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Marketing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ahmed2000
Words 27432
Pages 110
‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺴﻤﻴﺢ ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺴﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻭﻤﻲ‬

‫ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ، ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬

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‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻱ، ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻁﺎﺀ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻨﺎﺭ ﻟﻲ ﺩﺭﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ،‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺠﻌﻨﻲ ﻭﺤﺜﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ...‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻤﻲ، ﺃﻤﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﺭﻫﺎ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﻘﻬﺎ ... ﺃﻤﻲ ﺭﻤﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ ...‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻭﺠﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯﺓ ... ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﻬﺭﺕ ﻤﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﺍل، ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻨﺤﺘﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻔﺱ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﻤﺔ... ﻭﺍﻹﺼﺭﺍﺭ... ﻭﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺫل ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻁﺎﺀ...‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﺒﺔ... ﺴﻨﺎ، ﻭﻴﺤﻴﻰ، ﻭﺃﺤﻤﺩ، ﻭﺇﺴﺭﺍﺀ، ﻭﺴﻤﻴﺢ، ﺒﺭﺍﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺭ... ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺒﻬﻡ... ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﻬﻡ...‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل...ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل... ﺍﻷﺒﻁﺎل ﺍﻷﺤﺭﺍﺭ... ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻀﺔ ﺨﻠﻑ ﻗﻀﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻭﻥ... ﺭﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺼل ... ﻭﺍﻷﻤل...‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺩﺍﺀ... ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺭﻭﺕ ﺩﻤﺎﺅﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺭﻜﺔ ... ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﺍﺝ ... ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺒﺎﻁ...‬

‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﻜل ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻫﺩﻱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻀﻊ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﹲ ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﹲ، ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺩ ﷲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻫﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ، ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻨﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻟـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻡ، ﻭﺃﻋﺎﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ، ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻀﻊ، ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺭﺴـﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ، ﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺭ، ﻭﻫﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺼﺭﺍﻁ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻡ، ﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻓﺭﻴﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﻤﺴﻠﻤﺔ...‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻋﺭﻓﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﻨﻲ، ﻻﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺠﺯﻴل ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟـﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﺒـﺩ ﻤﺤﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺴﺎﻑ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺸﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ، ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﺸﺭﻑ ﻭﻤﻭﺠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل، ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻡ ﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺸﺎﺩ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺠﺯﻴل ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﻓﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻭﻤﻲ،‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺄل ﺠﻬﺩﹲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﻴﺭ، ﻭﻗـﺩﻡ ﻟـﻲ ﻜـل‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ.‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻤﺘﻨﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﺫﻴﺎﺏ ﻋﻭﺍﺩ، ﻋﻀﻭ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸـﺔ ﺒﺼـﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺤﻨﹲ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﹲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺒﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺌﻪ ﻭﺠﻬﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ.‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﻴﺴﺭﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺠﺯﻴل ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻠـﻭ، ﻋﻀـﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ، ﺒﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻤﻤﺘﺤﻨﹲ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﹲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺩﺨﺭ ﺠﻬﺩﹲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ،‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ ٌﻡ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺸﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ. ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻭﺃﺴـﺠل ﺸـﻜﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺒﺭﻜﺎﺕ، ﻋﻀﻭ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺒﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻤﻤﺘﺤﻨﹲ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﹲ، ﺒﻤﺎ ﻗﺩﻤﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺭﺸﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺎ ﺒﺫﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ.‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﻲ ﻭﺒﺫل ﺠﻬـﺩﹲ ﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻨﺩﺘﻲ، ﻭﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺘﺫﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻗﺩﻤﻭﺍ ﻨﺼﺎﺌﺤﻬﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻬﻡ، ﻭﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ، ﻭﻤـﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻀـﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻁﻭﻟﻜﺭﻡ، ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺩﺨﺭﻭﺍ ﺠﻬﺩﹲ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺘﻲ ﻭﺘﺸﺠﻴﻌﻲ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻗﺩﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻐﻭﻴﹲ، ﻭﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﺭﺍﺠﻴﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ، ﻭﺃﺴﺄل ﺍﷲ ﻋﺯ ﻭﺠل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴـﻊ ﻋﻨـﻲ ﺨﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺀ.‬ ‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻭﻓﻴﻕ‬
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‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺵ‬ ‫1‬ ‫2‬ ‫4‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫7‬ ‫8‬ ‫9‬ ‫01‬ ‫11‬ ‫21‬ ‫81‬ ‫33‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻫﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل : ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺨﻠﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫63‬

‫84‬

‫ﺝ‬

‫15‬ ‫15‬ ‫15‬ ‫25‬ ‫55‬ ‫75‬ ‫75‬ ‫85‬ ‫95‬ ‫95‬ ‫06‬ ‫16‬ ‫76‬ ‫67‬ ‫87‬ ‫97‬ ‫18‬ ‫38‬ ‫48‬ ‫48‬ ‫58‬ ‫68‬ ‫98‬ ‫29‬ ‫39‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ: ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺡ‬

‫49‬ ‫59‬ ‫69‬ ‫69‬ ‫79‬ ‫99‬ ‫101‬ ‫201‬ ‫601‬ ‫211‬ ‫‪A‬‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺥ‬

‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )1(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )2(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )3(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )4(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )5(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )6(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )7(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )8(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )9(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )01(‬

‫25‬ ‫35‬ ‫35‬ ‫35‬ ‫45‬ ‫45‬ ‫45‬ ‫75‬ ‫85‬

‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒﺎﺥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒﺎﺥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل 26‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل 46‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل 56‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ 66‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ 86‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ 96‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )11(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )21(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )31(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )41(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )51(‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ 07‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ 17‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ 47‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ 47‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )61(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )71(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )81(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )91(‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )02(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ 57‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل 67‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟـﺩﻯ 77‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ 87‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ 97‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )12(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )22(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )32(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )42(‬

‫ﺫ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ 18‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )52(‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )62(‬

‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ 08‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ 18‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ 28‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟـﺩﻯ 38‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )72(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )82(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )92(‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )03(‬

‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟـﺩﻯ 48‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺭ‬

‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫32‬ ‫62‬ ‫72‬ ‫23‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )1( ﻫﺭﻡ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )2( ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﻴﺭﻍ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )3(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )4( ﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻓﺭ‬

‫511‬ ‫611‬ ‫821‬ ‫231‬

‫ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺏ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬

‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )1(‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )2(‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )3(‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ)4(‬

‫ﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺴﻤﻴﺢ ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺴﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬
‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﻨﻔﺴـﻬﻡ.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫـل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ 5002/6002 ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫)246( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻤﻬﺎ )122( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ )53%( ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ:‬ ‫1- ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ )14( ﻓﻘﺭﺓ.‬ ‫2- ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﻪ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ)84( ﻓﻘﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺝ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎ، ﻭﻭﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻻﺴـﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ)98.0(، ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ )88.0(.‬
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‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ )2.67%(.‬ ‫2- ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ )2.77%(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )4.67%(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ )8.47%(‬ ‫3- ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫)8. 86%(.‬ ‫4- ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ )78%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ )8.67%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل )4.57%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ )2.56%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ )6.06%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ )6.74%(.‬

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‫5- ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼـﻠﺕ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺇﻟﻰ )73.0(.‬ ‫6- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05=α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺭﻱ،‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﻌﺩﺓ ﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ:‬ ‫1- ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻔـﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫2- ﻭﻀﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻟﻠﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻴﻠﺒﻲ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ.‬ ‫3- ﻭﻀﻊ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻟﻸﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ ﻴﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴـﺔ ﻴﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺍﻟـﻰ ﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ.‬ ‫4- ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ـﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ـﻲ ﻓﻠﺴــــ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﻓــــ‬ ‫ـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴــــ‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤــــ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻤــــ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺨﻠﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻓﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫- ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺨﻠﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻻ ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ، ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺒﻜل ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ، ﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ، ﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ ﻭﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﻴﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻪ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺨﻴﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ، ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻤﻘﺘﻀﺎﻫﺎ ﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺸـﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩﺓ )ﺃﺒﻭ ﻓﺭﻭﺓ، 6991(.‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺤﻅﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻫـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ، ﻓﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﺎﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩﺓ، ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ ﺸﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺒل ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﻭﺍﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﹰ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻅـﺭﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻴﺭﺓ، 9991(.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺩﻭﺭ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺫ ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻅـﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻨﻤﻭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺤﻲ، ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻟﺘﻭﻟﻲ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ، ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺒﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤـﻴﻥ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ )ﻋﻁﻭﻱ، 1002 (.‬
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‫ﻭﻟﻜﻰ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻀﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻴﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻁﺎﺀ ﻭﺒﺫل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﺨﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل. ﻓﻘـﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﻜﺎﺴﺘﺭﻭ ﻭﺠﻭﻟﺩ )‪ (Belcastro and Gold‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺃﺼﻼ )ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻜﺭ، 0002(.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ )3991( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻴﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻹﻨﺠـﺎﺯ ﻭﺒـﺫل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ.‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل )‪(Hardiness‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ )‪ (Job satisfaction‬ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴﻌﺩ ﻗﺩﻭﺓ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﻁﻼﺒﻪ ﻭﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻪ.‬
‫& ‪Maddi‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل )‪ (Hardiness‬ﻓﻘـﺩ ﻋﺭﻓﻬـﺎ ﻤـﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴـﺎ‬

‫)4981,‪ (Kobasa‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻭﻜﺱ )9991,‪ (Brooks‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺤـﻰ ﻤﻔﻴـﺩ ﻭﻤﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴﺯﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺒﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻜﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ. ﺃﻤـﺎ ﺇﻨﻔﻭﻟﺩﺴـﻥ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫)5991( ‪ Enevoldsen & Dawn‬ﻭﻫﻴﺜﺭ ﻭﺠﻴل )8891( ‪ Heather&gail‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻓﻬﻲ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺼـﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﺘﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺜﻼﺜـﺔ ﻤﺠـﺎﻻﺕ ﻫـﻲ: ﻤﺠـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫)‪ ،(Commitment‬ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﺒﺄﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴـﺔ ﺒـﺩﻻ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ. ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺠـﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤــﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴـﺭ‬ ‫)‪ (Challenge‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﺍﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺩﺍﺕ. ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )‪ (Control‬ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﻭﺓ‬ ‫)4891 ,‪.(Maddi & Kobasa‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ )‪ (Job satisfaction‬ﺒﺫﻟﺕ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺒﺭ )‪ (Super‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺠﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻤﻨﻔﺫﺍ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻴﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻪ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻤﺎﺸﻰ ﻤﻊ ﻨﻤﻭﻩ ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺘﻪ )ﺃﺴﻌﺩ ﻭﺭﺴﻼﻥ، 2891(.‬
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‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻋﺎﻟﺞ ﺁﺩﺍﻤﺯ )‪ (Adams‬ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺒـﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﻴـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺩﺍﻤﺯ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ )ﺃﻱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﺫل ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬـﺩ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل( ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل( )ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ، 1891(.‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﻟﺭ )3791 ,‪ (Lawler‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ )ﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ( ﻭﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﺴﻴﺼـﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺭﻀﺎ )ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ، 1891(.‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺠـﺏ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﺭﺓ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ ﺒـﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌـﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﻭﻱ،‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻪ ﻤﺸﺭﻓﺎ ﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺎ ﻤﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻪ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻘﻊ ﻋﺏﺀ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻔﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺘﻕ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻡ ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﺤﺎﺕ،‬ ‫3991(.‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﻠﻴﺒﺱ )7891 ,‪ (Philips‬ﻫﻭ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻪ، ﺇﺫ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﻑ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ.‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﺤﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﺘﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴل ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻫـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ، ﻭﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻤﺄﻨﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺭﺒﺎﻭﻱ، 4991(.‬
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‫ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻋﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ، ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ، ﻷﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺘﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻲ، ﻭﻫﻡ ﻴﺸﻜﻠﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺴـﻬﻡ‬ ‫)ﻤﺘﻭﻟﻲ، 7991(.‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻋﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ، ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻤﻊ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻔـﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺴـﻠﻭﻜﻬﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ، ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ، ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ، ﻭﻫـﻭ ﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ، ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻨﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻫﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻠﺘﺯﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺒﺄﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻪ، ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬـﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﻷﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻉ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﻘﺼﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ، ﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅل ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﻨﻔﺴـﻬﻡ؟ ﻭﻤـﺎ ﻤـﺩﻯ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ. ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺯ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫1- ﺇﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫2- ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ – ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ- ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫3- ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫4- ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫5- ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫6- ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ: )ﺍﻟﻨـﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫7- ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺒﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬

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‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫2- ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫3- ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫4- ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫـل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫2- ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫3- ﻫل ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬

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‫4- ﻫل ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓـﻲ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ: ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫2- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ.‬ ‫3- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ.‬ ‫4- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫5- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ.‬
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‫6- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫7- ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0,05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻨﻲ: ﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ 5002/6002.‬ ‫2- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﻁﻭﻟﻜﺭﻡ، ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ، ﺠﻨﻴﻥ، ﻗﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ، ﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴﺔ، ﺴﻠﻔﻴﺕ(.‬ ‫3- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺌﻲ: ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺒﺄﺩﻭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤـﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬

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‫ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )‪ :(Hardiness‬ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴـﺎ )4891 ,‪ (Maddi & Kobasa‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀـﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﺘﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ )‪ :(Challenge and Change‬ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺒﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﺍﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺩﺍﺕ )9991 ,‪.(Brooks‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ )‪ :(Commitment‬ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﺒﺄﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻟﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ )6891 ,‪.(McNeil et. al‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )‪ :(Control‬ﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴـﺔ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﻜﻭﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ )9891 ,‪( Allred & Smith‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ )‪ :(Job satisfaction‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋـﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴـﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴـﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ )ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ( ﻭﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻡ، 7991(.‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ: ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﺭﻴـﺭ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )1891 ,‪.(Rountree‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ: ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ ﺍﻷﻫـﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)ﻋﻁﻭﻱ، 1002(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ: ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺭﺠﻡ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﻤل ﻭﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ، ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻟـﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ ﻭﻤﺩﺭﺴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻜﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻴﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻤﻠﻬـﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ )ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺠﺎ، 4002(.‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬‫- ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ )‪ (Maddi‬ﻤﺅﺴﺱ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺱ ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﺎﻡ 5791، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﻔﺫ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘﻔﺤـﺹ ﺍﻟﺼـﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴـﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴـﺎ )4891,‪ (Maddi & Kobasa‬ﺘﻬـﺘﻡ ﺒﻔﺤـﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ، ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺎ ﺘﻭﻅﻴـﻑ ﻭﺍﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀـﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﻀـﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ.‬
‫ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ) ‪ (Hardiness‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴـﺎ ﻭﻤـﺎﺩﻱ ) ‪Kobasa and‬‬

‫9991, ‪ (Maddi‬ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﺞ ﻭﻓﻭﺴﻠﻴﺭ )9991 ,‪ (Manning and Fusilier‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Hardiness‬ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺘﺤﻜﻡ) ‪ ( Control‬ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ )‪(Commitment‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ )‪.(Challenge‬‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ )6991,‪ (Kobasa‬ﻋﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸـﺨﺹ ﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ، ﻭﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺨﺹ.‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ )‪ (Personality Factor‬ﻋﺎﻤﻼ ﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ، ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﻟﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ )‪ (Kobasa‬ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﻫﻭ ﻋﺎﻤل ﻤﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﻟﻤـﺎﺫﺍ ﻴﺼـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )‪ (Stress‬ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﺭﻀﻭﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ) 9991, ‪.(Just‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﻭﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ ﻭﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻬﻡ )ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ( ) ‪Th Hardly‬‬

‫‪ (Executive under stress‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟـﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ، ﻓﺎﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ )‪ (Commitment‬ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﺫل ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤل ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺒﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻤﺞ ﻨﻔﺴﻙ ﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )‪ (Control‬ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻨﻙ ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻙ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺄﻨﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻭﻟﻙ، ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻙ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻙ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻟﻤﺼـﻠﺤﺘﻙ،‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ )‪ (Challenge‬ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻨﻙ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﻓﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻭﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍ ﺘﻠﻘﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺍ ﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ )9991 ,‪..(Kobasa & Maddi‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭ )5891 ,‪ (Myron‬ﺃﻨﻙ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻱ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻙ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺘﻼﺌﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻀﻙ.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﻴﻥ ﻫﻡ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﻠﻜﻭﻥ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻜﻨﻬﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺒﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ )4991 ,‪ (Galla‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬـﺘﻬﻡ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺴﺒﻨﺴـﺭ ﻭﻜﻠﻭﺩﻴـﺎ‬ ‫)2991 ,‪ (Spencer & Claudia‬ﻋﺭﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ، ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻠﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ )‪ (Self – Efficacy‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ )‪(Status‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴـﺔ )‪ (Career Beliefs‬ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ )‪ (Motivation‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﻨـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫)‪.(Flexibility‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﻴﺸﻴل ﻭﺘﺸﺎﺭﻟﺯ )9891 ,‪ (Michael & Charles‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﻜﺩﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﺅل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺭﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻤﺘﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﻟﺤـل ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﻜل ,‪(Kobasa‬‬

‫)2891,‪.Maddi, & Kahn‬‬
‫31‬

‫ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل )‪ (Hardiness‬ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻅـﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﻫـﻲ ﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ )‪(Commitment‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )‪ (Control‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ )‪ (Challenge‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻫﻲ ﺴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻴﻠﺘـﺯﻡ ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻀﻐﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﺩ، ﻓﻬﻲ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻤﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻬـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ، ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﻴﻥ ﺒﻪ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺤﻭﻟﻪ.‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺴـﺅﻭل ﺃﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺌﻪ ﻭﺘﻨﺸﺌﺘﻬﻡ ﺘﻨﺸﺌﺔ ﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻭﺇﻜﺴﺎﺒﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺘﻭﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻷﺠﻴﺎل ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻀﺢ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﻋﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺨﺎﻟﻑ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻬﺠﻭﻡ ﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل ﻴﺯﻭﺩﻨﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ، ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻭﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍﺝ، ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼـل ﻤـﻥ ﺘﻁـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ )9991 ,‪.(Just‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ ﺒﺭﻭﻜﺱ )9991 ,‪ (Brooks‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺭﻜـﺯﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤـﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﻤﺎﻫﺎ )“‪ (The three “C’s‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻜـﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻠﻤﺤـﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻑ )‪(C‬‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬ ‫41‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬

‫‪Control‬‬ ‫‪Challenge‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ )‪(Commitment‬‬
‫ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﻌﺩﺍ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻭﺼﻑ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﻴل ﻟﻠﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺸـﻐﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤـل،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺒﻨﺠﺎﺡ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺩﻤﺎﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ، ﻭﻟـﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺸـﻌﻭﺭ ﺒـﺎﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺯﻟﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ )7891 ,‪.(Kobasa, 1979, Wood‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﺩﻤﺠﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻏﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ، ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﻠﻜﻭﻥ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺜﺒﺘﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺠﺩﻭﻯ ﻭﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ،‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻪ ﻴﺅﻜﺩ ﺒﺭﻭﻜﺱ )9991 ,‪ (Brooks‬ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺤﻴﺙ ﻗﺎل: ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻫﻭ ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻁﻔﻲ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻱ ﺒﺄﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻨﺎ، ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻜﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻜﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴـﺎ ﻭﻤـﺎﺩﻱ )8991 ,‪ (Kobasa and Maddi‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻅﻬﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤـﺎ ﻗﻭﻴـﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﻤﺞ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺭﻑ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ )3891 ,‪ (kobasa‬ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﺎ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺃﻀﺎﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﻠﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻀـﻊ ﺃﻫـﺩﺍﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻴﻌﻜﺴﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ. ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﺭﻑ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﻨﻴل ﻭﻜﻭﺯﻤﺎ ﻭﺴﺘﻭﻨﺯ ﻭﺤﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)6891 ,‪ (McNeil, Kozma, Stones, & Hannah‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴل ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺯﻟﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﻡ ﻭﺼﻔﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻠﺘﺯﻤﻭﻥ )‪ (Committed‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻷﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ.‬
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‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻫﻭ ﻋﺎﻤل ﻭﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻭﻤﻴﻠﻪ ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﺴﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻴﻀﹰ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﺯﻤﻴﻥ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻡ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎ ﻷﻥ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻴﺸﺎﺭﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ )‪(Control‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺁﺨﺭ ﻤﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺹ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻐﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻀـﺎﻏﻁﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)6991 ,‪.(Kobasa‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍ ﻭﻓﻌـﺎﻻ ﺍﻓﻀـل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺒﻼ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ )9891 ,‪ ،(Allred and Smith‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﺘﻭﻤﺴﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻼﺌﻤـﺔ ﺘﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴـﺭ ﺍﻷﺤـﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ )5991 ,‪.(Thomson‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒـﺩﻭﺭ ﻨﺸـﻁ ﻭﻓﻌـﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻫﻡ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ، ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺸـﺨﺎﺹ ﻴﻌـﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ )5991,‪ ،(Liechtenstein‬ﻴﻘـﻭل‬ ‫ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺯﻟﻨﻜﺴﻲ ﻭﻫﻭﻱ )3891 ,‪ (Zielinkski and Hoy‬ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻀـﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻓﻌﺎل ﻭﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺒﻬﻡ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻔﻭﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻭﻟﻬﻡ.ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ( ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻭل ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘـﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻓﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ )0991 ,‪.(Orr and Westman‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻨﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ )‪(Challenge‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﺇﻥ ﻟﻜل ﻋﻤل ﻅﺭﻭﻓـﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻪ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤل ﻵﺨﺭ، ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ ﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ، ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻴﺭﻏﺏ ﻓـﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴـﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺸﻜل ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﻭﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎ ﻟﻘـﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ، ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻫل ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺠﻨﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻐﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻜل ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻤﻭﻫﺎ، ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻴﺘﺼل ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴـﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﻴﻥ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺠـﺯﺀ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ )7891 ,‪.(Kobasa, 1979; Wood‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )‪ (Job Stress‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﻌﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ )‪ (Challenge‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻅﻬـﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﺒـﺩﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل )ﺒﻼل، 5002(.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺘﺤﺩ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﻜل ﺃﻓﻀـل ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﺠﻨﺒﻬﺎ، ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ )9991 ,‪ (Kobasa and Maddi‬ﻴﺅﻜﺩﺍﻥ ﺠـﺎﺯﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺅﻤﻨﻭﻥ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻌل ﻟﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻤﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺃﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ ﻜﻔﺭﺹ ﺴﺎﻨﺤﺔ ﻹﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻬﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺸـﺨﺹ ﻤـﺎ )4991 ,‪ (Galla J.P. et.al‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺸﺘﻨﺸﺘﻴﻥ )5991 ,‪ ( Lichtenstein‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺭﺅﻴـﺔ ﻜـل ﺍﻷﻭﻀـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﺤﺔ، ﻭﺃﻀﺎﻑ ﺍﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻤﺭﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻴﺘﻌﺭﻀﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻬﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﻬﻡ.‬
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‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ ﻭﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ )2891,‪(Kobasa, S. C .Maddi. S.R. and Kahn‬‬

