Free Essay


In: Film and Music

Submitted By nyecalanza
Words 2365
Pages 10

1.Reflected diary-A reflective journal is a means of recording ideas, personal thoughts and experiences, as well as reflections and insights a student have in the learning process of a course. In addition to the demands of a typical written assignment (e.g. able to give definition on concepts, demonstrate basic understanding of course materials), reflective journal requires the students to think more deeply, to challenge their old ideas with new incoming information, to synthesize the course materials they have learnt into their personal thoughts and philosophy, and also to integrate it into their daily experiences and future actions. The benefits of the reflective learning process are usually accumulated over a period of time, in which the students usually show a series of developmental changes, personal growth and changes in perspectives during the process.

2.journal-journal is an academic magazine published on a regular schedule. It contains articles written by experts in a particular field of study, based on research or analysis that the author, or authors, did. That research might include case studies in the medical field, primary source research in the field of history, or literature analysis. Journal articles are written for experts or students of that particular field who have an advanced field-specific vocabulary and knowledge. A personal record of occurrences, experiences, and reflections kept on a regular basis; a diary.

3.Audio recording-is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

4.Video taping-A relatively wide magnetic tape used to record visual images and associated sound for subsequent playback or broadcasting.

5.Sociometric techniques- are methods that qualitatively measure aspects of social relationships, such as social acceptance (i.e., how much an individual is liked by peers) and social status (i.e., child's social standing in comparison to peers).

6.Event sampling-Event Sampling is usually a series of short observations to confirm a child's behaviour pattern in order to provide suitable strategies to manage the child's behaviour effectively. It is like keeping a clearly focused diary of the child's behaviour.
Event Samples can also provide accurate information for referral to other professionals e.g. Education Psychologist or Child Guidance Teams.

7.sociometric techniques-Sociometric techniques are methods that qualitatively measure aspects of social relationships, such as social acceptance (i.e., how much an individual is liked by peers) and social status (i.e., child's social standing in comparison to peers).

Event Sampling

Observations focus on particular events to build up a pattern of a child's behaviour over a period of days or weeks. For example to discover what provokes tantrums, or how a child reacts to leaving their carer at the start of each day in nursery.

event samples are a useful way to detect if a child has a behaviour problem that needs help or referral to another professional.

event samples help to clarify what really happens during a tantrum. For example is the child provoked, does the event happen at certain times of day, how long does the tantrum last?

event samplesfocus on perceived problems and attempt to find solutions to manage the child's behaviour more effectively. The observer needs to be focused and remember to note the details as the event occurs.

1 Points to remember when using an event sampling technique:

2 State the aim to give a clear focus to your work

3 Include a title to say what behaviour is observed

4 Give the context of the observation to explain your aims more fully

5 Include a antecedent to explain what lead up to the behaviour

6 Describe the child's behaviour in some detail

7 Include the consequences to show what happens next.
This shows strategies that reinforce the behaviour.



What is developmentally appropriate teaching

Developmentally appropriate practice, often shortened to DAP, is an approach to teaching grounded in the research on how young children develop and learn and in what is known about effective early education. Its framework is designed to promote young children’s optimal learning and development. is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development by basing all practices and decisions on theories of child development, individually identified strengths and needs of each child uncovered through authentic assessment, and the child's cultural background as defined by his community, family history, and family structure.

Guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice includes five complex principles.

The first is to create a caring community of learners. When creating this community each member must feel valued by others. Each member is given respect and is held accountable for their learning and well being. The teachers set clear and reasonable expectations. Teachers listen to and acknowledge children's feelings and respond in ways children understand to guide and model problem-solving. Teachers design and maintain a physical and psychological environment that is positive and feel safe for all children.

The second principle is teaching to enhance development of learning. Teachers make it a priority to know each child well and also the most significant people in a child's life. Teachers know what desired goals for the program are and how the programs curriculum is intended to achieve those goals. Teachers plan for learning experiences by implementing a comprehensive curriculum so that children can achieve goals in key areas. Teachers know how to scaffold children's learning with just enough assistance for them to master the skill and begin to work on the next skill. Teachers draw on many teaching strategies to foster learning for the group and each child individually. Educators include all children regardless of special needs into all classroom activities with their peers.

The third principal is to plan with state standards and other mandates in place using the curriculum to achieve important goals. Teachers use their extensive child development knowledge to identify and plan goals for the classroom that align with state standards and other mandates. Teachers utilize curriculum framework to ensure proper attention is given to learning goals. While planning teachers integrate experiences across several domains such as physical social emotional cognitive which include language literacy mathematics social studies science art music physical education and health.

The fourth complex principle assessing children's development and learning includes assessing the children's progress and achievements in ongoing strategic purposeful way. Assessment must focus on children's progress towards goals that are developmentally and educationally significant. There must be a system in place to collect analyze and use assessment data.

The fifth principle is establishing reciprocal relationships with families. In relationships between teachers and families there must be a mutual respect. Corporation and shared responsibility including negotiation of conflict toward achievement of shared goals. Teachers work in partnership with families establishing and maintaining two-way communication with families. Teachers and families work as a team to share information about children's goals progress and daily life. Family members are encouraged with multiple opportunities for family participation within the classroom setting.

