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Magasins Best

In: Other Topics

Submitted By guillaumes
Words 1047
Pages 5
Guillaume Sanseigne

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29 Juin 2015

UEL 322 A2 AMERICANISME ET POST-MODERNITE
Fanny Lopez

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Réflexion personnelle en lien avec l’exposé sur les magasins Best, James Wines et SITE.
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Les magasins Best construits en collaboration avec l’agence SITE et James Wines ont rapprochés l’architecture commerciale avec une démarche artistique. Ils ont tentés de créer un nouveau modèle de vente avec le principe du showroom, permettant au client de tester, de voir, d’approcher les produits avant de les acheter. La collaboration avec SITE fût aussi l’occasion pour
Best de créer une image reconnaissable de la marque, une architecture qui se démarquait des autres architectures commerciales de l’époque, afin de s’en distinguer, et permettre à l’architecture d’être ambassadrice de la marque. C’est sur le principe du hangar décoré mis en avant par Venturi que les magasins Best furent construit : la façade était différente d’une réalisation à l’autre mais le bâtiment, dans sa construction, sa forme, son aménagement, conservait le même modèle basé sur le parcours et la flânerie au sein du showroom.

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Soline Nivet lors de sa conférence Un post-modernisme a la française? Le rôle des promoteurs dans les années 1970 - 1980 mis en avant le fait que le post-modernisme, en France, était toujours actif à travers l’architecture touristique notamment. Mais alors qu’en est-il pour l’architecture commerciale ? L’architecture qui est voué à représenter, à promouvoir une marque ?
Aujourd’hui on peut donc se demander dans quelle mesure les magasins Best ont pu influencer l’architecture commerciale contemporaine ? Que reste-il aujourd’hui du modèle mis en place par James Wines et SITE ? Quels sont ses prolongements et les réalisations contemporaines qui s’y réfèrent ?

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Le principe de fonctionnement et de vente des magasins Best est repris aujourd’hui par la chaine de magasins d’ameublement IKEA. Même si ce n’a jamais été explicitement revendiqué par la marque suédoise, ses magasins s’inspirent directement du système des showroom Best. Ils proposent un catalogue puis un showroom au parcours imposé permettant un consommateurs de voir les produits avant de les acheter. Le consommateur peut ensuite à la fin du parcours choisir son produit, le retirer, le payer et l’emmener jusqu’à sa voiture. C’est donc le fonctionnement même des magasins Best : un catalogue, un showroom, un stockage. Ce fonctionnement qui est basé sur la flânerie des consommateurs, le parcours qui va leurs proposer plus de produit que ce qu’ils avaient prévu de voir afin d’essayer de leur faire consommer le plus de produits possibles.

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La création d’une identité remarquable pour une marque à travers l’architecture se retrouve encore aujourd’hui à travers la marque Apple notamment, et ses Apple Store au quatre coins du globe. Comme pour les magasins Best, la marque de produits électroniques tente de prolonger son image technologique, de qualité, et d’élégance à travers son architecture. Malgré la diversité des agences d’architectures qui construisent les Apple Store, tout ces points de ventes ont des caractères

commun. Le verre est omniprésent dans toutes les réalisations, la pureté des espaces et des surfaces est elle aussi très représentée. Ce sont donc des architectures qui tentent de donner une image à la marque, plus qu’un point de vente, elles sont conçues comme des lieux pour la “communauté apple”.
Elles sont censé refléter une image de qualité, technologique, sobre et pure, de la marque.
Les Barbie Store sont d’autres exemples remarquables d’architectures commerciales au service d’une marque. La marque de poupées multiplie ses points de ventes à travers le monde, sur un même modèle : un monde merveilleux, rose bonbons à l’image de la marque. Le Barbie store de
Shanghai en est un bon exemple : un bâtiment entièrement conçu et dédié uniquement à promouvoir l’image de la marque, pour offrir l’expérience Barbie. Un bâtiment conçu comme un phare rose qui a basé son architecture autour de l’imaginaire de la marque.
La marque va même plus loin en créant des véritables maisons de poupées rose à échelle humaine : les “Dream houses” à Berlin notamment. Mais ces réalisations relèvent plus du parc d’attraction, comme pour Disney, un lieu de divertissement même si le commerce y est fortement lié.

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Ces réalisations sont donc des exemples contemporains d’architectures au service d’une marque. Des architectures créées dans le but de donner un certaine image d’une marque, une identité propre et reconnaissable.

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Le travail d’Herzog et De Meuron quant à lui, peut trouver analogie dans l’approche artistique que menait SITE avec les fondateurs de magasins Best qui voyaient leurs bâtiments comme des moyens qui stimulent les citoyens à discuter de la vraie nature de l’art et de l’architecture.
On peut prendre pour exemple l’usine-entrepôt de Ricola-Europe de Mulhouse construite en 1993.
Exemple typique du hangar décoré contemporain, les architectes ont mis en place une façade translucide au motif sérigraphié répétitif : une photographie de feuille d’acanthe réalisée par Karl
Blossfeldt dans les années 1920. Une photographie qui fût sérigraphié à une échelle plus grande que la réalité et qui par sa répétition devient totalement abstraite. Cet exemple d’utilisation d’une image devenant un motif abstrait par sa répétition se retrouve elle aussi dans l’art, notamment dans le travail d’Andy Warhol (qui par ailleurs était un très grand ami des fondateurs de Best).
Ce principe de sérigraphie utilisé dans l’art est souvent utilisé par Herzog et De Meuron, comme pour la bibliothèque de l’école technique d’Eberswalde en 1999.
Mais ces architectes ne sont pas des cas isolé, beaucoup de réalisations contemporaines utilisent la façade en tant que moyens comunicationnel, on pense notamment à la façade du siège du
Monde à Paris conçue par Christian de Portzamparc avec sa façade représentant la une du journal.

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Les magasins Best par SITE ont donc marqués un tournant dans la conception de l’architecture commerciale. Encore aujourd’hui, certaines marques tentent de créer leur identité à travers l’architecture comme la chaine de magasins Best a commencé à le faire par sa collaboration avec l’agence SITE. Le modèle commercial des magasins Best n’a pas laissé indifférent les commerciaux qui s’en inspirent encore aujourd’hui comme pour IKEA. Et le rapport que SITE et les fondateurs de Best entretenait avec l’art se retrouve encore aujourd’hui dans certaines réalisations contemporaines. Même si James Wines s’est toujours défendu d’être post-moderniste, les réalisations de SITE et les showroom Best sont considérés comme des icônes postmodernes, et elles ont-étés très influentes sur les réalisations commerciales jusqu’à aujourd’hui.…...

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