. So the exchange rate increased, America can pay lesser money back for China with lower exchange rate. For example, if the...

Words: 690 - Pages: 3