Leadership Theory

In: Business and Management

Submitted By blueblues
Words 1419
Pages 6
Introduction The case study, “A Question of Motivation,” focuses on Alex and Stephanie, two employees who work at a local supermarket. Alex is managed by Dan and Stephanie is under the management of Jonathan. Most employees want to work for Jonathan because he regularly assigns his employees different duties each week so they don’t get bored. Most of the employees under Jonathan including Stephanie are satisfied with their jobs and the way they are treated. Dan in contrast prefers for most of his employees to work in the same area each day and insists employees have shorter lunch breaks, than the amount of time allotted in the company policy.
The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
The path-goal theory of leadership defines the role of a leader as one who outlines the goals and lays down the path for the subordinate to facilitate success and completion of the goals. The leader empowers the group to reach their goals, and ensures that they share an awareness of what those goals are. The path-goal theory centers on the motivational factors of the subordinates by showing employees how their accomplishments directly affects their reception of expected rewards (Certo& Certo 345). The path-goal theory suggests that the leaders under this theory possess four styles of leadership which are directive behavior, supportive behavior, participative behavior and achievement behavior. With directive behavior the leader lets followers know what is expected of them and tells them how to perform their tasks. In supportive leadership, the leader is friendly and shows interest in the followers as fellow human beings and the leader also shows concern for the followers’ personal needs. Participative behavior involves leaders consulting with followers and asking for their suggestions before making a decision. Followers give suggestions pertaining to reward structuring and what paths…...

Similar Documents

Leadership Theories

...The leadership theory is probably the one that is more popularly applied in our school. It is implemented to create an environment that facilitates the goals and visions of a learning community. This theory is implemented to create an environment that facilitates the goals and vision of the learning community. Our leaders put a lot of emphasis on team work and encourage collaboration amongst teachers, which is important in an educational world that keeps on changing. Applying the leadership theory is a way for the school to respond to the rapid changes taking place with new technology, global economy, and diversity (www.abolrous.com, 2012). Leaders and followers that are part of the school setting know that each and every day, there are different challenges that have to be faced. All challenges are different from one another, and must be approached differently. Even though the contingency theory tends to focus mainly on the effects of situation on broad leadership styles and organizational forms, we must be concerned with the day-to-day leadership activity, not just broad styles of leadership or organizational structures or roles (Diamond, Halverson & Spillane, 2004). It is important that school leaders possess the ability to be able to solve the different day-to-day challenges that we are faced within the learning environment. In our school setting, leaders use the contingency theory approach. They are open to different leadership styles and theories that will promote......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Leadership Theories

...Leadership Theories Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Leadership Theories with the following information: • Identify five leadership theories. • Describe the strengths of each leadership theory. • Describe the weaknesses of each leadership theory. • Provide an example of an appropriate application of each theory in the workplace. • Provide an example of an inappropriate application of each theory in the workplace. Leadership Theory Strengths Weaknesses Appropriate Workplace Example Inappropriate Workplace Example Situational It’s ideal for low ability and building confidence in low-maturity subordinates. Adapts to needs of subordinates. There was little evidence that using the contingent pattern of task and relations behavior prescribed by the theory will make leaders more effective(Yukl, 2010). A leader changes their style to match that of their subordinate. For instance a teacher would adjust their lesson to be more visual if they have a visual learner. There may be an assumption that an unskilled employee is unmotivated. This can lead to improper coaching to motivate the employee rather than training to help the employee develop the necessary skills. Charismatic Inspires others motivating them to buy into change or activities. Creates loyalty. Followers may buy into leader’s vision to the point they are resistant to outside change and factors. Charismatic leader can rally their employees to stay through tough transitions. May use their...

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Leadership Theories

...p Chapter 21 Leadership Theories and Styles Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Distinguish leaders from administrators and managers 2. Describe the evolution of leadership theories 3. Enumerate different theories of leadership, and their main features. 4. Discuss the contingency theories, especially situational theory of leadership 5. Explain the concept of the development levels of a group and how to raise them 6. List steps in the process of delegation Leadership has long interested psychologists, sociologists, political scientists, and certainly management scientists. There is still a growing interest in leadership, which has been defined in different ways. Leadership can, however, be simply defined as the act of making an impact on others in a desired direction. In this sense, leadership is a broader term than management. Managers can run organizations effectively, but only leaders can build them. Differentiating characteristics for officers, managers, and leaders are shown in see Exhibit 21.1. The three modes shown in Exhibit 21.1 are illustrated by the following caselet from a premier state government training institute: Three directors at different times functioned differently. One director continued the work the institute was doing, responding to the training requirements of different departments, maintaining all the records well, and undertaking the various......