8 During the infant and toddler years

Children need relationships with caring adults who engage in many one-on-one, face-to-face interactions with them to support their oral language development and lay the foundation for later literacy learning. Important experiences and teaching behaviors include but are not limited to:
Talking to babies and toddlers with simple language, frequent eye contact, and responsiveness to children's cues and language attempts
Frequently playing with, talking to, singing to, and doing fingerplays with very young children
Sharing cardboard books with babies and frequently reading to toddlers on the adult's lap or together with one or two other children
Providing simple art materials such as crayons, markers, and large paper for toddlers to explore and manipulate

9 During the preschool years

Young children need developmentally appropriate experiences and teaching to support literacy learning. These include but are not limited to:
Positive, nurturing relationships with adults who engage in responsive conversations with individual children, model reading and writing behavior, and foster children's interest in and enjoyment of reading and writing
Print-rich environments that provide opportunities and tools for children to see and use written language for a variety of purposes, with teachers drawing children's attention to specific letters and words
Adults' daily reading of high-quality books to individual children or small groups, including books that positively reflect children's identity, home language, and culture
Opportunities for children to talk about what is read and to focus on the sounds and parts of language as well as the meaning
Teaching strategies and experiences that develop phonemic awareness, such as songs, fingerplays, games, poems, and stories in which phonemic patterns such as rhyme and alliteration are salient
Opportunities to engage in play that incorporates literacy tools, such as writing grocery lists in dramatic play, making signs in block building, and using icons and words in exploring a computer game
Firsthand experiences that expand children's vocabulary, such as trips in the community and exposure to various tools, objects, and materials

10 In kindergarten and primary grades

Teachers should continue many of these same good practices with the goal of continually advancing children's learning and development. In addition every child is entitled to excellent instruction in reading and writing that includes but is not limited to:
Daily experiences of being read to and independently reading meaningful and engaging stories and informational texts
A balanced instructional program that includes systematic code instruction along with meaningful reading and writing activities
Daily opportunities and teacher support to write many kinds of texts for different purposes, including stories, lists, messages to others, poems, reports, and responses to literature
Writing experiences that allow the flexibility to use nonconventional forms of writing at first (invented or phonic spelling) and over time move to conventional forms
Opportunities to work in small groups for focused instruction and collaboration with other children
An intellectually engaging and challenging curriculum that expands knowledge of the world and vocabulary
Adaptation of instructional strategies or more individualized instruction if the child fails to make expected progress in reading or when literacy skills are advanced
Although experiences during the earliest years of life can have powerful long-term consequences, human beings are amazingly resilient and incredibly capable of learning throughout life. We should strengthen our resolve to ensure that every child has the benefit of positive early childhood experiences that support literacy development. At the same time, regardless of children's prior learning, schools have the responsibility to educate every child and to never give up even if later interventions must be more intensive and costly.

Excerpted from: Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children. (May, 1998) A joint position of the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).

2.What is needed to improve in teaching student under 8 yrs old-standardized testAny test in which the same test is given in the same manner to all test takers is a standardized test. Standardized tests need not be high-stakes tests, time-limited tests, or multiple-choice tests. The opposite of a standardized test is a non-standardized test.

1.educational research-Educational research refers to a variety of methods,[1][2][3] in which individuals evaluate different aspects of education including: “student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics”.


Educational research attempts to solve a problem.

Research involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.
Research demands accurate observation and description.
Research generally employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis.
Research emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles or theories that will help in understanding, prediction and/or control.
Research requires expertise—familiarity with the field; competence in methodology; technical skill in collecting and analyzing the data.
Research attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the procedures employed.
Research is a deliberate and unhurried activity which is directional but often refines the problem or questions as the research progresses.
Research is carefully recorded and reported to other persons interested in the problem.

Basic research-Basic research (also called pure research or fundamental research) may be defined as: systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable facts without specific applications towards processes or products in mind. It includes all scientific study and experimentation directed toward increasing fundamental knowledge and understanding in those fields of the physical, engineering, environmental, and life sciences . . . It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for technological progress.

applied-Applied research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' (the academia's) accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-,business-, or client-driven purpose. Applied research is compared to pure research (basic research) in discussion about research ideals, methodologies, programs, and projects.

action-Action research is a research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. There are two types of action research: participatory action research, and practical action research.

4.qualitative-Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts.[1] Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often used than large samples.

5.quantitative-quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or numerical data or computational techniques.[1] The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/orhypotheses pertaining to phenomena.


Similar Documents

Free Essay


...2/28/2015 Dolls & Stuffed Animals, Barbie, Lalaloopsy, Monster High - Toys"R"Us Rewards"R"Us Email Sign Up Weekly Ad Info Center Choose My Store Find a Store Help Baby Registry Wish List Gift Cards Gift Finder My Account / Sign In SHOP BY Search for something fun! 0 Home | Dolls & Stuffed Animals Dolls & Stuffed Animals Narrow By: Category Dolls Doll Acce ssorie s Dollhouse s & Acce ssorie s Ce le brity & Fashion Dolls Ethnic Dolls Miniature Figure s & Play Se ts Prince ss & Fairy Dolls Horse & Pony Dolls Stuffe d Animals & Plush Toys Colle ctible Dolls Ele ctronic Pe ts Gender Boys Girls Featured Categories Age Birth-12 Months 12-24 Months 2 Ye ars 3 & 4 Ye ars 5-7 Ye ars 8-11 Ye ars More... Dolls My First Doll Ethnic Dolls Show All Doll Accessories Doll Furniture Doll Clothes Show All Brand 20th Ce ntury Fox Acce ssory Innov ations Adora Ale x Toys Animal Adv e nture Animal Alle y More... Dollhouses & Accessories Dollhouses Wooden Dollhouses Show All Character/Theme 1D Adv e nture Time Alice in Wonde rland 1/4 2/28/2015 Alv in & the Chipmunks Angry Birds Angry Birds Star Wars More... Dolls & Stuffed Animals, Barbie, Lalaloopsy, Monster High - Toys"R"Us Price unde r $10 $10 - $20 $20 - $30 $30 - $40 $40 - $50 $50 - $75 More... Celebrity & Fashion Dolls Celebrity Dolls Doll Play Sets Show All Ethnic......

Words: 955 - Pages: 4