‫ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺴﺠﻠﻭﺍ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﻤل ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﻬـﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﻡ. ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﻥ ﻴﺜﻴﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﺩ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻩ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﹰ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺴﻴﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤـﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻭﻴﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )ﺒﻼل، 5002(.‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻭﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺒﻁﻼﺏ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻭﻥ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴل ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻬﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ:‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺩ ﺒل ﺇﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺭﺕ ﺨـﻼل ﻤﺭﺍﺤـل ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁـﻭﻴﺭ. ﻓﻘـﺩ ﺍﻗﺘـﺭﻥ ﺃﺸـﻬﺭﻫﺎ ﻅﻬـﻭﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﻨﺘﺸـﺎﺭﺍ ﺒﺤﺭﻜـﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ‪(Scientific‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫)‪ .Management‬ﺇﺫ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻴﺩﺭﻴﻙ ﺘﺎﻴﻠﺭ ﺃﻭل ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺠﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻠﺘﻬﺎ، ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﻭﺭ، ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻴﻤﻨﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎ ﻟﻸﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﻫﻭﺜـﻭﺭﻥ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻓﻘﺩ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ، ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﹰ، ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ )‪ ،(Maslow‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﺃﻭ "ﺴـﻠﻡ"‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ(، ﺜﻡ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒـ "ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ" ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺤﺩﺍﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻔﺭﻭﻡ )‪ .(vroom‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، 0002(.‬

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‫ﺍﺴﺘﺤﻭﺫ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭﺴﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ، ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻌﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻤﺎ.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺯﻤﻴﻠﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ، ﻭﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺎ ﺭﻏﻡ ﺘﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺩ، ﻓﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﺼـﻠﺕ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ ﻤﺜـل ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﺭﺕ )‪ (Likert‬ﻭﺘﺎﻴﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻭﺯﺯ )‪ (Taylor and Weiss‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻤﺜل ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ )‪ (Vroom‬ﻭﺒﻴﺭﺩ )‪ (Baird‬ﻭﻓﺸـﺭ )‪) (Fisher‬ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻤﺩﺓ، 0002(.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻓﻪ، ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺒﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻓﻘـﺩ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺭﺍﻀﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻥ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﻓﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻴـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺃﺤﺎﺴﻴﺴﻪ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺩﻯ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ )ﺨﻁﺎﺏ،‬ ‫8891(.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻔﻀﻴل ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻬﻡ ﻟﻪ، ﻭﻴﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻭﺍﺌﺯ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﻤـﻥ ﺠﻬـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )ﻋﻭﺍﻤﻠﺔ، 0991(.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺩ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻭﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻴﺼﻑ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﻀﺎ ﻭﻴﺼﻑ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ، 2991(.‬
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‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻴﺸـﻐل‬ ‫ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻪ، ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﻋﺭ ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺭﻓﻲ ) 5002( ﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻫﻭﺒﻙ )‪ (Hoppock‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺼﺩﻕ ﺃﻨﻨﻲ ﺭﺍﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ.‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ )‪ (Vroom‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﺘـﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻌـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﺸﺎﻏﻠﻬﺎ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺘﺭﺍﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺅ.‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻟﻭﻟﻴﺭ )‪ (Lawler‬ﻴﺭﻯ ﻟﻭﻟﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻥ "ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺭﻀﺎ".‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻻﻨﺩﻯ ﻭﺘﺭﺍﻤﺏ )‪ (Landy & Trumb‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺭﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺼﻁﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﺒـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﺼﻑ ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﻓﻌل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻨﻁﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻜﺎﺘﺯل )‪ (Katzil‬ﻴﺭﻯ ﻜﺎﺘﺯل ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻘﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤـﺭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻁﻤﺢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻟﻲ ﻭﺸﺎﻤﻲ )‪ (Li & Shami‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺭﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻁﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘﻘـﺩﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻭﻟﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ.‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﻁﻴﺔ )3002( ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻤﻬﺎ، ﻓﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫـﺎ ﻭﻟـﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻜﺎ. ﺇﻥ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ. ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺤﻤل ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻨﺤﻭﻩ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠـﻪ ﻓﺈﻨـﻪ ﻴﺤﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟـﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ، ﻭﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤـﺎﺕ، ﻓﺎﻷﺸـﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﻗﺒﺎﻟﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ، ﻭﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﺭﻭﺭ، ﻭﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ، ﺒﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻻ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺭﺍﻀﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻲ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ:‬ ‫1- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ )ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻫﺎﻡ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ( )‪:(Abraham Maslow‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻓﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺠﺎﻨﺒﺎ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻓﻌـﺎل ﻟﻠﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺸﻜل ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺎ ﻗﻭﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ، ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﻟﺩ ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﻴﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﺓ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺘﺭ، ﻭﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ )‪ (Needs‬ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ، ﻓﻌﻨﺩ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺓ ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻴﺘﻌﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻠﻡ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ، ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﺢ ﻴﻠﺯﻤﻪ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺘﺼـﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻌﻬﻡ، ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ )ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(.‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻴﺤﺭﻙ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻴﺴﻠﻙ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﺎ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻬـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ، ﺃﻭ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻴﺸﺒﻊ ﺭﻏﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ‬

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‫ﻴﺴﻌﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ. )ﺭﺒﺎﺒﻌﺔ، 3002(.‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ، ﺃﻭ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺘﻨﺒﻊ ﻤـﻥ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺩﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺘﻤﺜـل ﺤﺎﺠـﺎﺕ ﻴﻁﻤـﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ. )ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(.‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ، ﻓﻬـﻲ ﺸﺨﺼـﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻴﺩﺭﻜﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩﻩ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ.‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺃﺒﺭﺍﻫﺎﻡ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ )‪ (Abraham Maslow‬ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺴـﻌﻴﻪ ﻹﺸـﺒﺎﻉ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺒﺩﺃﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴﻥ:‬ ‫1- ﺇﻥ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎ ﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﺴﻠﻡ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)1(.‬ ‫2- ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺤﻔﺯﻩ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺼﻨﻑ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻤﺱ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻔل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫)3491 ,‪(Maslow‬‬

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‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )1(: ﻫﺭﻡ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬

‫1- ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ( ‪Physiological Needs‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻜﺎﻟﻁﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ. ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﻴﻁﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ.‬
‫2- ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ‪Safety & security Needs‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﻴﺔ.‬
‫3- ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ( ‪Social Needs‬‬

‫ﺘﻨﺒﻊ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻴﻌﻴﺵ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﺎﻋـﺔ ﻭﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋـل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻬﺎ. ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒـﺎﻁ ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻵﺨـﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ.‬
‫4- ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ ‪Esteem and self- respect Needs‬‬

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‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ.‬
‫5- ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ ‪Self – Actualization Needs‬‬

‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎﻫﺭﹲ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭﹲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻨﺎ ٌ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ. ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻴﻅﻥ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻴﺴـﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻨﺎﺠﺤﺎ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﻁﻰ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ، ﻭﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺒـﺭﺃﻱ ﻤﺎﺴـﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺼﺒﻭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ، ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻜﻠﻬـﺎ. )ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴـﻭﻱ،‬ ‫4002(‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ، ﻭﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻔﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﻡ ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﺼل ﻜل ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ. ﻭﺭﻏـﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺠﻬﺕ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ، ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺼﻠﺢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ.‬ ‫2- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻟﻬﻴﺭﺯﺒﻴـﺭﻍ )‪ (Two-Factor Theory‬ﻟﻘـﺩ ﻗـﺎﻡ ﻓﺭﻴـﺩﺭﻴﻙ ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﻴـﺭﻍ‬ ‫)‪ (Frederick Herzberg‬ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻜﻤﺤﺭﻙ ﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻨﺩﻓﺎﻋﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻭﻨﺸﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻪ.‬ ‫) ‪) (The Motivation to work‬ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، 0002( ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺒـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﻔـﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻤﺨﻀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻱ ﻋﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻫﻤﺎ:‬

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‫ﺃ- ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ )‪:(Hygiene Factors‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻭل ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻋـﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ، ﻓﻬﻲ ﺘﺤﺠﺏ ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺒﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ. ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜـل ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ،ﻭﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ، ﻭﺍﻷﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ. ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﻌﺩ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل، ﻭﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﺼﻤﺎﻡ ﺃﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺹ.‬ ‫ﺏ- ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ )‪:(Motivating Factors‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ، ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻨﺩﻓﺎﻋﻪ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل. ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺒﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ، ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ، ﻗﺒل ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ، ﺘﺼﺏ ﺠل ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠـﺔ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺠﻭﺭﻫﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل. ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺤﺼﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺒﺘﻐﻴﻬﺎ، ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ، ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﺃﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ.‬

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‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )2( ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ.‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬

‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )2( ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، 0002(‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﻴﺔ ﺒﺭﺃﻱ ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﻴﺭﻍ ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺯﺓ( ﺘـﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﻗﻭﻱ ﻭﺭﻀﺎ ﺘﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﻋـﺩﻡ ﺘﻭﻓﺭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(.‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ، ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﺭﻯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻀﻤﻥ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ، ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻻ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻟﻀـﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺒل ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺎﺀ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ. )ﺭﺒﺎﺒﻌﺔ، 3002(، ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
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‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﺜﺭﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺇﺜﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ، ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺒـﺭ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ، ﻭﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩﻩ ﺒﻔﺭﺹ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺘﻬﻡ )ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل، 8991(.‬ ‫3- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻔﺭﻭﻡ )‪(Expectancy Theory‬‬
‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ )4691,‪ (Vroom‬ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺘﻬﺎ ﻻﺤﻘﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻫﺎﻭﺱ ﻭﻭﻫﺒـﺔ )‪House‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫)2791,‪ and Wahba‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ، ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻴﺒﺫﻟﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ )ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ( ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﻤﺩﺨل ﻋﻘﻼﻨﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ،0002(.‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴل ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ، ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )3( ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻊ )2(‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻊ )1(‬

‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ )ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬
‫‪reward‬‬

‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬
‫‪performance‬‬

‫ﺠﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬
‫‪Effort‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )3(: ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﺒﺫل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺎ، ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻓـﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﻓـﺭﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻀﺎﻑ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﻓﻬل ﺴﻴﻜﺎﻓﺄ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ.‬

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‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ:‬ ‫1- ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻤﻌـﻴﻥ ﺴـﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﺎﻤل ﺠﻴﺩ ﻭﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ.‬ ‫2- ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺴﻴﺤﺼـل ﺒﻌـﺩ ﺇﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ. ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻴﺴﺄل ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﻘﻘﺕ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠـﹲ ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﹲ ﻓﻬـل ﺴـﺄﻋﻁﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺄﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ،4002(.‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻤل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺌﺩ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﺭﻭﻡ ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻨﺤﻭﻩ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺩﻭﺍﻓـﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل )ﺍﻟﺸـﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، 0002(.‬ ‫4- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ- ﻭﻟﻭﻟﺭ )8691,‪ (Porter & Lawler‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﻜﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ )ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ ﻭ ﻟﻭﻟﺭ( ﺒﺄﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻫﻡ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻭﺍﺌـﺩ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺂﺕ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ، ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ، ﻭﻴﻨﺠﻡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺨﺭ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺒﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻷﺠﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻀﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﺎ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻌﻬﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻭﻫـﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﻤﻬﺎ. ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺭﻗﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻤـﺎ ﻴﺠـﺏ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻜﺎﺌﻥ ﻓﻌﻼ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤـﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـل، ﺍﻟﻤﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ، ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺍﺕ،‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ، ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ، ﻓﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌـﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻘﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺯﻴﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺴﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ )ﺭﺒﺎﺒﻌﺔ، 3002(.‬