Words: 13544 - Pages: 55

Leadership Theories

...Change Management and Leadership Theories 1. Introduction We live in a world of change impacted by the financial crisis and technological advances causing businesses that fail to evolve to fail. Change can be described as the  ‘substitution or succession of one thing in place of another’ to the ‘alteration in the state or quality of anything’ (Hayes 2010). Hurn (2012) argues that “new market opportunities will arise and these will involve the need to adapt and adjust to change in strategic thinking in order to compete and survive”. Continuous change when it happens, needs constant updating of working approaches and social advances. Orlikowsky suggests that continuous change involves individuals and groups, who will be dealing with breakdowns, exceptions, opportunities that the change will bring with it (Hayes 2010). This analysis will show the most important theories of Change Management: Kotter’s 8 steps, Lewin and Prosci. Additionally we will look at Leadership theories such as Trait, Transformational and Great Man Theory, followed by a critical discussion on the role of Leadership in Change Management and finally an analysis in the case study of Biogen Idec Inc.  2. Literature Review  2.1. Change Management Theories 2.1.1. Kotter’s 8 Steps  In 1995 Jhon Kotter introduced an 8-step change model for helping managers deal with transformational change, Webster (2012). The model outlines an organized and effective approach of managing a major change. Kotter (2007)...

Words: 3220 - Pages: 13

Leadership Theories

...Leadership Theories One of the leadership theories that influences the way organizations lead their employees is the Participative Leader Theory. Participative leadership is a managerial style that invites input from employees on all company decisions (Root, 2014). The way it works is the team is presented with important information about the main issues of the company. This type of leadership allows the team to input ideas for the direction the company could take to fix the issue. Using the Participative leadership can be a gradual form of decision-making, but at the long run this leadership style can have benefits that may make it the appropriate managerial method for the business. The participative leadership style functions at a greater level where team developing is key and the results are appreciated more than how fast it was created. A great example of a participative leader is Donald Trump of Trump Organization. Mr. Trump is a leader that likes to get ideas from his team and will implement them if he feels they are worthy. He is known for always surrounding himself with teams rather than individuals when it comes to decision-making, this has proven to work effectively for his business. Another great theory is the Situational leadership is the complete opposite from the Participative leadership. Situational leadership refers to when the leader or manager of an organization must adjust his style to fit the development level of the followers he...

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Leadership Theories

...Leadership Theories – EMBA7005 – Peggy MacIsaac Leadership Theories Peggy MacIsaac University of Fredericton September 2013 1 Leadership Theories – EMBA7005 – Peggy MacIsaac Introduction Contingency Approaches to leadership theories have led to the development of two very important and effective leadership theories. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory and the Path-Goal Leadership theory have been instrumental in guiding leaders as they learn to embrace how situational factors affect their selection of leadership style. The following will explore these two theories, look at their similarities and differences and the effectiveness of utilizing these approaches. Leadership Theories - Situational Leadership Theory: Situational Leadership Theory (short form for the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory) was created by management experts Dr. Paul Hersey, and Ken Blanchard. It became popular in the 1970’s/early 1980’s. This theory draws views mainly from contingency focused thinking. As the title implies, this theory focuses on the idea that leadership style is dependent on each unique situation and that there is no one perfect or optimum leadership style. The most important component of the situation is the characteristics of the follower and this is what determines the most effective leadership style. Situational Leadership Theory suggests that the style of leadership used in a situation revolves around the leader’s ability to accurately diagnose...

Words: 1659 - Pages: 7

Theories of Leadership

...1.2. LEADERSHIP THEORIES – FROM GREAT MAN THEORY TO TRANSACTIONAL THEORY A review of the leadership literature reveals an evolving series of 'schools of thought' from “Great Man” and “Trait” theories to “Transformational” leadership (see table). Whilst early theories tend to focus upon the characteristics and behaviours of successful leaders, later theories begin to consider the role of followers and the contextual nature of leadership. * Great man theories. This theory is based on the belief that leaders are extraordinary people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead by nature. The utilization of the term 'man' was made by purpose since until the latter part of the twentieth century leadership was thought of as a concept which is primarily male, military and Western. This first approach led to the next school of Trait Theories. * Trait theories - The lists of traits or qualities associated with leadership exist in abundance and continue to be produced. They draw on virtually all the adjectives in the dictionary which describe some positive or virtuous human attribute, from ambition to zest for life. * Behaviourist Theories - These concentrate on what leaders actually do rather than on their qualities. Different patterns of behaviour are observed and categorised as 'styles of leadership'. This area has probably attracted most attention from practising managers * Situational Leadership - This approach sees leadership as specific to the situation in......

