Magnitude of Earthquakes

In: Science

Submitted By alondra
Words 2598
Pages 11
Economic Growth is the increase per capita gross domestic product (GDP). There is a distinction between nominal and real economic growth, where the first is the growth rate including inflation, while the second is the nominal rate adjusted for inflation. Moreover economic theorists distinguish short-term economic stabilization and long-term economic growth. The topic of economic growth is mainly related to the long run. Short-run variation of economic growth is termed the business cycle. The long-run path of economic growth is one of the central questions of economics.
In 1377, the Arabian economic thinker Ibn Khaldun provided one of the earliest descriptions of economic growth in his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomena in the Western world) (cited in Weiss, 1995):
When civilization [population] increases, the available labor again increases. In turn, luxury again increases in correspondence with the increasing profit, and the customs and needs of luxury increase. Crafts are created to obtain luxury products. The value realized from them increases, and, as a result, profits are again multiplied in the town. Production there is thriving even more than before. And so it goes with the second and third increase. All the additional labor serves luxury and wealth, in contrast to the original labor that served the necessity of life.
Economic growth is an important part of economic theory and one of the most significant problems economists tried to explain is the differences of growth rates of countries. Economic growth has been discussed since the time of physiocrats and Adam Smith. In his book “Wealth of Nations” (1776), Adam Smith mentioned economic growth as the improving and increasing of capital. David Ricardo in “The Theory of Comparative Advantage” (1817) emphasized on the benefits of trade and its role in the expansion of economies.
Modern economic growth…...

Similar Documents

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes xxxxx SCI245 September 18, 2011 There are four types of tectonic plate margins, the meeting place of one plate with another. The four plates are destructive, constructive, collision, and conservative. Plates are constantly moving or changing position. The divergent boundaries are where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other. The convergent boundaries are where the crust is destroyed as one plate drives under another. The Transform boundaries are where the crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other. And the Plate boundary zones are the broad belts in which boundaries are not well defined and the effects of plate interaction are unclear. They move slower than a few centimeters a year, slower than fingernails grow. The plates move in three ways, they move together, converge, they move apart, diverge, or they move past each other. They are said to have three types of edges or boundaries, convergent, divergent, and transform. Convergence is hen the leading edge of a plate meets another, one turns downward. The downward motion is called subduction, subducted plates move down into and through the asthenosphere and gradually disappears. Plates diverge at volcanic zones in ocean basins, the mid-ocean ridges. These are long, huge cracks where lava rises from below and freezes into new lithosphere. The two sides of the crack are continually pulled apart, and the plates gain new......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes Michael R. Rice PSHC 210 11/17/12 Unpreventable and potentially devastating, earthquakes offer geologists insight into the Earth's structure. Even though scientists cannot stop an earthquake from happening they are developing a better understanding of how and why earthquakes occur. Studying where, how, and why the earth shakes can give people more knowledge into preparing for and recovering from earthquake disasters. Although scientists cannot predict short-term forecasting with any true accuracy, they can determine which areas are at risk of experiencing a substantial earthquake through long-term forecasting (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). Earthquakes are a result of two tectonic plates moving past one another. Because the plates do not slide past each other smoothly often the edges of the plates, or plate boundaries, stick together whereas the rest of the block continues to move (Wald, 2009). The plate boundaries are comprised of numerous faults, and it is along the faults where the majority of earthquakes occur (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). The energy that normally forces the plates to the move past one another begins to store until the power of the parts of the plates still in motion overcome the friction caused by the parts that are stuck and release the plate (Wald, 2009). The result is a release of the stored energy that then radiates as seismic waves in all directions (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). The amount......

Words: 1028 - Pages: 5

Earthquakes

... Learning Goals (Earthquakes 4/5) •! •! List and describe the primary earthquake hazards Understand the importance of building design and ground conditions in earthquake damage to buildings and infrastructure Understand the basics of how buildings can be designed or retrofitted to better resist earthquakes (and reduce casualties and costs) Explain liquifaction and resonance and how those processes can affect buildings •! •! Upcoming Dates and Deadlines Field Trip sign-up now open: Sign-up and pay in ECAC (see schedule online) Saturday, September 21: Earthquakes Quiz due Monday, September 23: Review session (here) 4-6 pm Bring your questions! Wednesday, September 25: Midterm #1 - 30 multiple choice - 2-stage exam (will explain on Monday) - covers all material through Monday !7"/+3)7$+8)43)*4"9:+ !"#$%&'()$*'+,%*$&-'' ./&'0$12-'3,4'5,'&06'&6/&'78579754$113':;+#"?*)+);)#953)F*+/"#(*++++++++++++++ GH.+95'+E?>>+>)"#3+=#5/+$%)+)7"/+ •! @?$+*?O)+A"#)"CP+*>?@P+"34+*$#)30$%+ G*+/"03?$'4)+?34?30*+ !"#$%&'"()+T3$)3*?$9+ •! G+E4$17&$F96')*D/"$)+5=+%5E+0#5'34+/5D53+ "Q)>?+UT3$)3*?$9F+"$+V5+ Queen Charlotte (Haida Gwaii) earthquake October 28, 2012 Magnitude: Mw7.7 Depth: 20.0 km V IV III ‘Mercalli Scale’ USGS Earthquakes Guatemala quake November 7, 2012 Subduction of Cocos Plate Mw 7.4 Depth: 24.1 km Reported ‘intensity’ is stronger closer to the quake epicentre, but there is a large variation. COCOS PLATE USGS Earthquakes Why?......

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes Christina OBanion Instructor Kryger SCI/245 February 28, 2010 Earthquakes have been happening for a long time, but now we are able to help detect where and possibly when these events might happen. They now seem to be getting stronger than they were in the past and even more frequent. No matter when or where earthquakes happen people always need to be aware that they have the potential to be devastating for those close by, or even those who are on the other side of the world. Earthquakes happen several different ways and I will try to explain this. The Earth has different types of plate margins that can cause earthquakes. The first type of plate margin is called the divergent margin, this is when oceanic or continental lithospheric plates move apart from each other due to mantle convection and new crust is created by magma pushing up from the mantle. The majority of these divergent margins are located in the ocean. One example of this type of margin on land is the Imperial Valley of California/Mexico. Another type of plate margin is the convergent margin and this happens when two plates move together or converge meaning one plate sinks (is subducted) under another. There can be three different types of convergences: oceanic-oceanic, oceanic-continental, continental-continental. One place where oceanic-continental convergence has occurred is off the coast of South America, along the Peru-Chile trench. The Nazca Plate (oceanic) is pushing into and being...

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Earthquakes

...of choice that I chose to write about for my short report paper is Earthquakes. I chose earthquakes because I am fascinated by them, and would like to learn as much information as I can about them. I have found out that these are phenomenons of nature and I am going to enlighten you on what the causes are behind them, the tools we use to track them, and some of the worst ones that have ever happened in history. The following paragraphs will be a complete review of all of the information I have found. I hope you enjoy my paper and let’s get started. First off let’s ask ourselves do we really know what an earthquake is? Not many people do but they have heard of them before, and know that they can be catastrophic. “An earthquake is a sudden and violent shaking of the ground caused by pieces of the crust that violently shift.”( ) Now let’s ask ourselves do we know what causes an earthquake? I have found that what causes an earthquake to form is that when the pieces of our earths four major layers move around they bump into each other, and we call these pieces tectonic plates. The edges of these plates which we call boundaries are made up of faults, these faults are most of the earthquakes in the world today occur. Since the edges of the plates are rough they get stuck together while all the other plates are moving. And then finally when the plates have moved to far from these edges that is when an earthquake will occur. () So how does this movement of these plates shack......

Words: 1335 - Pages: 6

Earthquake

...Earthquake From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. For other uses, see Earthquake (disambiguation). [pic] An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor, temblor or seismic activity) is the result of a sudden release of energy in theEarth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer; a device which also records is known as aseismograph. The moment magnitude (or the related and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude) of an earthquake is conventionally reported, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquakeepicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity. In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus orhypocenter. The term epicenter refers to the point......

Words: 11888 - Pages: 48

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes On October 17, 1989, as my family and I were preparing to watch game 3 of the World Series, a special news break announced that there had been a devastating earthquake that had struck the San Francisco bay area. News cameras quickly began showing the devastation that this magnitude 6.9 earthquake had wrought. Buildings were on the verge of collapse and the two tier bay bridge had partially collapsed trapping hundreds of motorists. 63 people lost their lives due to the earthquake, 3,500 were injured and over 100,000 buildings were damaged (bbc.co.uk, 2005). Earthquakes are notorious throughout history as devastating phenomena, but what causes them? In order to understand what makes the earth tremble so violently, you have to delve deep under the Earth’s surface. At one time, scientists thought that the earth’s crust or Lithosphere was continuous without any breaks or cracks but in the 1960’s, new research showed that the lithosphere was actually a fluid puzzle of irregular segments, or plates. These plates are made up of cool, solid rock that is four to forty miles thick. These enormous blocks of Earth’s crust vary in size and shape and cut through continents and oceans. There are nine major plates. Six of them are named for the continents they are embedded in: the North American, South American, Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, and the Antarctic. The other three are oceanic plates called the Pacific, Nazca and Cocos plates. These plates are in......

Words: 1365 - Pages: 6

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes If one could have stood out in space for a fantastically long time and looked back at the Earth, one would have seen the continents themselves in motion, drifting apart on their crustal plates, held afloat by the fire beneath. That is a poetically turned phrase from Lewis Thomas, which beautifully sums up the mechanics behind plate tectonics, and ultimately behind earthquakes. The following is a brief sketch on earthquakes, their cause and effect, how they are measured, and an area where they frequently occur. Plate Margins There are two different plate margins. These are convergent margins and divergent margins. When two plates move and finally come together it is called convergent margins. Divergent margins are the exact opposite than convergent margins. Instead of moving towards each other the plates move away from each other. Measuring Earthquakes Just by looking at the mass destruction left behind by earthquakes one can see that they vary in size and strength. Earthquakes are measured in size and strength by what is called the Richter scale. The Richter scale was developed by a man names Charles Richter. The majorities of the earthquakes that occur each year are a magnitude of 2.5 or less and go unnoticed by humans. The Richter scale can measure both small and very large earthquakes; this could be ripples in the earth that not one person could feel or it could be earthquakes of mass destruction just like the earthquake of Japan. Also the movement......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Earthquake

...Eartquake What is an earthquake? An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. The surface where they slip is called the fault or fault plane. The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter. Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks. These are smaller earthquakes that happen in the same place as the larger earthquake that follows. Scientists can’t tell that an earthquake is a foreshock until the larger earthquake happens. The largest, main earthquake is called the mainshock. Mainshocks always have aftershocks that follow. These are smaller earthquakes that occur afterwards in the same place as the mainshock. Depending on the size of the mainshock, aftershocks can continue for weeks, months, and even years after the mainshock! Causes of earthquakes and How earthquakes happen The earth has four major layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. (figure 2) The crust and the top of the mantle make up a thin skin on the surface of our planet. But this skin is not all in one piece – it is made up of many pieces like a puzzle covering the surface of the earth. Not only that, but these puzzle pieces keep slowly moving around, sliding past one another and bumping into each other. We call these puzzle pieces tectonic plates, and the edges of the plates are called the plate boundaries. The......

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Earthquakes

...Assignment: Earthquakes Sci/245 Assignment: Earthquakes Plate margins are involved in the Earth as a major provider to many of Earth’s geological formations. These plates are approximately 100 kilometers thick, which is very thin compared to the largeness of a 6000-kilometer radius of the Earth. Most major plates include both continental crust and oceanic crust. An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth’s crust due to a sudden release of energy. They are caused by stress that builds up between two lithospheric plates. When two plates slide next to each other, friction usually prevents the plates from moving. Instead of moving, the stresses on the plates cause the plates to change shape. Eventually, the stresses on the plates come great enough to overcome friction, and the plates suddenly move, causing an earthquake. The earthquake releases the stress, and builds up more again over time. Earthquakes generally occur along faults. A fault is a break or crack in Earth’s crust along which movement has occurred. An earthquake produces waves called seismic waves, which transmit energy. Seismic waves are detected and recorded by a device called a seismograph. A seismograph detects ground movements—either horizontal or vertical motions. The set of jagged lines recorded on paper is called a seismogram. There are different types of seismographs, depending on the types of earthquakes intended to record. Most modern seismographs are electronic devices rather than......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Earthquakes

...Salgado Earthquakes Science SC300 Unit 4 May 12, 2011 Professor Jayne Yenko Earthquakes There are not many things in life that petrify me but earthquakes are pretty high on the list. Just the uncertainty of not knowing if this could be the next big one. Realistically speaking, where can you go to be safe from an earthquake? Luckily for me, there seems to be no great danger of earthquakes in the southeast region of the US. I live in Atlanta, Ga. and according to the map fig.17-22** in our text it seems that we are in a blue low risk area, where individual measurements of seismic wave velocities reveal cooler rocks under the southeastern US. However, just a little further northwest of Georgia according to the seismic map in the USGC website* there seems to be a small area of higher earthquake activity between Missouri, and Tennessee. The Midwest seems to be free of earthquakes while the west coast has an abundance of earthquake activity. California has the 2nd highest amount of earthquake activity in the US, after Alaska that produces more than half the earthquakes in the country. The earth has three major subduction zones. The first is a large area called the pacific ring of fire, this includes North and South America the east coast of Asia, and the western pacific islands of the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, and New Zealand. Most of the plates are being subducted, while some plates scrape past each other. The second major divergent or earthquake......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Earthquakes

...Assignment: Earthquakes Axia Colleges of the University of Phoenix By To understand why the Earth moves the way that it does along and through its diverse layers, we must have a better understanding of the physical science surrounding both plate tectonics, and earthquakes. This is a summation on earthquakes; what causes earthquake to occur, the effects of earthquakes on surroundings, how the strength of earthquakes are measured, and the regions in which earthquakes are most likely to take place. There are two types of plate margins exist; divergent margins and convergent margins. Convergent margins are the boundaries which are on two plates that proceed into one another and return (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). As a result, this leads to the two distinctive forms of plate margins; it is dependent upon if the boundary is in between two continental plates, in between two pelagic plates, or in between both. However, divergent margins are by far different from convergent margins in that these margins are boundaries along two plates traveling apart from one another; taking place within the pelagic or continental crusts (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). Earthquakes have a tendency to be most frequent along these boundaries being the most unmistakable expression of......

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Earthquakes

...It’s Shifting Plates & the Consequences The Earth is a combination of sand, rocks, molten lava; this definition would force one to conclude that our world is a contradiction in terms. This is not the case, we dwell on solid rock that is the surface of the Earth; the overwhelming facets of the Earth exist below the surface. It is here that we will find the tectonic plates of the Earth and cause for Earthquakes. An earthquake occurs as the two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another (usgs.gov). Generally a quake will occur without warning, although many times there may be a foreshock (smaller earthquake near epicenter, similar to an aftershock), which is usually mistaken for the Earthquake until the actual higher magnitude quake occurs. These shifts seem to happen without warning, however, upon observation and tracking of geological survey, structures, and pattern, it is possible to decipher the probable location of an earthquake. The United States Geological Survey map is a valuable tool when attempting to decipher whether a particular state is an Earthquake hotspot. Upon review of the Geological survey, one will notice that Pacific coast and the islands in the Pacific Ocean are furthermost susceptible to the quakes. Hazard levels range the low teens to over fifty percent. Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri rest on the New Madrid Fault line; subsequently these are states that share the red zone symbolizing the greatest risk for activity. We will notice......

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes Tresha Yarberry University of Phoenix Earthquakes Everyone wonders how earthquakes happen. Although, scientists have no way of predicting earthquakes, there are ways to find out how and what causes them. People can be prepared if an earthquakes happens. There are three different types of plate margins. The first one is divergent margin, also called rifting or spreading centers. This occurs where two plates are moving apart. They can occur either in continental or oceanic crust. When a plate is being stretched or torn apart, this creates a rift valley. A new ocean may form in the widening rift. A good example of this is when the Red Sea formed. Where oceanic crust is splitting apart, the result is a midocean ridge. (Physical Geology, 2005). The earthquakes that happen at midocean ridges are shallow and indicate that plates are moving apart. The plates move apart at a divergent margin, the high pressure is released, allowing the mantle rock to melt. The lava flows up into the slowly widening crack. Some of the lava flows out onto the sea floor to cool, and the rest is added to the plate edge to slowly cool. The second type of plate margin is convergent margins. This occurs when two plates move toward each other. This leads to different types of margins, depending on whether the boundary is between two oceanic plates, two continental plates, or one of each. When one continent meets another continent along a......

Words: 943 - Pages: 4

Earthquakes

...Earthquakes are one of Mother Nature’s most powerful forces and have plagued our lives for as long as people have inhabited the earth. These dangerous acts of the earth have been the cause of many deaths in the past century. So what can be done about these violent eruptions that take place nearly without warning? Predicting an earthquake, until now, has almost been technologically impossible. However, with recent improvements in technology and science, many lives have been saved and many more will be. What is an earthquake and how do they occur? Did you know that most of the famous mountains are a result of an earthquake? (Cosmeo, 2008) That tidbit of information was just a little side note; now back to the paper. Earth is a planet that is made up of multiple layers. These layers include an inner layer and an outer layer and layer in between. The inner layer of the earth is a ball of molten rock that rotates within the earth. The other layers that are on top of the inner layer are floating about as a pliable ball of molten rock. The outer layer is what we refer to as the crust. The crust is very thin when compared to the other layers of the Earth. For example, think of the outer layer of an orange as it relates to the interior of the orange. This example relates closely to what the Earth looks like when we examine the crust. The crust and other layers floats upon the mantle core. The crust of the earth is made up of multiple pieces. Each of these giant pieces is called a......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5