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‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓـﺂﺕ ﻫﻤـﺎ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺘﺭﺓ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻨﻴﺔ(، ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ، ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺂﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، 0002(.‬ ‫5- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻜﻠﻴﻼﻨﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻺﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫)‪.(Meclelland’s Needs Theory‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻤﻜﻠﻴﻼﻨﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ ﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻩ ﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﻭﻫﻲ: ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ، ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺠﺎﺯ.‬ ‫أ- ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ )‪ :(Need for Power‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻫﻡ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻴﻤﻴﻠﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻴﺴـﻌﻰ ﻫـﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺸـﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺎﺼﺏ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ب- ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ )‪ :(Need for Affiliation‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻫﻡ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻴﺘﻭﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻬﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺭﻭﺭ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺒﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺃﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺁﺨـﺭﻴﻥ، ﻭﻴﺸـﻌﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻟﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﻡ ﺭﻓﻀﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ، ﻭﻴﻤﻴل ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺸـﺨﺎﺹ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺒﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ. ﺃﻱ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺍﻗﺔ ﻭﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﻼﻗـﺎﺕ ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺝ- ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺠﺎﺯ)‪ :(Need for Achievement‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺘـﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻟـﺩﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻫﻡ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺨﻭﻓﹲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺸل، ﻭﻫـﻡ ﻴﺤﺒـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤـﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻀﻌﻭﻥ ﻷﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻴل ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ )ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﻨﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ، ﻭﻫﻡ ﻴﻔﻀﻠﻭﻥ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻘﻕ )ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، 0002(.‬
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‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺎﻜﻠﻴﻼﻨﺩ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤل ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻭﻴﺒﺤﺜﻭﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺤل ﻤﺸﺎﻜﻠﻬﻡ )ﺭﺒﺎﺒﻌﺔ، 3002(.‬ ‫6- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ )‪(Goal Theory‬‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺇﺩﻭﻴﻥ ﻟﻭﻙ )‪ (Edwin Locke‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻭﻀـﺢ ﺒـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟـﺩﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﺎﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﻴﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻟﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ.‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ﺃ- ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻀﺢ.‬ ‫ﺏ- ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ.‬ ‫ﺝ- ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ )ﺭﺒﺎﺒﻌﺔ، 3002(.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ، ﻓﻬﻲ ﺘﺭﺸﺩ ﻭﺘﻭﺠـﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ، ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻭﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟـﺔ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﻻﺘﻔﺎﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺅﻭﺴﻴﻪ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ )ﻤﺎﻫﺭ، 0002(.‬ ‫)‪(Equity Theory‬‬ ‫7- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ(‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤـﺔ ﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻁﻭﺭﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺁﺩﻤﺯ )‪ (J. Stacey Adams‬ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ ﻴﺤﻔـﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻻﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ.‬
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‫ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ )‪ (Outcomes‬ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ )‪ (Inputs‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺏ )ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ(‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﺏ )ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ(‬ ‫=‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃ )ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ(‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﺃ )ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ(‬

‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻭﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻨﻪ. ﻭﺒﻌﻜﺱ ﺫﻟـﻙ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺒﺎﻁ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ. ﻭﺸﻌﻭﺭﻩ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻴﺤﻔـﺯﻩ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ﺃ- ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻭﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ.‬ ‫ﺏ- ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺝ- ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺸﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺩ- ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﻠﺴﻌﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﺨﺭ.‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﺢ ﻴﺤﺎﻭل ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺤﻔﺯﻩ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﺨﺫﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ )ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(.‬
‫8- ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ )‪(Alderffr Theory‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻓﺭ )‪ (Alderffr‬ﺒﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫1- ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ )‪ (Existence‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ )‪ (Physical Well - being‬ﻭﺘﻤﺎﺜل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺴـﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ.‬
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‫2- ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ )‪ (Relatedneeds‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ.‬ ‫3- ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ )‪ (Growth‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻤـﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺤﺎﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﻭﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ.‬

‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺸﻜل )4(: ﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻓﺭ‬

‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، 4002(‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﻠﺼﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘـﺎﺀ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻭﻋﻥ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ، ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻀـﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺴﻠﻭ ﻭﺒﻭﺭﺘﺭ.‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻴﺯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻓﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺤﻔﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻷﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻷﺨﺭﻯ )ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﺘﻲ، 3991(.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ:‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ: ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺩﻴﻼﺭﺩ- ﻨﺎﻨﺴﻲ- ﻻﻴﻥ )0991,‪(Dillard-Nancy-Lynne‬‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻨﺩﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﺒﺄﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ، ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴل ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻲ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘـﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ 605 ﻤﻥ ﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻜـﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﺽ، ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل 224 ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ، ﻭﺘـﻡ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻭﺜـﻼﺙ ﺩﺭﺠـﺎﺕ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴل ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟـﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻫﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺭﻏـﻡ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺱ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺁﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜﻭﻟﻴﻨﺯ )2991,‪(Collins‬‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﻭﺭﻨﺘﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻨﺩﺍ، ﻭﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺠﻬـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻫﻘﻴﻥ، ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺼﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻟـﻪ، ﻭﺘـﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻫﻘﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ )11 - 61 ﺴﻨﺔ( ﻭﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫322 ﺸﺨﺼﹲ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﺯﻟﺔ ﺘﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺩﺭﺍﺕ، ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﺭﻑ ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻁﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻜﺂﺒﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺒﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴل ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻨﻅـﺭ ﻤﻨﺤﺭﻓـﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻴﺸﻴﻙ ﻟﻭﻴﺱ )3991 , ‪(Benishek – Lois‬‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ: ﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﻨﻤـﻭﺫﺝ ﻤﺘﺴـﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ )ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ(، ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻴﻼﻗـﻲ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﻟﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ، ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ )581( ﺸﺨﺼﺎ ﻤﻤﻥ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻤﻴﺘﺸﻐﺎﻥ )‪(Michigan Un‬‬

‫ﻭﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻀـﻐﻁ،‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻔﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل،‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ، ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﻡ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻫﻭﺍﻨﺞ )5991 ,‪(Huang‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻹﺠﻬـﺎﺩ ﻤـﻥ ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻠﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ، ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ، ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ(،‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩﻫﻡ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻟﻼﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﺼـﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻬﻡ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﻬل ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻗﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻠﻲ.‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻭﻤﺴﻭﻥ )5991 ,‪(Thomson‬‬

‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺃﺜﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻭﻑ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼـﺒﺤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ 601 ﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎ )38 ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﻭ32 ﺫﻜﻭﺭ( ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺃﻋﻤـﺎﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﺒﻴﻥ12-05 ﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻫﻡ ﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ )‪ (Dean Alienation‬ﻭﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ )‪ (social support‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺴﺠﻠﻭﺍ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻅﻬﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻨﻔﻭﺭ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻲ. ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺎ ﺒﻤﻘـﺩﺍﺭ ﻤـﺎ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻨﻔﻭﺭﺍ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﺎﻓﻴﺴﻲ- ﻜﺭﻴﺴﺘﻭﻓﺭ ) 6991 ,‪(Saffici-Christopher-L‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﺭﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻫﻭﺴﺘﻭﻥ )‪ ،(University of Houston‬ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﺭﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ ﻤﺴـﺘﻘل ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ. ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ )231 ﺃﻨﺜﻰ، 71 ﺫﻜﺭ( ﻭﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ )3791 ,‪ (Hall and Williams‬ﻭﻤﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫)4891 ,‪ (Maddi and Kobasa‬ﻭﻤﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠـﻡ )4891 ,‪(Gibson and Dembo‬‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻓﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ = 43,23 ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫)‪ ،(0.001 =α‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺎ ﺫﺍ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻲ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺫﺍ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﻔﺴﺭ 55% ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﻔﺴﺭ ﺴﻭﻯ 71% ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺎ.‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻨﺠل )7991 ,‪(Angle‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ، ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﻔﺤﺹ ﺃﺜـﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﹲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ، ﻜﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻓﺭﻭﻗـﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﻭﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍﺝ، ﻭﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻨﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻺﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻡ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002,‪(Qadumi‬‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺭﻑ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴـﻁﻴﻥ،‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ: ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ، ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻤﻬﺎ )172( ﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ، ﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻜﻭﺒﺎﺴﺎ )4891(، ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻓـﻲ ﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴـﺔ: ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻑ، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ.‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ:‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻴﺎﺴﻴﻥ )0991(‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻫﻲ: ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ، ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ،‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻭﺯﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺘﺸﻜﻠﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻭﺘﺴﻌﻭﻥ )49( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻤﻥ ﻴﺤﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل، ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺴﻬﻡ ﺼﻔﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ.ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜـﺔ ﻤﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ )‪ (JDI‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ.‬ ‫ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺭﺍﻀﻭﻥ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻬﻨـﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ. ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻴﺘﺼﻔﻭﻥ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ، ﻭﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺒﻌﺎﺩ: ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ، ﻭﺯﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺃﺒﺩﻭﺍ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓـﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ )2991(‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ )322( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺘﺎﺒﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﻴﻨﺴﻭﺘﺎ ﻟﻠﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ )‪ (MSQ‬ﻭﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﹰ، ﻓﻜـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ )5.96%( ﻤﻨﻬﻡ، ﻭﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ )72%(، ﻭﻤﺘﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ )5.3%( ﻓﻘﻁ.‬ ‫2- ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﺒﺭﺯ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل )ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ( ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺸﻌﻭﺭﻫﻡ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺠـﺎﺯ،‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﻡ، ﻭﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻬﻡ ﻭﺭﺅﺴﺎﺌﻬﻡ، ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﻡ ﻓـﻲ ﺨﺩﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ، ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﺘﺨـﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺍﺭ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﺍ ﻀﻌﻴﻔﺎ ﻭﻤﻌﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ.‬
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‫3- ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻓﺴﺭﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )8%( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻓﺴﺭ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬ ‫)5%( ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻷﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻨﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺁل ﻨﺎﺠﻲ )3991(‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ "ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﺭﺝ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺴﺎﺀ" ﺤﻴﺙ ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺩﻴﻥ ﻟﻬﻴـﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺭﺝ، ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺤـﻭﺜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﻟﻎ ﻋـﺩﺩﻫﻡ )574( ﻤﻌﻠﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻥ )ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل(، ﻭﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ، ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺍل ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻓﻲ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻫﻭﺩ )4991(‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻨﻅﺎﺭ ﻭﻨـﺎﻅﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻥ: ﺍﻟﻘﺴـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﻤل )04( ﻓﻘﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ: ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ ﺜـﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠـﺎل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ.‬ ‫ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ، ﻭﺒﻴﻨـﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﻟﺠـﻨﺱ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ( ﻟﻡ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠـﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ )8991(‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ،‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﻴﺜﺎﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻋﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺱ، ﻭﺍﺘﺒـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ، ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ )ﻥ=671(، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤـﻲ ﻤﺭﺍﺤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﻴﻨﺴﻭﺘﺎ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺨﺼﻴﺼﺎ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻤﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴـﻲ‬ ‫)‪ (OCB‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺤﺙ، ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )ﺘﻀﻡ ﺩﺭﺠﺘـﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓـﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻲ( ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ )ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﺜﺎﺭ( ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺨﺼﻭﺼـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻷﻗل ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ.‬ ‫2- ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻲ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﻴﺜﺎﺭﻱ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ.‬ ‫3- ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻴﺴﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻴﻡ )9991(‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺴـﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﻭﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺏ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ، ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ،‬
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‫ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ. ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻴﻨـﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ )412(‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜـﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ )533( ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺩﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ: ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺏ,‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﻭﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻟﻴﻥ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ, ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ: ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﻭﺃﻋﺒـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل،‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ، ﻭﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﺠـﺎﻻﺕ ﻫـﻲ: ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ )11 ﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ(.‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻤﺠـﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻭﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ )9991(‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤﻭﻙ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ: ﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ، ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ، ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ، ﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ، ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ )13%( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )4841(‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻭﻤﻭﻅﻔﺔ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬
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‫1- ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﹲ ﻋﺎﻤﹲ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ: ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ،‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫2- ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ: ﻤﺴـﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ، ﻭﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ، ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺠـﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻤﺩﺓ )0002(‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﺔ. ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ، ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ، ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ )041( ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ )85.44%( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻨﺠﻤل ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫1- ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻀﺎ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﺔ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺴـﺠﺎﻡ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ.‬ ‫2- ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓـﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺘﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ: ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻭﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ.‬ ‫3- ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓـﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺘﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ: ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ.‬
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‫4- ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓـﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺘﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ: ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺘﺒـﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴـﺔ، ﻭﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ، ﻭﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ )0002(‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ "ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺩﻭﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ: ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ" ﺤﻴﺙ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺭﺃﻱ )105( ﻤﻭﻅﻔﺎ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺘﻴﻥ ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺘﻴﻥ،‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ )ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ، ﻭﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ، ﻭﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل(، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ، ﻨﺤﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ، ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜـﻭﻴﺘﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺘﻴﻴﻥ، ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺘﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻓﺩﻴﻥ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺘﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ، ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻓﺩﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ )3002(‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﺍﻟﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ(‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ )6401( ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ )263( ﻋﻀﻭ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫)03%( ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ ﻫﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺃﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﺠـﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5.57%(، ﺜﻡ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬

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‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )3.86%(، ﺜﻡ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )2.76%(، ﺜﻡ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘـﺏ ﺒﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫)4.66%(، ﺜﻡ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )46%(.‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ ﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )6.87%(. ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻻ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻘﺒﻭل )3002(‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺭﺸﺩﻱ ﻭﻤﺭﺸﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺭﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺩﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫)532( ﻤﺭﺸﺩ ﻭﻤﺭﺸﺩﺓ.‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺸـﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺩﺍﺕ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )2.66%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )2.67%(، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ )2.04%(.‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺭﺸﺩﻱ ﻭﻤﺭﺸﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤـﺭ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ، ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ، ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ، ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺒﺔ.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل.‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺩﺍﻭﻱ )3002(‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺩﻭﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﻴﻥ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﻤل( ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻙ-ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘـﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻤﺅﻟﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ )213( ﻤﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﹰ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺇﺤﺼـﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫)ﻭﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ( ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﺭﻀﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﺩﺓ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺒﺭﺯﻫﺎ:‬ ‫1- ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﺴﺘﻘل، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﺘﺎﺒﻊ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫2- ﺇﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻘل،‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺘﺎﺒﻊ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻔﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘل ﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ )3.95%( ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻜﺎﺭﻴﻨﺠﻲ )5891 ,‪(Carngie Foundation‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ، ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻨﺤـﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻬـﻡ، ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ )04%( ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻤﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﻭﺍ ﺤﻤﺎﺴﺎ ﺃﻗل ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ )03%( ﻴﻔﻜﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ، ﻭﺨﻠﺼﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻱ ﺒﺄﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻭﻨﺞ )0991 ,‪(Long‬‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻯ ﻟﻭﻨﺞ )‪ (Long‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﺭﺍﻀﻭﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎ ﻫﺎﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻬﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﺃﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻ ﺤﻭل ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﻍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ، ﺇﺫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻨـﺎﻗﺽ ﻤـﻊ ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﺯﺒﺭﻍ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜﻭﻟﻤﺭ )0991 ,‪:(Collmer‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻻﻴﺔ )ﺘﻜﺴﺎﺱ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ، ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﺩ، ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫1- ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﺎﺭﺴﻪ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻷﻨﻤـﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ.‬ ‫2- ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ، ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﻭﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺘﻪ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺠﻭ ﺘﺴﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺒﺩﺍﺀ ﺁﺭﺍﺌﻬﻡ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻡ، ﻭﺘﺸـﺠﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ.‬ ‫3- ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﻡ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻗل ﺘﻐﻴﺒﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺸﻥ ﻭﻫﺎﻴﻥ ﻭﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺒﺩﺭﻭ )1991 ,‪(Shin, Hyun, Reyes, Pedro‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺒﺌﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ )99( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ‬
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‫ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻭ )77( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ، ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)4.07%( ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻋﺒﺭﻭﺍ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﻭﻨﺞ )1991 ,‪(Song‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ، ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ، ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ: ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ، ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ )003( ﻋﻀﻭ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ )31( ﻭﻻﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺯﻋﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ )72( ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺎ، ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻴﺘﻲ ﻭﻫﺎﺘﺸﺭ )1991 ,‪(Petty & Hatcher‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻻﻴﺔ ﺘﻨﺴﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋـﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﺒﺸﻜل ﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺒﺸـﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻴﺩﻱ )3991 ,‪(Eddy‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺠﺭﻯ ﺇﻴﺩﻱ )‪ (Eddy‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺘﻜﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ، ﻭﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )182( ﻋﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﺃﻋﻀـﺎﺀ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺭﺍﻀﻭﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺠﺯﺌـﻲ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺍﻀﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻀﻭﻨﻪ.‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻴﺴﺘﺎ )1002 ,‪(Testa‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ "ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ"‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ )524( ﻤﻭﻅﻔﺎ ﻀﻤﻥ )42( ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺨﺩﻤﻴـﺔ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ،‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺼﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ،‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ )ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ، ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬـﺩ(، ﻓـﻲ ﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻲ. ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ )ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ( ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻭﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ )ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ( ﻟﻪ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺒﻠﻐـﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ )22%( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ )ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ(. ﻭﺃﻓﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ ﻤﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﺎل ﻭ ﻭﻴﺕ ) 1002 , ‪(Vall & Witt‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ "ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺃﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ", ﻭﻗﺩ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )553( ﻤﻭﻅﻔﹰ، ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺨﺩﻤﻴـﺔ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ، ﺒﻬـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤـﻭﺜﻴﻥ ﻀـﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻴﻕ ﻋﻤل ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ، ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻓﺭﻴﻕ ﻋﻤل ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼـﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺩل ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ، ﻭﺩﻟل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺒﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﻭﺜﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ، ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺃﻗﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ، ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻗـﻭﺓ‬
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‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﻭ ﹸﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﻟﻜﻭﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﺼﺏ ﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻌﻤﻠـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ:‬ ‫ـﺔ ـل ـﻥ ـﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002 ,‪،(Qadumi‬‬ ‫ـﺔ ـﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـ ﻜـ ﻤـ ﺍﻟﻘـ‬ ‫1- ـﺕ ـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـ ﻤـ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﻘـ ﻫـ‬ ‫ﻭ )5991,‪ ،(Thomson‬ﻭ )ﻴﺎﺴﻴﻥ، 0991(، ﻭ )ﺘـﻴﻡ، 9991(، ﻭ )ﻤﺴـﺎﻋﺩﺓ، 9991(، ﻭ‬ ‫)ﻤﻘﺒ ـﻭل، 3002(، ﻭ )6991,‪ ،(Howard‬ﻭ )7891,‪ ،(Fimian‬ﻭ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ـﺭﻱ،2991(، ﻭ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫)ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ، 8991(، ﻭ )0991,‪ ،(Collmer‬ﻭ )1991,‪.(song‬‬ ‫2- ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜـل ﻤـﻥ )ﺍﻟﻬـﺩﻫﻭﺩ، 4991(، ﻭ )2991,‪ ،(Collins‬ﻭ‬ ‫)7991,‪ ،(Angel‬ﻭ )8891,‪(Calebrese&Fisher‬‬ ‫3- ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﻜﺩ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫4- ﺭﺒﻁﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻊ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﻀﻴﻥ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻠﺔ، ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ.‬ ‫5- ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ﺫﺍﺘﻴـﺔ ﻭﺃﺨـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ.‬ ‫6- ﺍﻤﺘﺎﺯﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫7- ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫8- ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬
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‫9- ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺃﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺤﺼل ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﺯﻤـﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ.‬ ‫01- ﺍﻤﺘﺎﺯﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺠﻤﻌﺕ ﻷﻭل ﻤﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﻕ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫- ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﻭﺼﻔﺎ ﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ, ﻭﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ, ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ.‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻲ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ 5002/ 6002, ﻵﺨﺭ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )246( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺸـﻤﻠﺕ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﻁﻭﻟﻜﺭﻡ, ﻭﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ, ﻭﺠﻨﻴﻥ, ﻭﻗﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ, ﻭﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴﺔ,‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻠﻔﻴﺕ(, ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )1( ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )1(: ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫701‬ ‫691‬ ‫311‬ ‫301‬ ‫76‬ ‫65‬ ‫246‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫16‬ ‫011‬ ‫76‬ ‫16‬ ‫13‬ ‫32‬ ‫353‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫64‬ ‫68‬ ‫64‬ ‫24‬ ‫63‬ ‫33‬ ‫982‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﻟﻜﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻔﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫1‬ ‫2‬ ‫3‬ ‫4‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬

‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ )122( ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ، ﻤﺜﻠﺕ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ )53%( ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ, ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺜـل ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ )652( ﺍﺴـﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺃﻋﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ )122( ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ )33.68%(. ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل )2(،‬ ‫ﻭ)3(، ﻭ)4(، ﻭ)5(، )6(، )7(، ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )2(: ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )%(‬ ‫9.25‬ ‫1.74‬ ‫001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫711‬ ‫401‬ ‫122‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺜﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )3(: ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ)%(‬ ‫8.03‬ ‫9.25‬ ‫01‬ ‫3.6‬ ‫001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫86‬ ‫711‬ ‫22‬ ‫41‬ ‫122‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ + ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻋﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﺄﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )4(: ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ)%(‬ ‫16.72‬ ‫27.04‬ ‫51.8‬ ‫25.32‬ ‫001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫16‬ ‫09‬ ‫81‬ ‫25‬ ‫122‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ 5 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ 5 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ – 01 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 01 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ – 51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )5(: ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ)%(‬ ‫5‬ ‫4.92‬ ‫4.42‬ ‫2.14‬ ‫001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫11‬ ‫56‬ ‫45‬ ‫19‬ ‫122‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ 0052 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ 0052 – 0003 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ 1003 – 0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )6(:ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )%(‬ ‫6.73‬ ‫4.26‬ ‫001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫38‬ ‫831‬ ‫122‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )7(: ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ)%(‬ ‫3.04‬ ‫7.95‬ ‫001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫98‬ ‫231‬ ‫122‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

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‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻥ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل: ﻭﺍﺸﺘﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ, ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ, ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺭﻱ،‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﻫﻤﺎ:‬ ‫ﺃ- ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ )4891,‪ (Maddi & Kobasa‬ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )‪ ،(Hardiness‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻁﻭﺭ ﻟﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻜل ﻤﻬﻨﺔ.ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ )14( ﻓﻘﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺤﺴـﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻴﻜﺭﺕ )‪ (Likert‬ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺎﺴﻲ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )4( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )3( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )2( ﺩﺭﺠﺘﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )1( ﺩﺭﺠﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺨﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﺭﺓ(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﺭﺓ(.‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺍﺜﻨﺘﺎ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﺭﺓ(.‬ ‫ﺏ- ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺘﻁـﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺒﻘﺔ، ﻜﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺴـﻼﻤﺔ )3002(‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻘﺒﻭل )3002(، ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻴﻡ )9991( ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ، ﻭﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ )84(‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻴﻜﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺎﺴﻲ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )4( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )3( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )2( ﺩﺭﺠﺘﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ )1( ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺘﺔ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﻋﺸﺭ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺴﺒﻊ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﻋﺸﺭ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺴﺒﻊ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺴﺒﻊ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )ﺴﺒﻊ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ(.‬

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‫ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ:‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤـﻴﻥ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻋﺭﻀـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ ﻭﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ)11( ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺎ، ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺃﻋﻴـﺩﺕ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ. ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ )901( ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ، ﻭﻗـﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍﺀﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺤـﺫﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻐﻭﻴﺎ ﺒﺤﻴـﺙ ﺃﺼـﺒﺢ ﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ )98( ﻓﻘﺭﺓ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )07%( ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ..‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ:‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺒﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒﺎﺥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ، ﻭﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭﻟﻴﻥ )8(، ﻭ) 9(‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )8(: ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒﺎﺥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫48.0‬ ‫88.0‬ ‫68.0‬ ‫98.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ )98.0( ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻔﻲ ﺒﺈﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )8( ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤـﺕ ﺒـﻴﻥ )48.0-88.0(‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )9(: ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻜﺭﻭﻨﺒﺎﺥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫38.0‬ ‫68.0‬ ‫78.0‬ ‫28.0‬ ‫87.0‬ ‫58.0‬ ‫88.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )9( ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤـﺕ ﺒـﻴﻥ )87.0-78.0(‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ )88.0( ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻔﻲ ﺒﺈﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺃﺩﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻜﻴﻤﻬﻤﺎ.‬ ‫2- ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻷﺩﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫3- ﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻴﺩ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ.‬ ‫4- ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ، ﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ.‬ ‫5- ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ، ﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤـﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ: ﻁﻭﻟﻜﺭﻡ, ﻭﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ, ﻭﺠﻨﻴﻥ، ﻭﻗﺒﺎﻁﻴـﺔ، ﻭﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴـﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻠﻔﻴﺕ.‬ ‫6- ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬
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‫7- ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ.‬ ‫8- ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺨﻼل ﺸﻬﺭ ﺸﺒﺎﻁ )6002(.‬ ‫9- ﺘﻡ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺘﺭﻤﻴﺯﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﺩﺨﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴـﻭﺏ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺯﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )‪.(SPSS‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ: ﻭﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ: ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ: ﻭﻴﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟـﺭﺯﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼـﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻠـﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (SPSS‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1- ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫2- ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ.‬ ‫3- ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ ) ‪.(Independent T- Test‬‬ ‫4- ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ )‪.(One way ANOVA‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﻭل‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬‫- ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫06‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﻋﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻋـﺭﺽ ﻟﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ:‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﻭل:‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻓﻘﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻜل ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل)01(، ﻭ )11(، ﻭ )21( ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫)31( ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺠﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﻜـل ﻤـﻥ ﺴـﻼﻤﺔ‬ ‫)3002(، ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻘﺒﻭل )3002(:‬ ‫08% ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫07-9.97 % ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫06-9.96% ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫05-9.95% ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 05% ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬

‫16‬

‫1- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )01(:ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫)%(‬ ‫98‬ ‫8.68‬ ‫4.96‬ ‫8.78‬ ‫77‬ ‫4.46‬ ‫8.66‬ ‫8.78‬ ‫6.27‬ ‫4.67‬ ‫4.17‬ ‫8.95‬ ‫8.77‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫54.4‬ ‫43.4‬ ‫74.3‬ ‫93.4‬ ‫58.3‬ ‫22.3‬ ‫43.3‬ ‫93.4‬ ‫36.3‬ ‫28.3‬ ‫75.3‬ ‫99.2‬ ‫98.3‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻘﻅ ﻭﺃﻨﺎ ﺠﺎﻫﺯ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻔﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨـﻭﻉ ﻓـﻲ ﺃﻨﺸـﻁﺔ ﻋﻤﻠـﻲ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ‬ ‫1‬ ‫2‬ ‫3‬ ‫4‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫8‬ ‫9‬ ‫01‬ ‫11‬ ‫21‬ ‫31‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬

‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻴﺴﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺒﻕ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﺎ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻏﺩﺍ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﻋﻤل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﻟـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ.‬ ‫ﺃﺘﺭﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕ ﺠﺎﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻀـل ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺸـﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﻤﺱ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﻡ ﺃﺴـﺘﻁﻊ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻤﻘﺩﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬
‫26‬

‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬

‫4.78‬ ‫2.74‬ ‫8.47‬

‫73.4‬ ‫63.2‬ ‫47.3‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻴﺭ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻹﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﻌﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤل ﺒﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬

‫41‬ ‫51‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )01( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )1، 2، 4، 8، 41 ( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )08%( ﻓـﺄﻜﺜﺭ،‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )5، 9، 01، 11، 31( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )4.17%-8.77%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ )3،6،7( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ: )4.96(، )4.46%(، )8.66%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ )21( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )8.95%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ )51( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )2.74%( ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ )8.47%(.‬ ‫3- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ:‬

‫36‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )11(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ )ﻥ=122(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫8.37‬ ‫2.77‬ ‫96.3‬ ‫68.3‬ ‫6.47‬ ‫4.98‬ ‫6.58‬ ‫6.77‬ ‫4.07‬ ‫6.38‬ ‫6.56‬ ‫6.28‬ ‫6.57‬ ‫2.26‬ ‫4.88‬ ‫37.3‬ ‫74.4‬ ‫82.4‬ ‫88.3‬ ‫25.3‬ ‫81.4‬ ‫82.3‬ ‫31.4‬ ‫87.3‬ ‫11.3‬ ‫24.4‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫)%(‬ ‫4.76‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫73.3‬ ‫12.4‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ‬ ‫61‬ ‫71‬ ‫81‬ ‫91‬ ‫02‬ ‫12‬ ‫22‬ ‫32‬ ‫42‬ ‫52‬ ‫62‬ ‫72‬ ‫82‬ ‫92‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻜﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺼﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻭﻟﻪ‬

‫2.48‬

‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻴﺭ ﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﻼﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺴﺅﺍل ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻀﻊ ﺨﻁﻁﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺄﻜﺩﺍ ﻤـﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺤﻘﺎ ﺃﺘﻭﻕ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﻀﺎﻴﻕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﻨﺕ ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺎ ﺒﺈﻨﺠـﺎﺯ ﻋﻤـل ﻤﻌـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻨﻲ ﻋﻤل ﺸﻲﺀ ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺸﻲﺀ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻋـﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﻭﺭﺃﻱ ﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻥ‬

‫ﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭﻱ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻜﺸﺨﺹ ﺤﺭ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺯﻋﺞ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺤﻴـﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻜﺏ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺸـﻲﺀ ﻗﻠﻴـل ﺃﻓﻌﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻥ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻟﻭ ﺘﻌﺎﺭﻀﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫46‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )11( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )71، 91، 02، 32،52، 82 ( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ )08%(‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )81، 12، 22، 62، 92( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )4.07%-6.77%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺭﺍﺕ )61، 42،‬ ‫72( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )2.26%- 4.76%(. ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠـﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼـﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )2.77%(.‬ ‫3- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )21(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )ﻥ=122(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫)%(‬ ‫6.38‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫81.4‬ ‫31.4‬ ‫86.3‬ ‫33.4‬ ‫86.2‬ ‫98.2‬ ‫81.4‬ ‫05.3‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻫﻭ ﺇﻫﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺭﻑ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻤل ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻐﻀﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻤﻨﻲ ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻟـﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ‬ ‫03‬ ‫13‬ ‫23‬ ‫33‬ ‫43‬ ‫53‬ ‫63‬ ‫73‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫6.28‬ ‫6.37‬ ‫6.68‬ ‫6.35‬ ‫8.75‬ ‫6.38‬ ‫07‬

‫56‬

‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬

‫8.97‬ ‫97‬ ‫6.87‬ ‫8.88‬ ‫4.67‬

‫99.3‬ ‫59.3‬ ‫39.3‬ ‫44.4‬ ‫28.3‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺎﻭل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺫﻴﻨﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨـﻲ ﻋﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻟﻲ‬

‫ﺸﻲﺀ ﻴﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫83‬ ‫93‬ ‫04‬ ‫14‬

‫ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻴﺅﻤﻨﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﻌﺯﺍل ﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺼﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺃﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )21( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ ﺠـﺩﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )03، 13، 33، 63، 14( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫)08%( ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )23، 73،83، 93، 04 ( ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )07%-8.97%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫)43، 53( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ )6.35%،8.75%(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ، ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )4.67%(.‬ ‫4-ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )31(: ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ)%(‬ ‫8.47‬ ‫2.77‬ ‫4.67‬ ‫2.67‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ *‬ ‫47.3‬ ‫68.3‬ ‫28.3‬ ‫18.3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫3‬ ‫1‬ ‫2‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

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‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )31( ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ،ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )2.67%(.‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ )2.77%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ )4.67%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ )8.47%(.‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ:‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻓﻘـﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻜـل ﻤﺠـﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل )41(، ﻭ )51(، ﻭ )61(، ﻭ )71 (، ﻭ )81 (، ﻭ )91( ﺘﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )02( ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:-‬ ‫08% ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫07-9.97 % ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫06-9.96% ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫05-9.95% ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 05% ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬
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‫ﺃ- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )41(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫)%(‬ ‫17‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻗـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫2‬ ‫3‬ ‫4‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫8‬ ‫9‬ ‫01‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤـل‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺹ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫)ﻥ=122(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫55.3‬ ‫15.3‬ ‫64.3‬ ‫25.3‬ ‫36.3‬ ‫30.4‬ ‫10.2‬ ‫89.2‬ ‫44.2‬ ‫44.3‬ ‫62.3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ‬ ‫1‬

‫2.07‬ ‫2.96‬ ‫4.07‬ ‫6.27‬ ‫6.08‬ ‫2.04‬ ‫6.95‬ ‫8.84‬ ‫8.86‬ ‫2.56‬

‫ﺍﻁﻼﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﺭﺃﻴﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺠـﺩﺩ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺢ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺘﻔﻭﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﻗﺒـل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﻋﻨﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )41( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﹲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ )6( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )6.08%( ، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )1، 2، 4، 5(، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫)2.07%-6.27%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺘﻴﻥ )3، 01(، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ: )2.96%(، )8.86%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺭﺓ )8( ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫86‬

‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )6.95%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺘﻴﻥ )7، 9( ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ )05%(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼـﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )2.56%(.‬ ‫2- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )51(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫62.4‬ ‫60.4‬ ‫55.4‬ ‫54.4‬ ‫14.4‬ ‫15.4‬ ‫52.4‬ ‫53.4‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫19‬ ‫98‬ ‫1.88‬ ‫2.09‬ ‫58‬ ‫78‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘـﺭﺍﻡ ﺒﻴﻨـﻲ ﻭﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫11‬ ‫21‬ ‫31‬ ‫41‬ ‫51‬ ‫61‬ ‫71‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )%(‬ ‫2.58‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫2.18‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )51( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠـﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ )08%(.‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬
‫96‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫)78%(.‬ ‫3-ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )61(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫)%(‬ ‫05‬ ‫2.88‬ ‫2.55‬ ‫8.87‬ ‫2.18‬ ‫4.67‬ ‫4.97‬ ‫4.18‬ ‫8.18‬ ‫8.18‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫05.2‬ ‫14.4‬ ‫67.2‬ ‫49.3‬ ‫60.4‬ ‫28.3‬ ‫79.3‬ ‫70.4‬ ‫90.4‬ ‫90.4‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﺄﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ـﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴـ‬ ‫ـﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻬـ‬ ‫ﻭﻀـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻁﺔ ﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼـﺔ ﻻﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻗﺎﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫81‬ ‫91‬ ‫02‬ ‫12‬ ‫22‬ ‫32‬ ‫42‬ ‫52‬ ‫62‬ ‫72‬

‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺄﻨﻲ ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺤﻘﻕ ﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺒـﺩﺍﻉ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫4.57‬

‫77.3‬

‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )61( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠـﺩﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫07‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ )91، 22، 52، 62، 72( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫)08%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )12، 32، 42(ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )4.67%-4.97%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺘﻴﻥ )81، 02( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ: )05%(، )2.55%(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )4.57%(.‬ ‫4- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )71(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )%(‬ ‫8.38‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫2.58‬ ‫57‬ ‫6.87‬ ‫87‬ ‫6.26‬ ‫6.47‬ ‫8.67‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫91.4‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻴﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫62.4‬ ‫57.3‬ ‫39.3‬ ‫09.3‬ ‫31.3‬ ‫37.3‬ ‫48.3‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺨﺒـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻁﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺸـﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻲ ﻨﻤـﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﻨﻴـﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓـﻕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫82‬ ‫92‬ ‫03‬ ‫13‬ ‫23‬ ‫33‬ ‫43‬

‫17‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )71( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ، ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ ﺠـﺩﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺘﻴﻥ )82، 92( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤـﻥ )08%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ )03، 13، 23، 43( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )6.47%-6.87%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ )33( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )6.26%(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼـﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )8.67%(.‬ ‫5- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )81(:ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫)ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )%(‬ ‫8.76‬ ‫6.55‬ ‫4.75‬ ‫6.06‬ ‫4.26‬ ‫4.26‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫93.3‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻔﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫87.2‬ ‫78.2‬ ‫30.3‬ ‫21.3‬ ‫21.3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸ ـﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺩﺍﻟ ـﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﻀ ـﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻨﻅ ـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺯﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫27‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠـﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬

‫53‬ ‫63‬ ‫73‬ ‫83‬ ‫93‬ ‫04‬

‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬

‫8.75‬

‫98.2‬

‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻟﻔﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﺼـﻭل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﻜﺘﺏ ﺸـﻜﺭ، ﺸـﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ،...، ﺍﻟﺦ (‬ ‫14‬

‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬

‫6.06‬

‫30.3‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )81( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ)53، 83، 93، 04( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ )6.06%-‬ ‫8.76%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ )63، 73، 14( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )6.55%-8.75%(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼـﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )6.06%(.‬

‫37‬

‫5- ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )91(ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )%(‬ ‫2.45‬ ‫65‬ ‫6.73‬ ‫6.44‬ ‫2.35‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ*‬ ‫17.2‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺫﻟﻪ‬ ‫08.2‬ ‫88.1‬ ‫32.2‬ ‫66.2‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ.‬ ‫ﺘـﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘـﻲ ﻓﺭﺼـﺎ ﻟﺘـﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓل، ﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺒﻨـﺎﺀ،‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ (‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫24‬ ‫8.54‬ ‫6.74‬ ‫01.2‬ ‫92.2‬ ‫83.2‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﺤﻴـﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫74‬ ‫84‬ ‫ﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺨـﻼل )ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋـﺩ،‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ ـ‬ ‫ـ‬

‫24‬ ‫34‬ ‫44‬ ‫54‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺭﺍﺕ )24،‬ ‫34، 64( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )2.35%-65%(، ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ )44، 54، 74، 84( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻗـل ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫)05%(.‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫)6.74%(.‬
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‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )91( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬

‫7-ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭل )02( ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﻥ=122(‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ)%(‬ ‫2.56‬ ‫78‬ ‫4.57‬ ‫8.67‬ ‫6.06‬ ‫6.74‬ ‫8.86‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫4‬ ‫1‬ ‫3‬ ‫2‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ *‬ ‫62.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫53.4‬ ‫77.3‬ ‫48.3‬ ‫30.3‬ ‫83.2‬ ‫44.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴـ‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤـ‬ ‫ﻤﺠـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫• ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )5( ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )02( ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )8.86%(.‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ )78%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ )8.67%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل )4.57%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ )2.56%(.‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ)6.06%(.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ )6.74%(.‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﻪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )12( ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل)12( ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫)ﺭ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫5000.0*‬ ‫73.0‬ ‫13.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫44.3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫52.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫18.3‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )12( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﺭﺴﻭﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ )73.0( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪.(0.0005=α‬‬

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‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭل )22( ﺘﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )22(:ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫72.0‬
‫)ﺕ(‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫27.3‬ ‫09.3‬ ‫88.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫03.0‬ ‫33.0‬ ‫04.0‬ ‫52.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫67.3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫01.1‬ ‫03.0‬ ‫03.0‬ ‫73.0‬ ‫42.0‬

‫57.1 80.0‬ ‫49.1 60.0‬ ‫53.1 71.0‬

‫ـﺯﺍﻡ 38.3‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘــ‬ ‫ﻤﺠــ‬ ‫77.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ 97.3‬

‫• )ﺕ( ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ) 69.1(.‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )22( ﺍﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ.‬

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‫ﺨﺎﻤﺴﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )32( ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )42 ( ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )32(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ+ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﺄﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫08.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫58.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫17.3‬ ‫48.3‬ ‫76.3‬ ‫47.3‬ ‫27.3‬ ‫78.3‬ ‫28.3‬ ‫08.3‬ ‫ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ 68.3‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﻁﺭﺓ 78.3‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺔ 38.3‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤـﺩﻱ 77.3‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )42(: ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ *‬ ‫)ﻑ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫950.0‬ ‫390.0‬ ‫59.0‬ ‫01.0‬ ‫010.0‬ ‫01.0‬ ‫12.0‬ ‫05.1‬ ‫32.0‬ ‫51.0‬ ‫84.0‬ ‫18.0‬ ‫250.0‬ ‫460.0‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫95.0‬

‫26.0‬

‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫71.0‬ ‫73.02‬ ‫55.02‬ ‫230.0‬ ‫77.22‬ ‫08.22‬ ‫96.0‬ ‫53.33‬ ‫50.43‬ ‫51.0‬ ‫09.31‬ ‫50.41‬

‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬ ‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬ ‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬ ‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬

‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ـﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤـ‬ ‫ﻤﺠـ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ـﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘـ‬ ‫ﻤﺠـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ﻤﺠـﺎل ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ـﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠـ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬

‫*ﺩﺍل ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪.(0.05= α‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )42( ﺍﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺩﺴﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )52 ( ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )62 ( ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ.‬
‫97‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )52(: ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫11-51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫5-01 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 5‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫17.3‬ ‫09.3‬ ‫48.3‬ ‫18.3‬

‫08.3‬ ‫87.3‬ ‫77.3‬ ‫87.3‬

‫27.3‬ ‫18.3‬ ‫97.3‬ ‫77.3‬

‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ 87.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠـ ـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘـ ـﺯﺍﻡ 39.3‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠــﺎل ﺍﻟﺴــﻴﻁﺭﺓ 88.3‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ 68.3‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )62(: ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ *‬ ‫)ﻑ(‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫560.0‬ ‫390.0‬

‫55.0‬

‫96.0‬

‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫91.0‬ ‫53.02‬ ‫55.02‬ ‫56.0‬ ‫51.22‬ ‫08.22‬ ‫92.0‬ ‫67.31‬ ‫50.41‬ ‫88.0‬ ‫86.06‬ ‫65.16‬

‫ﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ‬

‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬ ‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬ ‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬ ‫3‬ ‫712‬ ‫022‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤــﺩﻱ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ﻤﺠــ‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫90.0‬

‫31.2‬

‫12.0‬ ‫01.0‬

‫ﻤﺠــ‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘــﺯﺍﻡ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺠــ‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـ‬ ‫ـﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠــﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫64.0‬

‫45.1‬

‫790.0‬ ‫360.0‬

‫73.0‬

‫50.1‬

‫92.0‬ ‫82.0‬

‫ـﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴــ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬

‫08‬

‫*ﺩﺍل ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪.(0.05= α‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )62( ﺍﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻌﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭل )72( ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )82( ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )72(:ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫0053‬ ‫ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫87.3‬ ‫88.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫1003-‬ ‫0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫86.3‬ ‫ـل ـﻥ 0052 0052-0003‬ ‫ﺍﻗـ ﻤـ‬ ‫ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫37.3‬ ‫78.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫18.3‬ ‫ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﻤﺠ ـﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤ ـﺩﻱ 18.3‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫08.3‬ ‫77.3‬ ‫57.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠ ـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘ ـﺯﺍﻡ 4‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﻁﺭﺓ 89.3‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ـﺔ 39.3‬ ‫ـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠـ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫18‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )82(: ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ *‬ ‫42.0‬ ‫) ﻑ(‬ ‫83.1‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫21.0‬ ‫290.0‬ ‫91.0‬ ‫06.1‬ ‫61.0‬ ‫01.0‬ ‫93.0‬ ‫00.1‬ ‫51.0‬ ‫51.0‬ ‫90.0‬ ‫51.2‬ ‫31.0‬ ‫260.0‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫83.0‬ ‫61.02‬ ‫55.02‬ ‫94.0‬ ‫13.22‬ ‫08.22‬ ‫64.0‬ ‫95.33‬ ‫50.43‬ ‫04.0‬ ‫56.31‬ ‫50.41‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫3‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ 712‬ ‫022‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫3‬

‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ 712‬ ‫022‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫3‬

‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴـــﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ 712‬ ‫022‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬

‫ـﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠــــ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ 712‬ ‫ـ ـ‬ ‫022‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬
‫*ﺩﺍل ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪.(0.05= α‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )82( ﺍﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸـﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ.‬

‫28‬

‫ﺜﺎﻤﻨﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )92( ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )92(:ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫04.0‬ ‫49.0‬ ‫58.0‬ ‫86.0‬ ‫)ﺕ(‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫67.3‬ ‫03.0‬ ‫33.0‬ ‫23.0‬ ‫22.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫81.0‬ ‫04.0‬ ‫24.0‬ ‫62.0‬ ‫28.3‬ ‫08.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬
‫• )ﺕ( ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )69.1(.‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫8.0‬ ‫03.0‬ ‫37.3‬ ‫70.0‬ ‫13.0‬ ‫68.3‬

‫ـﺯﺍﻡ 68.3‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘــ‬ ‫ﻤﺠــ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ 28.3‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )92( ﺍﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ )‪=α‬‬ ‫50.0( ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬

‫38‬

‫ﺘﺎﺴﻌﺎ: ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭل )03( ﺘﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )03(: ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫)ﺕ(‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫01.0‬ ‫84.0‬ ‫17.0‬ ‫52.0‬

‫36.1‬ ‫07.0‬ ‫73.0‬ ‫41.1‬

‫82.0‬ ‫23.0‬ ‫63.0‬ ‫63.0‬

‫77.3‬ ‫88.3‬ ‫38.3‬ ‫38.3‬

‫33.0‬ ‫23.0‬ ‫24.0‬ ‫72.0‬

‫07.3‬

‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬

‫ـﺯﺍﻡ 48.3‬ ‫ـﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘــ‬ ‫ﻤﺠــ‬ ‫18.3‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬
‫• )ﺕ( ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ) 69.1(.‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ 97.3‬

‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )03( ﺍﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ )‪=α‬‬ ‫50.0( ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬

‫48‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﻭل‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬‫- ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ:‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﺭﻀﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﻨﻔﺴـﻬﻡ،‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻫﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫـل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ: ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﺼﻪ:‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل )01(، ﻭ )11(، ﻭ )21( ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ، ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ، ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ(، ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭل )31( ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ:-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )2.77%(‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )4.67%( ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )8.47%( ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ )2.67%(.‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﺘﻔﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002 ,‪ (Qadumi‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ، ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺒﻠﻐـﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )47%( ﻭﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ )8.67%(، ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺘﺘﻔـﻕ ﻤـﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺘﻭﻤﺴـﻭﻥ‬ ‫)5991,‪ (Thomson‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋـﺎل ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻫﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﻲ، ﻓﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ، ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻡ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻤﻘﺎﺒﻼﺕ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ، ﻭﺘﻌﻘـﺩ ﻟﻬـﻡ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻗﺒـل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﻜﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺠﺩﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻨﺠﺎﺤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ ﻁﻭﺍل ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻬﺫﻩ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﺭﺒﻴﺘﻬﻡ.‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﺯﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻭﻴﻤﻴﻠﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺸﻐﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺒﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻻﻨـﺩﻤﺎﺝ‬
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‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ، ﻭﻫﻡ ﻴﻤﻠﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺩﻤﺞ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﺍﻗﻬﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﺎﺭﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻲ ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ، ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺨﻬﺎ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺴﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺼﻭل ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )8.47%(، ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠـﺎﻻﺕ. ﺇﻥ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻴﺘﺼل ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻭﻴﺸﻜل ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ، ﻭﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺇﺒﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺘﻔﻭﻕ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺃﻓﻀل، ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ ﻓـﻲ ﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻜﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﻠﻘـﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ،‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ ﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ، ﻓﻬﻭ ﻤﻠﺘﺯﻡ ﺒﺎﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻴﻠﺘﺯﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺨﻭﻓﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺒـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـل ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻌﻪ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻌﻪ.‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻔﻭﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎ، ﻟﻪ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻤﺤـﺩﺩﺓ، ﻭﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ، ﻷﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﻔﻀل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴـﺭ، ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻴﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭﻫﺭ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ، ﻭﺒﺎﻹﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ، ﻭﺒﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺼل، ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﻠـﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ، ﻭﻤﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ.‬

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‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﺼﻪ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﺍﻭل )41(، ﻭ )51(، ﻭ )61(، ﻭ )71(، ﻭ )81(، ﻭ )91(، ﻭ‬ ‫)02( ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )78%(‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼـﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫)8.67%( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫)4.57%( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ )2.56%( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫)6.06%( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )6.74%( ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ. ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫)6.86%(. ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻴﺎﺴﻴﻥ )0991( ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻫﻡ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻀﻭﻥ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋـﻥ‬
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‫ﻤﻬﻨﺘﻬﻡ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ، ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻴﻡ )9991( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺩﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ )2991( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻫﻭﺩ )4991( ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻨﻅﺎﺭ ﻭﻨﺎﻅﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ. ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﻤﺴـﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫)9991( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎ ﻋﺎﻤﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤﻭﻙ، ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻘﺒﻭل )3002( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌـﺩل ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺸﺩﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺩﺍﺕ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﻠﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺴـﺒﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﻭﺜﻤﺔ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ.‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ، ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻟـﻭﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﻜﺜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻁﺔ ﺒﻪ، ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻤﺸﺭﻑ ﻤﻘـﻴﻡ، ﻭﻤﺘـﺎﺒﻊ ﻟﻠﻁـﻼﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤـﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻓـﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ....ﺍﻟﺦ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺜﻘل ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻫل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻬـﻲ ﻜﺜﻴـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ، ﻓﻬﻲ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻜﻴﺎﻨﻪ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ ﺘﺘـﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻭﻴﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺸﺅﻭﻥ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺌﻬﻡ ﻭﻤﺸﺎﻜﻠﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )02( ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﻜـﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴـﺔ، ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻨﺢ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﻠﺘﺯﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺨـﺫ ﺭﺃﻴـﻪ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻪ. ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻻ ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺒﺭﺃﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﺩ، ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻜﺜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺴﻡ ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﺤﻲ ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘـﻴﺵ ﺍﻟﻘـﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻨﺩﻤﺎﺠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻭﻴﻭﻟـﺩ ﻟﺩﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠـﺩﺍ. ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻔﻀﻴل ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓـﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻭﺍﺌﺯ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﻟـﻭﻟﻴﺭ‬ ‫)‪ (Lawler‬ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺭﻀﺎ.‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻴﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻴﺸﻌﺭﻩ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻴﻠﺒﻲ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺌﻪ ﻭﺃﺴﺭﺘﻪ، ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ، ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﺎ ﻭﺍﻨﺩﻤﺎﺠﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻭﺤﺼﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠـﺎل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﻭﻏﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻪ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻜﻥ ﻭﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺌـﻪ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻀﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻻ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻓﻼ ﻨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺜل ﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺒﺩﺍﻉ، ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬

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‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )12( ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ. ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ، ﺘﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺸﺨﺹ ﺃﺨﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ، ﻭﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻴﻜﺭﺕ ﻭﺘـﺎﻴﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻭﺯﺯ )‪(Likert and Taylor and Weiss‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻤـﻊ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ )3002( ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼـﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ، ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻬﻨـﻲ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ. ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻭﺠﺩﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ.‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ )2991( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺩﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ، ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻬﻡ. ﻭﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ )8991( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ، ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜﻭﻟﻤﺭ )0991 ,‪ (Collmer‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﻡ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ، ﻭﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﻭﻨﺞ )1991,‪ (Song‬ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺤﺘـﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒـﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ،‬
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‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ. ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻪ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﻭﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺴـﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻤـﺎ ﻴـﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ )ﺕ( ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭل‬ ‫)22( ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ ﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴـﻭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )69.1(، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﺯﻯ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ، ﻜـﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬـﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺌﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ، ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺜﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅـﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002 ,‪ (Qadumi‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤـﺙ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻱ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﻟـﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ.‬
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‫ﻭﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )2991 ,‪ (Collins‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺒﺘﻌـﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ.‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ )‪(One Way-ANOVA‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )42( ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )6.2( ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002 ,‪ (Qadumi‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ. ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻨﺠل )7991,‪ .(Angel‬ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺴﺒﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤـﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻬﻭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺃﺴﺱ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ.‬

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‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻱ )‪(One Way-ANOVA‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )62( ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﺼـﻐﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )6.2( ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟـﺔ )‪=α‬‬ ‫50.0( ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002 ,‪ ،(Qadumi‬ﻭﻤـﻊ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻭﺍﺭﺩ )6991 ,‪ (Howard‬ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﻴﺎﻥ )7891 ,‪ ،(Fimian‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻤـﻊ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻟﺒﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﻓﻴﺸﺭ )8891 ,‪.(Calebrese & Fisher‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﺘﻘل ﺨﺒﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ، ﻓﻬﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺒﻭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺃﻜﺴـﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ، ﻓﺘـﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬

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‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤـﺙ ﺘﺤﻠﻴـل ﺍﻟﺘﺒـﺎﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤـﺎﺩﻱ ) -‪One Way‬‬ ‫‪ (ANOVA‬ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )82( ﺃﻥ ﻗـﻴﻡ ﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴـﻭﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )6.2( ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ. ﻭﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻭﻤﻲ )1002 ,‪.(Qadumi‬‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟـﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﺭﺍﺘﺒﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ ﻤﺘﻘـﺎﺭﺏ ﻨﺴـﺒﻴﹰ، ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻴﻌﻴﺸﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻤﺘﺸـﺎﺒﻬﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﻅـﺭﻭﻓﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺄﻜل ﻭﻤﺸﺭﺏ ﻭﻤﺴﻜﻥ ﻭﻤﻠﺒﺱ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ.‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( )‪ (T- test‬ﻟﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴـﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ،‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )92( ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )69.1( ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺴﺒﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ، ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺭﺴـﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺒـﻊ ﻟـﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ، ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎ، ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺭﻯ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ ﺴـﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺎ، ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻨﺴـﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ، ﻭﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﹰ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺴـﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺼﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌـﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ )ﺕ( )‪ (T- test‬ﻟﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺴـﺘﻘﻠﺘﻴﻥ،‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل )03( ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )69.1( ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ )‪ (0.05 =α‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺯﻯ ﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ، ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴـﺔ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ، ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﹰ، ﻭﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﺨﻀـﻌﻭﻥ ﻟـﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ، ﻭﻴﻁﺒﻘﻭﻥ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺴﻬﻡ، ﻭﻫﻡ ﻴﻌﻴﺸﻭﻥ ﺠﻨﺒـﺎ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
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‫ﺠﻨﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ. ﻓﻤـﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻨﻘل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ، ﻭﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻪ، ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﻁﺒـﻕ ﻓـﻲ ﻨﻔـﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ.‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ:‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻴﻭﺼﻲ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:‬ ‫1- ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻔـﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫2- ﻭﻀﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻟﻠﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻴﻠﺒﻲ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ.‬ ‫3- ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﻭﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺈﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺴﻜﺭﺘﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻡ.‬ ‫4- ﻭﻀﻊ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻟﻸﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺘﺏ ﻴﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴـﺔ ﻴﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ.‬ ‫5- ﻋﻘﺩ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻬﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻩ ﻤﺜل ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ، ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ، ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺘﺼـﺎل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺼـل ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ.‬ ‫6- ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻷﻓﻀل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻀـﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ.‬ ‫7- ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ، ﺨﺎﺼـﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺨﻁﺔ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ، ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﺩ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻭﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻑ.‬ ‫8- ﻤﻨﺢ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ.‬
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‫9- ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫01- ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﻏﺯﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻴﻥ.‬ ‫11- ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺌﺩ ﻟـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫21- ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ.‬

‫001‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫101‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ:‬
‫ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ، ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﺩ ﺼﻔﻭﺕ. )8991(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤـﻴﻥ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘـﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ، ﻤـﺞ )8(، ﻉ )4،3(‬ ‫ﺹ.ﺹ: 573-814، ﻤﺼﺭ.‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻭ ﻓﺭﻭﺓ، ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ. )6991(. ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ، ﻁﺭﺍﺒﻠﺱ، ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ.‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻌﺩ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺭﺴﻼﻥ، ﻨﺒﻴل. )2891(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ، ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ، ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺁل ﻨﺎﺠﻲ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ. )3991(. ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻴﺭﺯﺒﻴﺭﻍ ﻟﻘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ ