Linguistics Overview

In: English and Literature

Submitted By ishto
Words 408
Pages 2
First thing foremost, I learned a lot from this class. One thing I would take from this class are the morphemes we learned in class, and how to apply it in everyday life, in our personal and professional lives. There are several words in which I did not know even had a word for, one for example is defenestrate. Another thing, which I have take for granted until I have taken this course, is how NEIU offers the Oxford English Dictionary, and how I have not used it. It can be very efficient and fascinating when you come across where words have actually come from, and how to use the OED.
I was born in 1990, there are a few interesting words that were published in the OED that year. Some include Boyf (shortened for Boyfriend), World Wide Web (the internet today as we know it), Drum and Bass (a popular form of Electronic music) and star 69 (the infamous call return service) but, one word that I was surprised in which was first introduced in the OED was props. When giving someone props, you are giving them respect; approval, compliments and esteem. It is slang originated in African-American usage. It first appeared in the Chicago Tribune in the July 2/4 issue in 1990 stating: “I was one of the first female rappers, but I’ve always gotten my props.” Props is the shortened version of Proper.
I learned many new words from taking this course. One word in which surprised that even had a word is defenestration, which is the act of throwing out the window. It’s etymology comes from the Latin word fenestra which is a windrow and the prefix de- meaning to throw away. It first appeared in 1620 under Henry Wotton’s Reliquiæ Wottonianæ in the line “A man saued at the time of the defenestration.”
One word that interests me, and actually shows how culture can develop a language is the word Google, and when people use it as a verb. For example, if you don’t know the…...

Similar Documents

Linguistic

...Relationship Between Logical and Linguistic Subject: the relationship between logical and linguistic intelligence Research question: is there any significant relation between logical and linguistic intelligence among English literature students of Khayyam University? Hypothesis: students with high logical intelligence are more successful in learning second language and have powerful linguistic intelligence. Introduction: Because my major at high school was mathematic and at university I chose English literature, so I like to know if there is any relationship between this two course or not. And after consult with my instructor I choose this subject. I want to know the effects of these two intelligences on each other. Annotated bibliography: 1. Gardner, Howard. Multiple intelligence, new horizons Google book. This book expresses the meaning of all kinds of intelligences that can help us to understand the exact concept of logical and linguistic intelligences. 2. Razmjooo, Seyyed Ayatollah. On the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency. The reading matrix vol. 8, No. 2, September 2008 This article is about relationship between multiple intelligences that consist of logical and linguistic intelligences. This article shows the relationship between proficiency and intelligence. 3. www.homeeddirectory.com 12.06.2012 This site introduces logical learners and speaks about the ways that a teacher can teach......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Computational Linguistics

...Computational Linguistics   Computational linguistics (CL) is a discipline between linguistics and computer science which is concerned with the computational aspects of the human language faculty. It belongs to the cognitive sciences and overlaps with the field of artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science aiming at computational models of human cognition. Computational linguistics has applied and theoretical components. Theoretical CL takes up issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science. It deals with formal theories about the linguistic knowledge that a human needs for generating and understanding language. Today these theories have reached a degree of complexity that can only be managed by employing computers. Computational linguists develop formal models simulating aspects of the human language faculty and implement them as computer programmes. These programmes constitute the basis for the evaluation and further development of the theories. In addition to linguistic theories, findings from cognitive psychology play a major role in simulating linguistic competence. Within psychology, it is mainly the area of psycholinguistics that examines the cognitive processes constituting human language use. The relevance of computational modelling for psycholinguistic research is reflected in the emergence of a new subdiscipline: computational psycholinguistics. Applied CL focusses on the practical outcome of modelling human language use. The......

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Overview

...OVERVIEW OF THE STATISTICS COMPONENT OF FINANCE (QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES) 203 Note: The ‘statistics’ component of the unit covers Topics 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11 only and will not cover all the concepts in these Topics. The following is an overview of what is required in each topic. You are recommended to do the quiz questions as shown and the tutorial questions. Week 1 (Descriptive Statistics) Concepts • Population vs. sample • Parameter vs. statistic and use of correct symbols • Types of data (nominal, ordinal, interval) • Displaying data: Nominal: Bar and pie charts Interval: Stem and leaf displays, histograms, ogives, box and whisker plots • Measures of central location (mean, median, mode) • Measures of dispersion/spread (standard deviation, variance) Do 1.7.3 Quiz Can attempt all 1.7.4 Topic Questions Week 2 (Sampling, Probability, Normal Distribution) Sampling Concepts • Types of sampling plans (simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling Probability Concepts • From a table of joint probabilities answer such questions as: P(A and B) P(A or B) P(A)|B Determine if events A and B are mutually exclusive or not Determine if events A and B are independent or not The Normal Distribution Question gives a population mean and population standard deviation for a normally distributed......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Descriptive Linguistics

...Language Teaching Methodology Theodore S. Rodgers, Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii Background Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this phenomenon was the emergence of the concept of "methods" of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching—the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning—is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods was a preoccupation of teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt's (1984) overview documents the history of changes of practice in language teaching throughout history, bringing the chronology up through the Direct Method in the 20th century. One of the most lasting legacies of the Direct Method has been the notion of "method" itself. Language Teaching Methodology Defined Methodology in language teaching has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology is that which links theory and practice. Theory statements would include theories of what language is and how language is learned or, more specifically, theories of second language acquisition (SLA). Such theories are linked to various design features of language instruction. These design features might include stated objectives, syllabus specifications, types of activities, roles of teachers, learners, materials, and so forth. Design features in turn are......

Words: 12744 - Pages: 51

Linguistics

...linguistics lɪŋgwɪstɪks/ noun 1. 1. the scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of grammar, syntax, and phonetics. Specific branches of linguistics include sociolinguistics, dialectology, psycholinguistics, computational linguistics, comparative linguistics, and structural linguistics. Discourse[edit] A discourse is a way of speaking that emerges within a certain social setting and is based on a certain subject matter. A particular discourse becomes a language variety when it is used in this way for a particular purpose, and is referred to as a register.[25] There may be certain lexical additions (new words) that are brought into play because of the expertise of the community of people within a certain domain of specialisation. Registers and discourses therefore differentiate themselves through the use of vocabulary, and at times through the use of style too. People in the medical fraternity, for example, may use some medical terminology in their communication that is specialised to the field of medicine. This is often referred to as being part of the "medical discourse", and so on. Dialect[edit] A dialect is a variety of language that is characteristic of a particular group among the language speakers.[26] The group of people who are the speakers of a dialect are usually bound to each other by social identity. This is what differentiates a dialect from a register or adiscourse, where in the latter case, cultural identity does not......

Words: 18394 - Pages: 74

Linguistic Diversity

...Linguistic Diversity: The Role of English on Education in Ethiopia 1. Introduction Ethiopia is one of the diversified countries in Africa more than 80 languages are spoken and a diversified culture is experienced. The existing multiethnic and multilingual situation is a challenge to the education system of Ethiopia. Each region, state, city, district, school, and classroom faces a unique demographic situation. So educators locally are facing a different environment of diversity than portrayed even by the national profile. With the 1994 Ethiopian census indicating that some 77 tongues were spoken locally. Most of these languages belong to the Afro-Asiatic family (Semitic and Cushitic; Omotic languages are also spoken, though their classification is uncertain). Additionally, Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities. English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools and universities. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. After the fall of the Derg regime in 1991, the new constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia granted all ethnic groups the right to develop their languages and to establish mother tongue primary education systems. This is a marked change to the language policies of previous governments in Ethiopia. 2. Purpose of the study The major......

Words: 2229 - Pages: 9

Introduction to Linguistic

...A. LANGUAGE & LINGUISTIC 1. What is the meaning of language and linguistic? Language and linguistic are two different words that use differently all over the world. Language is the capacity of someone to communicate with other because it is the mode of expression of thoughts by means of articulation of sounds, exchanging ideas, feelings, intentions, attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands, as by speech gestures, writings and behaviors. Therefore, language is a meaningful exchange of information between two or more individual. On the other hand, linguistic is a comparative study of language due to the fact that wherein you make a historical study of languages here. In this field you concentrate about the structure, rules, meanings and forms of languages. 2. How important is language and linguistic? In my own opinion, the significance of language in our lives is incomparable. It is not just restrained to being a means of communicating one’s thought and ideas to the rest, but has also become a tool for forging friendships, cultural ties, as well as economic relationships. In addition, the importance of language is essential to every aspect and interaction in our everyday lives. We use language to inform, to communicate the people around us of what we feel, what we desire and question or understand. We communicate effectively with......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Corpus Linguistics and Language Pedagogy

...Corpus linguistics and language pedagogy: The state of the art – and beyond Joybrato Mukherjee Justus Liebig University, Giessen Abstract The present paper provides a selected overview of the state of the art in corpusinformed language pedagogy. Starting off from a general assessment of the impact that the corpus revolution has already had on English language teaching (ELT), the focus of the main part of this paper is on some typical examples of corpus use in three language-pedagogically relevant areas: (1) using corpora for ELT (e.g. producing learner dictionaries); (2) using corpora in the ELT classroom (e.g. in data-driven learning); (3) using learner corpora. With regard to learner corpus research, for example, the paper also sketches out some prospects for future research, e.g. the compilation of local learner corpora. 1 Introduction: the corpus revolution and English language teaching There is general agreement among empirically-oriented linguists that the advent of large, computerised corpora has revolutionised the linguistic description and analysis of the English language. In modern corpus linguistics, not just any group of texts qualifies as a corpus, but it must be "a collection of texts assumed to be representative of a given language, dialect, or other subset of a language" (Francis 1982: 7). Representativeness is a key issue in corpus design because it captures the attempt to compile a database that provides a statistically viable sample of language...

Words: 7079 - Pages: 29

Linguistic Exercise

...Name: Trieu Thi Kim Lien Class: 12E4 LINGUISTICS EXERCISES Task 1 ( Phonetics and phonology) Write phonetic symbols and give the discription of sound highlighed : 1. Expertise 2. Improvement 3. Fluent 4. Publications 5. Pathway 6. Resources 7. Grasp 8. Range 9. Motivation 10. Immerse KEY: 1. Expertise: /ˌekspɜːˈtiːz/ /i:/ : long high front unrounded monophthong 2. Improvement: /ɪmˈpruːvmənt/ /u:/: long high back rounded monophthong 3. Fluent: /ˈfluːənt/ /f/: voiveless labiodental fricative 4. Publications: /ˌpʌblɪˈkeɪʃn/ /ʌ/ : short low central unrounded monophthong 5. Pathway : /ˈpɑːθweɪ/ /a:/ long low back unrounded monophthong 6. Resource:/ rɪˈsɔːs/ / ɔː/ long mid back rounded monophthong 7. Grasp: /ɡrɑːsp/ /s/: voiceless alveolar fricative 8. Range : /reɪndʒ/ /eɪ/ : diphthong moving from mid front unrounded to high front unrounded 9. Motivation: /ˌməʊtɪˈveɪʃn/ /əʊ/: diphthong mid central unrounded to high back rounded 10. Immerse: /ɪˈmɜːs/ /m/: voiced bilabial nasal Source : http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/english/features/6-minute-english/ep-16102014 Task 2: ( Morphology) Give morphological analysis: 1. Ecologist 2. Consistent 3. Foraging 4. Tended 5. Adventurous 6. Adaptation 7. Aggressively 8. Differences 9. Researchers 10. Personalities KEY: Signal symbols: inflectional affix ( IA), derivational affix......

Words: 655 - Pages: 3

Linguistics

...research in this area of linguistics is nearly connected to the study of linguistic typology and also intends to portray generalizations across languages such as cognition and perception of the mind. Noam Chomsky His arguments on language universals were mainly on grammar. He proposed that if human beings are brought up under normal conditions, then they will always develop language with a certain property e.g. distinguishing function words from lexical words. As a result this property, it is considered to be a property of universal grammar in the most general sense. He argued that there are theoretical senses of the term universal grammars well. The most general would be that universal grammar is whatever properties of a normally developing human brain cause it to learn languages that conform to the universal grammar. Using the notion above, universal grammar would be like innate property of the human brain that causes it to posit a difference between nouns and verbs whenever presented with linguistic data. Evidently put by Chomsky, development of language in the individual must involve three factors. i.e. 1) genetic endowment, which sets limits on the attainable languages, thereby making language acquisition possible; 2) external data, converted to experience that selects one or another language within a narrow range; 3) principles not specific to foreign language. In other words, universal grammar is first a theoretical sense as well as linguistic data to which the......

Words: 2865 - Pages: 12

Social Linguistic Study

...is an applied linguistic article focusing on exploring the relation between socio-linguistics and language teaching. Although there are too much to discuss, the work mainly concerns with a quick look at social theories of language, a definition of sociolinguistics and three aspects of sociolinguistics which is believed to illustrate how sociolinguistics is relevant to the teaching of language. Introduction From the perspectives of theoretical linguists, especially in the traditional approaches in English language teaching, the teaching focuses on language structure including some form of language such as grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, or spelling to name a few. However, things have changed with the arrival of a new approach known as the Communicative Language Teaching, where the features of sociolinguistics in its relation with language teaching and learning are best illustrated. The Communicative Language Teaching has been built on the assumption that being successful in communicating in a second language involves more than just the grammatical competence. In fact, communicative competence (Canale & Swain, 1980) involves the knowledge of discourse and socio-cultural rules of language. That is to say, in order to be successful in real communication, it is important to know not only how to put together an utterance but also when this utterance should be used and by whom to whom. In the study of socio-linguistics, we gain a more thorough overview to define......

