Marketing Learning Transfer

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ervinruiz
Words 285
Pages 2
Marketing Learning Transfer

The Four Ps: Controllable Marketing Mix Factors
Tools to develop a complete marketing program to reach the target market consumers.

Product. A good, service, or idea to satisfy the consumer’s needs.
Price: What is exchanged for the product.
Promotion: A means of communication between the seller and buyer.
Place. A means of getting the product to the consumer.

The 4 Ps elements of the marketing mix must be blended to produce a cohesive marketing program.

Consumer Purchase Decision Process and Experience

The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products or services to buy is the purchase decision process. This process has five stages:

Problem Recognition. The initial step in the purchase decision, is perceiving a difference between a person’s ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision.
Information Search. After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information. First, you may use internal search (scan your memory for previous experiences with product or brand). In other cases you can you external search for information. The primary sources for external information are: personal sources, public sources and marketer-dominated sources.

Alternative Evaluation. The information provided might be inadequate because it does not contain all the factors you might consider when evaluating a product. These factors are a consumer’s evaluative criteria.

Purchase Decision. Having examined the alternatives in the consideration set, we are ready to make a purchase decision. Two choices remain: from whom, to buy and when to buy.

Postpurchase Behavior. After buying the product the consumer compares it with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied.

Influences on the consumer purchase decision process come from both internal and external…...

Similar Documents

Transfer Pricing

...Profit centers; A store, a sales department, a marketing department, consulting organization whose profitability can be measured. • Investment center This is a classification used for business units within an enterprise. The essential element of an investment center is that it is treated as a unit which is measured against its use of capital, as opposed to a cost or profit center, which are measured against raw costs or profits. It takes care of Revenues, Cost and Assets -while Profit Center deal just with revenues and costs and Cost Center with cost only. This is a clear sign of how the span of control and span of accountability grow from Cost Centers to Investment ones. The advantage of Investment center is that it tends to be more encompassing, since it accounts for all uses of capital. It is however susceptible to manipulation by managers with a short term focus, or by manipulating the hurdle rate used to evaluate divisions within an organization. An example of an investment center is the corporate headquarters or division in a large decentralized organization. Q4 : Discuss & Explain the various methods of transfer Pricing giving examples of each. Definition and Overview: A transfer price is what one part of a company charges another part of the same company for goods or services.  The corporate entities engaged in the transfer are usually referred to as divisions. Hence, the transfer price is the price that the “selling”......

Words: 1522 - Pages: 7

Conditional Cash Transfers

...CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFERS A World Bank Policy Research Report CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFERS REDUCING PRESENT AND FUTURE POVERTY Ariel Fiszbein and Norbert Schady with Francisco H.G. Ferreira, Margaret Grosh, Nial Kelleher, Pedro Olinto, and Emmanuel Skoufias ©2009 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: E-mail: All rights reserved 1 2 3 4 5 12 11 10 09 This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Rights and Permissions The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce......

Words: 55566 - Pages: 223

Transfer Pricing

... * An MNE using the CUP method to determine its transfer price must first identify all the differences between its product and that of the independent manufacturer. The MNE must then determine whether these differences have a material effect on the price, and adjust the price of products sold by the independent manufacturer to reflect these differences, to arrive at an arm’s length price. A comparability analysis under the CUP method should consider amongst others the following: * Product characteristics such as physical features and quality. * If the product is in the form of services, the nature and extent of such services provided. * Whether the goods sold are compared at the same points in the production chain. * Product differentiation in the form of patented features such as trademarks, design, etc. * Volume of sales if it has an effect on price. * Timing of sale if it is affected by seasonal fluctuations or other changes in market conditions. * Whether costs of transport, packaging, marketing, advertising, and warranty are included in the deal. * Whether the products are sold in places where theeconomic conditions are the same. Example 1 Taxpayer A, an MNE sells 70% of its product to an overseas associated company B, at a price of RM100 per unit. At the same time, the remaining 30% of that product is sold to a local independent enterprise C at RM150 per unit. B Transfer price 100 A C Arm’s length price ...

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Transfer Prices

...TRANSFER PRICING Overview The essential feature of decentralization in large firms is the creation of responsibility centers (e.g. cost, profit, or investment centers). The performance of these responsibility centers is evaluated on the basis of various accounting numbers, such as standard and actual cost, divisional profit or return on investment. A central role of the management accounting system therefore is to evaluate (i.e. attach a dollar figure to) the transactions between the different responsibility centers. Under the subject cost allocation we studied alternative methods to charge user departments for the services rendered by service departments (frequently cost centers). Transfer prices are used to evaluate the goods and services exchanged between profit centers (divisions) of a decentralized firm. Hence, the transfer price is the price that one division of a company charges another division of the same company for a product transferred between the two divisions. 1. There are no cash flows between the divisions. The transfer price is used only for accounting purposes. 2. The transfer price becomes an expense for the receiving manager and a revenue for the supplying manager. 3. If intra-company transfers are accounted for at prices in excess of cost, appropriate elimination entries have to be made for external reporting purposes. Examples of items to be eliminated for consolidated financial statements include: 4.......

Words: 1287 - Pages: 6

Transfer Pricing

...Internationale Besteuerung Seminararbeit Transfer Pricing in multinationalen Unternehmen Eine integrierte Management- und steuerliche Sicht Sommersemester 2013, 2. Fachsemester Seminarleiter: Prof. Dr. Wolfram F. Richter Betreuer: Dr. Lars Kunze Eingereicht von: Xu, Chen Matrikel-Nr.: 161276 Anschrift: Bunsenstrasse 17, 45145 Essen Telefonnummer: 0176 64736605 E-Mail: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Einleitung ................................................................................................................. 2 1.1 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung ....................................................................... 2 1.2 Aufbau der Arbeit .............................................................................................. 2 2 Grundlagen des Verrechnungspreises ................................................................... 2 2.1 Wesentliche Grundbegriffe zur Analyse des Verrechnungspreises ................... 2 2.2 Funktion und Ziele des Verrechnungspreises .................................................... 3 2.2.1 Funktion aus der Management-Accounting-Sicht ................................ 3 2.2.2 Funktion aus steuerlicher Sicht ............................................................ 4 2.3 „One Set or two Sets of Books“ ......................................................................... 4 3 Methoden zur Ermittlung angemessener Verrechnungspreise ........................

Words: 5505 - Pages: 23

Transfer Pricing

...Transfer Pricing Kim: “I ... don’t understand why it would make sense to pay $450/ton for pulp [to buy internally from Northwestern’s U.S. pulp mills] when I can get it for $330/ton from Chile.” Ewing: “I understand your motivation for wanting to source the pulp from Chile, but it is important [to buy inside] for the corporation to act as an integrated team.” Barrett and Slape (2000: 597) Executive summary The quote above is an excerpt from a phone conversation between Bill Ewing, the Vice President of Northwestern Paper Company 1, and Arthur Kim, the Director of Northwestern’s South Korean subsidiary. This conversation rises questions on the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing internal transfer prices. Such as: given that some subsidiaries are located in lower tax jurisdictions, would it not be logical to set lower internal transfer prices to those subsidiaries? Would it not be logical to allow the Korean subsidiary to purchase from outside suppliers given that internal transfer prices are much higher than market prices in Chile? Allowing subsidiaries to outsource externally would lead to the bankruptcy of the US subsidiaries, which would not have enough demand for their products? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a reward system based on the allocation of internal consumption? Is the allocation process “fair” to each subsidiary? Is it “fair” to the company as a whole? Questions and doubts on transfer pricing probably haunt not only Mr. Ewing and the......

Words: 919 - Pages: 4

Technology Transfer

...Industrial Promotion and Technology Branch TECHNOLOGY PAPER SERIES 6/05 Technology Transfer and Trade: The Toy Industry in India UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION I N D U S T R I A L P R O M OT I O N A N D T EC H N O LO GY B R A N C H Technology Transfer and Trade: The Toy Industry in India TECHNOLOGY PAPER SERIES TPS 6/05 December 2005 UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION Vienna, 2005 UNIDO Industrial Promotion and Technology Branch Technology Paper Series TPS No. 6/2005 December 2005 Technology Transfer & Trade in Toy Industry of India Copyright © 2004 by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) The designati ons employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The responsibility for options expressed rests solely with the authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by UNIDO of the opinions expressed. This document has been produced without formal editing. The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the Secretariat of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Any indication of, or reference to, a country,......

Words: 7419 - Pages: 30

Transfer Pricing

...TRANSFER PRICING Pengertian : A transfer price is what one segment of company charges another segment of the same company for the transfer of good or service. The segment may be subsidiaries, departments, branches, or any other part of the overall multinational organization. Secara umum transfer pricing merupakan jumlah harga atas penyerahan barang atau imbalan atas penyerahan jasa yang telah disepakati oleh kedua belah pihak dalam transakasi bisnis financial maupun transaksi lainnya. Dalam suatu grup perusahaan, transfer pricing (sering disebut dengan istilah intercompany pricing, intercorporate pricing, interdivisional pricing atau internal pricing) Secara komersial terdapat beberapa dasar penentuan harga transfer yaitu : a. Cost basis b. Market basis c. Negosiasi d. Arbitrasi e. Ganda Harga transfer yang mendasarkan pada biaya bisa berupa : • Actual variable cost • Actual fixed cost • Standard variable cost • Standard full cost • Average cost • Full cost plus mark up Sehubungan dengan harga transfer, terdapat beberapa ketentuan dalam UU PPh yang mengatur tentang perlakuan harga (pasal 10 (1), pasal 6 (1) dan pasal 18). Implikasi Pajak Transfer pricing dapat melibatkan baik transaksi domestic maupun global. Dari aspek pajak penghasilan, transfer pricing domestic tidak membawa implikasi yang signifikan karena potensi penghasilan kena pajaknya (walau digeser dari satu ke lain badan) masih berada......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Transfer Pricing

...burden. One such strategy is discussed in this paper. Transfer pricing allows the company to price the inter-company transactions. Transfer pricing simplifies the accounting of transactions that take place between affiliated or related entities. Companies have freedom in valuing inter-company transactions. But, if strategically implemented, this strategy allows the company to save taxes and retain large amount of profits. Keywords: Transfer mispricing, tax-havens, Double Irish Dutch Arrangement Transfer Pricing Transfer pricing is the methodology used to set the prices for goods sold or services provided between related entities within an enterprise. Related entities are those which are under control of a single corporation and include branches and companies that are wholly or majority owned ultimately by the parent company. Generally, such a transfer price should be equal to the price which the entity would charge to an independent customer, an arm’s length customer. Such a price is termed as an “arm’s length price” (Transfer Pricing, Wikipedia, 2015). Financial accounting does not differentiate between affiliates and treats the corporate group as a single entity. But the federal income tax law treats affiliates as separate economic actors. This allows multinational companies a free rein to determine where their profits should be taxed, or more likely, not taxed (Sheppard, Lee 2010). Transfer Mispricing Transfer prices that deviate from the arm’s length price......

Words: 3264 - Pages: 14

Transfer Pricing

...SOAL LATIHAN TRANSFER PRICING SOAL 1: PT PARAHYANGAN INDUSTRYmemilikibeberapadivisiusahanyadansalahsatunyaadalahdivisiA yang khususmemproduksiproduk spare part denganmerk ‘PLAZO’ yang selamainidijualkepasareksternal. Padaawaltahun 2008, PT PARAHYANGAN INDUSTRY membentuk 1 divisibarulagiyaitudivisi F untukmemproduksiproduk ‘METAZO’, danuntukmenghasilkanproduk METAZO inijugadiperlukan spare part seperti yang dihasilkanolehdivisi A. Divisi F jugamendapatkanpenawarandaripihakluaruntukmembeliproduk spare part tsb yang samaseperti yang dihasilkanolehdivisi A. Di bawahinibeberapa data produksidan data lainnyadaridivisiA, sbb: * Kapasitasproduksi normal setahununtukproduk PLAZO adalah 250.000 unit, dansampaisaatinidivisi A barudapatmenggunakankapasitasproduksinyasebesar 75% darikapasitas yang ada, danseluruhproduk yang diproduksidapatterjualkepasareksternaldenganharga per unit Rp. 31.000. * Biayaproduksiuntukmembuat spare part PLAZO adalahsbb: * BahanlangsungRp. 1.350.000.000. * UpahlangsungRp. 768.750.000.000. * Variable conversion cost Rp.1.425.000.000. * Manufacturing Overhead cost Rp. 1.856.250.000. * Biaya Variable SGA per unit Rp. 3.200, dari jumlah mana sebanyak 30% dapat dihindarkan apabila terjadi internal sales antar divisi. * Biaya Fixed SGA per tahun sebesar Rp. 824.031.250, dimana 35% merupakan sunk cost. Divisi F bisa membeliprodukspare part tsb dari supplier luardenganhargaRp. 28.500/unit. Pertanyaan : a) Hitunglah di antara......

Words: 2110 - Pages: 9

Venue Transfer

...Johnny Patterson Venue Management Learning Transfer Venue Management Key Principles 4 Points of Cultural Intelligence * Motivational * Drive. Your level of interest, drive, and energy to adapt cross-culturally. * Cognitive * Knowledge. The knowledge dimension of CQ - your understanding about cultures and culture's role in shaping the way you think and behave and how it affects business. * Metacognitive * Strategy. Your ability to strategize when crossing cultures. The ability to think about your own thought process and draw on your cultural knowledge to understand a different cultural context and solve problems in that situation. * Behavioral * Action. The action dimension of CQ is your ability to act appropriately in a range of cross-cultural situations. Knowing when and when not to adapt 7 Characteristics of Culture * Culture = Behavior
 * Learned through rewards or consequences and interactions with other employees
 * Subcultures form through rewards; not necessarily from management
 * People shape culture
 * Culture is negotiated
 * It is difficult to change
 * Culture can be strong or weak Mission/Values/Goals Mission Statement * Addresses who customers are, services provided, how services provided. * Who you are right now. Values * Underline agency's reason for existing; principles, qualities and beliefs. * Formed by merging member, leader and......

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Learning Points - Technology Transfer & the Development of the Automobile Industry in South Africa

...innovation makes it difficult to penetrate international market. 3. How the era of liberalization effected the development industry through technology transfer? a. Greater openness leads to expansion of international linkages including greater FDIs. i. The role that foreign links may play in enabling existing local firms upgrade their technology. ii. Impact of increasing internationalization and foreign ownership on the capabilities of domestic industry. b. In seeking to optimize their positions, domestic suppliers may seek out a foreign partner who can provide the technology necessary to supply export markets and meet the increasingly demanding requirements of domestic vehicle assemblers. c. Inflow of foreign capital creates more demanding and competitive environment but also it will limit the need for indigenous technological adaptation. d. Developing countries have regional design centers linked to the global design headquarters. And they undertake relatively minor R&D for minor modifications. e. Developing countries also acquire technology by purchasing their firms through outward FIDs. 4. What were the most effective technology transfer modes for the S. Africa Automobile Industry and why? a. Import of Machinery and equipment. Import of Machinery and Equipment was the most popular technology transfer mode for any South African Industry (65% of Innovating activities) and it was 25% for the Automobile Industry. Increasing foreign firms was a......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4


...consideration: | University minimum required cumulative average for consideration: | Notes: Transfer credits upto 1 year | | | | | Bachelor of Commerce | 75% | 70% | In addition, applicants must present 4U English and Advanced Functions for all majors, plus one additional 4U math (or equivalent) when applying to Accounting, Food and Agricultural Business, Human Resources Management, Management Economics and Finance, Marketing Management and Real Estate and Housing majors. | TRANSFER CREDITS University of Guelph- BCom Brock University- BAcc,BBA Entry Credential | Minimum Admission Average * | Transfer credits awarded ** | Notes | 2-year diploma | B- | 3.0-5.0 Credits | Honours degrees are comprised of 20.0 credits, three-year pass degrees are 15.0 credits | University of Waterloo- Bachelors in accounting and Finance Management If you’re applying from college, you can receive transfer credit for up to 50% of the courses needed for your Waterloo degree. To earn a Waterloo degree, you’ll need to complete at least 50% of your Waterloo degree requirements while registered in your new academic program. You must meet all requirements of your Waterloo academic plan in order to graduate, regardless of the number of transfer credits that you receive. * If you are admitted into an honours or 4-year general program, you can receive up to 10 units of transfer credit (the equivalent of 2 years of study). Accounting and Financial......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Transfer Pricing

...Accounting 1 Session 1, 2011 Tutorial Week 8 - Transfer pricing Tutorial Questions Overall Theme In previous weeks we have focused our attention on the use of management accounting information for costing purposes (e.g. ABC), processes improvement (e.g. ABM, process analysis), and for budget control (standard cost analysis). This week we switch our attention to another aspect of management accounting by exploring the concept of responsibility accounting. We look at how management accounting system can be designed to encourage desirable (goal-congruent) managerial behaviour and to reflect the autonomous nature of contemporary, de-centralised organisations. In particular, we examine two control mechanisms used in conjunction with the responsibility accounting system, namely, transfer pricing. We will consider how managers determine transfer prices, rationales behind these systems, their benefits and limitations. Along the way we will also consider the impact of interdependencies and why variability can play havoc on management accounting systems. Desired Learning Outcomes and Essential Reading Mowen et. al. (2010): • Chapter 10: p368-374 • Chapter 13: p508-513; p523-535. TOPIC 6 TRANSFER PRICING After completing this topic, you should be able to: • • • • Explain the benefits and costs of decentralisation Explain the benefits of transfer pricing systems Understand the differences between the types of responsibility accounting systems Determine transfer prices using various......

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5

My Reflection on Learning Experience for the Last Eight Weeks Studies in Marketing.

...In today’s world, Marketing is the heart of a successful business. A company can only maintain its competitiveness through extensive marketing. A company can market itself in many ways. Apple, for example, has marketed itself through innovation. As the demand for marketing increases, marketing has become more complex than ever, and as a result, marketers have to be more creative to find some efficient ways to satisfy their clients. Therefore, they have designed many marketing strategies that can help them deal with their clients who somehow feel their competitors have outdone them. With this reflection, this paper outlines a brief overview of my observed marketing techniques of Coca Cola Company. It is worth noting that this paper is my personal reflection, and whatever I said has not been verified, hence, do not take it seriously. Marketing is everywhere. A shopkeeper display his goods in the shelves, in a way that will make anyone who walk in the shop buy something without giving it a thought. However, some companies have gone further in marketing their products to consumers. For example, Coca Cola markets itself in a way that makes consumers associate it with thirst and playing. Although many Australians watch AFL, my favourite sport is a game of soccer, which has made me like drinking Coca Cola. Every time I think of soccer, I think of Coca Cola. This marketing style is very important because it make consumers affection towards the brand a lasting relationship. However,......

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6