Words: 2051 - Pages: 9

Leadership Theories

...direction and inspiration towards a goal. Leadership theory is critical for our understanding of the role individuals can play in shaping an organization. (Clegg et al, 2008) Leadership is considered both a character trait as well as a relational concept whereby one person influences others. (Katz and Kahn, 1978) Over the years many different leadership theories have emerged with some gaining a much wider acceptance than others. Here a discussion on two well known theories is being undertaken to understand what they are and how best they describe the concept of leadership. Path Goal Theory Some contemporary theories on leadership have purported that the leadership is all about being able to adapt and show flexibility to ever changing situations and circumstances. This group believes that effective leadership does not stem from some behavioural traits only but to a large extent depends on the situation in which a potential leader might find them. This situation or context as it is called comes from the nature of work that the leader has to carry out, the internal culture and environment of an organization and the external socio economic environment that the organization finds itself in (Fiedler, 1994). Path Goal Theory of leadership belongs to this school of thought. It was first put forward by Robert House (House, 1996) and since then has become one of the most studied and researched theory on leadership. According to this theory effective leaders motivate their teams......

Words: 2156 - Pages: 9

Leadership Theories

...Leadership Theories and Change 1 Running Head: Leadership Theories and Change A Review of Leadership Theories and Possible Changes to Police Leadership Randy L. Conyers University of Central Florida Leadership Theories and Change 2 Abstract Throughout the history of law enforcement, leaders have used many different styles to lead employees. From the early styles of Autocratic and Laissez-Faire to Participative (democratic), Transactional and Transformational leadership. Leadership within policing has evolved over the years in some organizations to a more participative style and yet there are still leaders who cling to an antiquated domineering style. The purpose of this paper identified trait theories, leadership theories and change strategies that have molded or are molding the policing culture. Change must occur if the culture of police organizations are going to meet the demands of the 21st century and several issues affecting this change were discussed. An in-depth review of the transactional and transformational styles of leadership was seen as being the styles that a leader in the 21st century would want to use to meet the needs of their employees and motivate them toward success and self-actualization. Although no empirical research is completed in this paper, the literature reviewed and previous research indicate that the transformational style of leadership augments the......

Words: 10301 - Pages: 42

Leadership Theory

...Leadership Theory The Chicago School of Psychology May 31, 2015 Ethical and Relational Leadership Principles Honoring the APA and TCS Codes of Conduct Licensed professionals in the legal, accounting, engineering, medical and other healing professions are held to a higher legal and ethical standard of professional behavior than people who work in other commercial, not-for-profit or government enterprises. As noted by the American Psychologists Association (APA) , “If this Ethics Code establishes a higher standard of conduct than is required by law, psychologists must meet the higher ethical standard.” (p. 2). The rationale for this higher standard is that legislation gives these professions and the people who are members of them unique and special rights to serve the public within their specific discipline. With these rights come added responsibilities to protect the public trust. As noted by the APA (2010), “Psychologists are committed to increasing scientific and professional knowledge of behavior and people’s understanding of themselves and others and to the use of such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, organizations, and society…They strive to help the public in developing informed judgments and choices concerning human behavior.” (p. 2). In Canada, most professional bodies are governed by provincial legislation that gives authority to accredit professional training programs, confer professional licenses, monitor professional practice of......

Words: 1802 - Pages: 8

Leadership Theory

...MIRASOL M. BUENAFE BSBA – FM – 4A OCTOBER 2, 2015 QUIZ Ten Leadership Theories 1. The Great Man Theory – Great Leaders are Born, not Made. 2. The Trait Theory of Leadership – Ideal Characteristics for Leaders. 3. The Skills Theory of Leadership – Ideal Technical, Personal and Conceptual Skills for Managers and Leaders. 4. The Style Theories of Leadership – e.g Leadership Continuum, Managerial Grid. 5. The Situational Leadership Theory – There is no-one-size-fits-all-model, the leader must adapt. 6. The Contingency Theory - There is no-one-size-fits-all-model, choose an appropriate leader. 7. Transactional Leadership Theory – People follow leaders based on ‘transactions’ – a mix of rewards, incentives and punishments. A quid pro quo approach. 8. Leader – Member Exchange Theory – Similar to transactional theory, but stresses presence of an ingroup and outgroup. 9. Transformational Leadership Theory – Leaders are gaining the commitment of their employees by inspiring, encouraging, and caring for their followers. 10. Servant Leadership Theory – The leader starts by identifying the needs of the followers and views his own role as merely serving the followers. The Great Man Theory – Great Leaders are Born, not Made. This approach emphasized that a person is born with or without the necessary traits of leaderships. Early explanations of leadership studied the “traits” of great leaders. Belief that people were......

Words: 438 - Pages: 2

Leadership Theories

... Leadership Theories BUS3012 Fundamentals of Leadership April 24, 2016 There is no one way to be a leader, however a few leadership theories have been developed that have shaped the way we learn about developing leadership qualities that may best fit with our natural leadership qualities. Or which may help us achieve certain leadership goals (Team) Burn's Transformational Leadership Theory Burns defined transformational leadership as a process where leaders and followers engage in a mutual process of 'raising one another to higher levels of morality and motivation. Transformational leaders appeal to higher ideals and values of followers. They may model the values themselves and use charismatic methods to attract people to the values and to the leader. James MacGregor Burns was an authority on leadership studies. In 1978, Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award-winning historian James MacGregor Burns published “Leadership”, a book dealing with how leaders relate with society and through the role that you believe that you should have is the role that you will take on regardless of the role that you are currently in. . House's Path-Goal Theory Psychologist, Robert House, developed Path-Goal Theory in 1971, and then redefined and updated it in a 1996 article in The Leadership Quarterly. Some features of this theory is supportive leadership where you focus on relationships, directive leadership, where you communicate goals and expectations, participative leadership, where......

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Leadership Theories

...Running Head: Leadership Theories 1 Leadership Theories Leadership Models and Theories 2 Leadership Theories According to Daft (2008, p.20), leadership typically reflects the larger society, and theories have evolved as norms, attitudes, and understandings in the larger world of change. Throughout the centuries leaders have adapted in response to these changes. Northouse (2007, p3) defines leadership as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. A person’s ability to influence others to accomplish an objective and direction are key processes in leadership. There are many great leaders and leadership styles that can be easily discussed. Twenty-first century leadership has developed useful and simplistic ways to determine and exercise their leadership styles on their way to developing and understanding their leadership styles based on the situation and the organization. Leadership is a very dynamic and diverse process, This literature selection by selection, as introduced by the editor, presents enlightening thoughts on a different aspect of leadership. Over the years, many researchers have developed various leadership theories, notably great scholars such as, Plato, Aristotle, Lao-tzu and others. ...

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Leadership Theories

... Emerging views over the past decade has made tremendous progress in uncovering some of the enduring mysteries associated with leadership (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009). Understanding these different frameworks and their impact on leadership styles are examined in this paper as it relates to international business. Adaptive Structuration Theory E-leadership is a relatively new leadership paradigm bases on the Adaptive Structuration Theory defined as a social influence process mediated by Advanced Information Technology (AIT) to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behavior, and/or performance with individuals, groups, and/or organizations (Avolio, Kahai & Dodge, 2000). As leader and follower dynamics continue to be changed by processes effected by the rapid growth in technology, increasing global reach and the emergence of new marketplaces, E-leaders should think carefully about three key categories of behaviors that are most likely to enhance a virtual team’s ability to function effectively: virtual collaborative skills, virtual socialization skills, and virtual communication (Avolio & Kahai, 2003). Significant adaptation on the part of the leadership can result in tight relationships among the globally dispersed stakeholders and efficient management of innovative challenges presented by the global economy. Behavioral Theory Founded on the framework developed by Kurt Lewin, leader's decision-making tends to reflect the personality centered on the...

Words: 1443 - Pages: 6

Leadership Theories

...Leadership Theories: A Discussion Amanda M. Crorken University of Phoenix Leadership Theories: A Discussion Researchers have researched and created various approaches to leadership. The definitions of leadership create a universal truth that leaders must lead individuals toward a common goal. The paper below describes the trait, social exchange, substitute, and transformational approaches to leadership as well as a discussion of the similarities and differences of the theories. Leadership Theories Trait Approach to Leadership The trait theory of leadership originated with Thomas Carlyle's Great Man theory centralizing around the idea that individuals have innate traits that distinguish him or her as a leader. Since the Great Man theory, the trait theory of leadership has evolved into its current state described below. The proponents of the trait theory are individuals maintaining that a leadership role is innate. A comparison between trait theory and a college course can assist in understanding the basics of the theory. Courses generally have prerequisites in which students must obtain prior to enrolling; thus the traits instilled into a leader are the prerequisites of becoming a......

Words: 1639 - Pages: 7