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Managerial Policy

In: Business and Management

Submitted By daniyahhaider
Words 1760
Pages 8
From ancient times, chemical additives were used to facilitate the mechanical washing of clothing with water. The Italians used a mix of sulfur and water with charcoal to clean cloth. Egyptians added ashes and silicates to soften water. Soaps were the first detergents.[2] The detergent effects of certain synthetic surfactants were noted in Germany in 1917, in response to shortages of soap during World War I. In the 1930s, commercially viable routes to fatty alcohols were developed, and these new materials were converted to their sulfate esters, key ingredients in the commercially important German brand FEWA, produced by BASF, and Dreft, the US brand produced by Procter and Gamble. Such detergents were mainly used in industry until after World War II. By then, new developments and the later conversion of aviation fuel plants to produce tetrapropylene, used inhousehold detergents, caused a fast growth of domestic use in the late 1940s.[3]
The use of enzymes for laundry was introduced in the early part of the 1900s by Otto Rohm. Only in the latter part of the century with the availability of thermally robust bacterial enzymes did this technology become mainstream.[4]
Soap is, by weight, relatively ineffective, and it is highly sensitive to deactivation by hard water. By the 1950s, soap had almost been completely replaced by branched alkylbenzenesulfonates, but these detergents were found to be poorly biodegradable. Linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LABs), however, proved to be both highly effective in cleaning and more biodegradable than the branched relatives. LABs remain the main detergents used domestically. Other detergents that have been developed include the linearalkylsulfonates and olefinsulfonates, which also resist deactivation by hard water. Both remain specialty products, for example only an estimated 60 million kilograms of the sodium alkylsulfonates are produced annually.[5] During the early development of non-soap surfactants as commercial cleaning products, the term syndet, short for synthetic detergent, was promoted to indicate the distinction from so-called natural soaps.
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Who Invented Laundry Detergent?
According to Proctor and Gamble, in the 1920s the majority of Americans used soap flakes in order to wash their clothes. Soap flakes weren't good for washing machines, however. They left nasty rings around the rims, they made colors and whites dingy and dull. The company made it a mission to improve the way that Americans washed their clothes by giving them the best product they could.
P&G researchers discovered synthetic surfactants. Synthetic surfactants are a two part molecule, one part pulls dirt out of clothing and the other suspends it in the water so it can't reattach. This 'miracle' molecule performed wonderfully in washing machines and helped remove dirt and grease from clothing. P&G marketed their discovery in 1933 as the product Dreft. It was great for clothing that wasn't too dirty, but didn't work well on hard cleaning jobs. Think about the commercials where the kids are in sports gear and getting mud, grass and mustard stains on their uniforms. P&G researchers next goal was to find a product that could clean out the heavy duty dirt.
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Tide Clean

In 1943, during World War II, Tide was born. Tide detergentremains a popular product on modern day cleaning shelves. However, in the ten years between the launch of Dreft and the discovery of Tide, researchers found a way to combine their synthetic surfactants with other products that helped them to break down the heavy duty dirt stains from clothing. In 1946, the first boxes of Tide went on sale and quickly outstripped other detergents on the market.
Tide was the first laundry detergent that could deep clean clothing without making colors dull or dingy. It was also very effective in washing machines and didn't leave a nasty ring. Proctor and Gamble researchers continuously update the product to include everything from color safe bleach to whitening bleach to Febreze and more.
Modern laundry detergents offer a wide variety of cleaning options, but it is the modern washing machine that provides the greatest amount of cleaning power. Detergents loosen the dirt, but it is the gyration of the washing machine drum, the water pressure and the draining capacity of the washing machine that helps get the laundry clean.
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Early Detergents
History credits the first synthetic detergents to Germany. During World War I, Germans experienced a shortage of the soap-making fats. They began using a synthetic form of detergent in order to clean clothes. Soap flakes were popular in the United States in the 20s. But laundry detergent as it is known in modern times didn't become popular until after World War II. As for who invented laundry detergent? History only "remembers" the company, not the researchers.

Laundry washing tip: If you have hard water you need to use more detergent when washing your clothes. In order to find out your left of water hardness, check with your local water municipality. Water hardness will determine how much laundry detergent you need to use. The softer the water, the less detergent you need.

Soaps & Detergent: History (1900s to Now)

The chemistry of soap manufacturing stayed essentially the same until 1916, when the first synthetic detergent was developed in Germany in response to a World War I-related shortage of fats for making soap. Known today simply as detergents, synthetic detergents are non-soap washing and cleaning products that are "synthesized" or put together chemically from a variety of raw materials. The discovery of detergents was also driven by the need for a cleaning agent that, unlike soap, would not combine with the mineral salts in water to form an insoluble substance known as soap curd.

Household detergent production in the United States began in the early 1930s, but did not really take off until after World War II. The war-time interruption of fat and oil supplies as well as the military's need for a cleaning agent that would work in mineral-rich sea water and in cold water had further stimulated research on detergents.

The first detergents were used chiefly for hand dishwashing and fine fabric laundering. The breakthrough in thedevelopment of detergents for all-purpose laundry uses came in 1946, when the first "built" detergent (containing a surfactant/builder combination) was introduced in the U.S. The surfactant is a detergent product's basic cleaning ingredient, while the builder helps the surfactant to work more efficiently. Phosphate compounds used as builders in these detergents vastly improved performance, making them suitable for cleaning heavily soiled laundry.
By 1953, sales of detergents in this country had surpassed those of soap. Now detergents have all but replaced soap-based products for laundering, dishwashing and household cleaning. Detergents (alone or in combination with soap) are also found in many of the bars and liquids used for personal cleansing.

Since those early achievements in detergent and builder chemistry, new product activity has continued to focus on developing cleaning products that are efficient and easy to use, as well as safe for consumers and for the environment. Here's a summary of some of those innovations: | 1950s
Automatic dishwasher powders
Liquid laundry, hand dishwashing and all-purpose cleaning products
Fabric softeners (rinse-cycle added)
Detergent with oxygen bleach | | 1980s
Detergents for cooler water washing
Automatic dishwasher liquids
Concentrated laundry powders | | 1960s
Prewash soil and stain removers
Laundry powders with enzymes
Enzyme presoaks | | 1990s
Ultra (super concentrated) powder and liquid detergents
Ultra fabric softeners
Automatic dishwasher gels
Laundry and cleaning product refills | | 1970s
Liquid hand soaps
Fabric softeners (sheets and wash-cycle added)
Multifunctional products (e.g., detergent with fabric softener) | | 2000sDisposable cleaning wipesPre-measured dissolvable packetsSpa scents and natural options |
Throughout the history of our civilization, the need for efficient washing of skin and clothes pushed many inventors and scientist to create many types of substances that facilitated that need. Because modern detergents found their footing only after the rise of technology and chemistry of 20th century, our ancestors focused their attention on production of various soaps.
The first archeological proof of existence of soap was found in ancient Babylon, over 4800 years ago. However the inscription found at the pots that were intended for boiling of animal fat with ash did not provide references of soap usage. Ancient Egypt provided many evidences of soap's widespread usage - from exclusive baths, to providing medicinal care for the skin and tool for more efficient washing of clothes.
Biblical records from that time also talk about personal hygiene and use of soap and oil products. Roman Empire brought the use of soaps, oils and ash mixed gels to the height of popularity. During that time both public and nobility used cleaning product regularly, and many legends surrounded soup (which was by legend first discovered at Mount Sapo, where fat from sacrificed animals traveled down and was collected into pools of soap). After the fall of Roman Empire in 5th century AD, the tradition of washing disappeared from Europe, which brought the 1000 years of uncleanliness, poor hygiene and several waves of deadly plagues (most notably Black Death in 14th century). After 17th century, public hygiene and cleanliness returned to Europe which brought the need for creation of many new cleaning products.
One of the first instances of industrially made cleaning detergent happened during First World War, when Germany economy was strained and left without easy access to soap. In 1930s, commercially available routes for creating fatty alcohols brought the rise of several detergent brands intended for industrial use (German BASF, DEFT and Procter and Gamble from United States with their famous "Tide" brand). After the end of Second World War many American war effort factories were converted for civilian use, and one of the most widely available products was tetra propylene, which was used in creation of home detergents.
By 1950s, soap was almost completely displaced as a means of cleaning clothes in developed countries. One of the most popular detergents of that time were alkylbenzenesulfonates, but its inability to be biodegradable forced the manufactures to create Linear alkylbenzenesulfonates, which were much more degradable. Since then industry of detergents started to grow exponentially, introducing many new ways of washing and reaching all four corners of the world.
Here are some of the most notable detergent related inventions in the last 60 years:
1950s - Creation of automatic dishwasher powders, fabric softeners
1960s - Prewash stain removers, enzyme presoaks
1970s - Multifunctional products (detergent + softener), liquid soaps
1980s - Detergents with support for cold water washing, concentrated washing powders
1990s - Aromatic gels, ultra fabric softeners, super concentrated powders and liquid detergents
2000s - Biodegradable and green friendly products, water conservation washing machines, laundry detergent "all in one" tablets…...

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