Words: 3224 - Pages: 13

Linguistic Ettiquete

...relations with other members in the society. Greetings are supposed to be found in any context or situation; any person in the community is expected to greet other members whether h/she knows them well or not. As previously mentioned, most of Arabic greetings are taken from Islamic teachings. According to these teachings, one is expected to cast greetings to everyone h/she meets in the street whether he knows or not. However; due to the current progress and change in modern times especially in big cities, people's manners have also changed and they only greet those who are close to them. This might be attributed to their interest in western culture. This study focuses on the way Jordanian people greet each other from the social and linguistic perspectives. Greetings are essential for starting and ending a conversation. There are some socio-cultural and socio-religious rules of initiating greetings in general. One of the most socio-religious greeting terms is "السلام عليكم" (Peace be upon you). Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) ordered Muslims to spread this greeting among themselves. “السلام عليكم” is also the greeting of Adam and of his offspring. On the other hand, “مرحبا” (Hello) is the most common socio-cultural term used by Jordanian. “مرحبا” is considered to be less polite than "السلام عليكم". Both of these greetings are neutral and not time-specific; they can be used at any time or on any social occasion. “مرحبا” and “السلام عليكم” are different in terms of......

Words: 5587 - Pages: 23

Introduction to Linguistics

...may learn language by observing caregivers and imitating their sounds. Linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky (born in 1928) has added to how behaviorists like Skinner think about language development. Chomsky believes that infants and children learn language at a speed that cannot simply be explained by the laws of behaviorism. According to Chomsky, children learning language put words together in new ways, creating meaningful sentences they have never heard before. Chomsky argues that children learn rules of language and apply them in their own way, often inaccurately at first. Because children would not have heard adults using rules of language so inaccurately, Chomsky came up with another theory on language development. Chomsky's linguistic theory states that we are born with an innate ability to learn language, and with little guidance, children will naturally learn language. Chomsky argues we must be born with a language acquisition device, an area in our brains that makes learning language a natural event. As evidence, he points to the idea that children all over the world learn language in similar ways, regardless of their culture or the language they learn to speak. Recent research on language seeks to understand whether or not humans have a critical period for acquiring language. As we age, language acquisition becomes more difficult, especially for adults learning a new language. Children learning new languages outperform adults learning new languages in terms of...

Words: 1858 - Pages: 8

Linguistic Experiment

...Introduction Human beings are the only creatures that are capable of communicating in the most complex way. For us, communicating is a very natural phenomenon that most of us take it for granted. However if we only take a closer look at it, we could see that it has very interesting aspects that we could explore. One of the aspects is the way we construct our messages and how we are able to choose which words we pick to construct our sentences. It’s fascinating that with even if the human brain can store up to thousands of words it seldom fails to find the right words we need to get our messages to our expectant receivers. The linguistic processes that involve in our message construction like comprehension and production are further studied in the field of psycholinguistics. According to psycholinguists, all the words or vocabulary that we know are stored in our lexicon. If we are hearing a word, comprehending what it means or finding the words we need to produce a sentence, we consult our lexicon. The process of retrieving information from the lexicon is called lexical access. Accessing the items can be facilitated by using our schema or due to the frequency of usage of the words. This quasi-experiment aims to explore about the relationship of the schema and word frequency usage to our schema. The experiment will determine how many words could the respondents give derived from a given three letter syllable of the researcher’s choice. It would also try to find which of......

Words: 3290 - Pages: 14

Linguistics

...Linguistics Introduction the scientific study of language. The word was first used in the middle of the 19th century to emphasize the difference between a newer approach to the study of language that was then developing and the more traditional approach of philology. The differences were and are largely matters of attitude, emphasis, and purpose. The philologist is concerned primarily with the historical development of languages as it is manifest in written texts and in the context of the associated literature and culture. The linguist, though he may be interested in written texts and in the development of languages through time, tends to give priority to spoken languages and to the problems of analyzing them as they operate at a given point in time. The field of linguistics may be divided in terms of three dichotomies: synchronic versus diachronic, theoretical versus applied, microlinguistics versus macrolinguistics. A synchronic description of a language describes the language as it is at a given time; a diachronic description is concerned with the historical development of the language and the structural changes that have taken place in it. The goal of theoretical linguistics is the construction of a general theory of the structure of language or of a general theoretical framework for the description of languages; the aim of applied linguistics is the application of the findings and techniques of the scientific study of language to practical tasks, especially to the......

Words: 30965 - Pages: 124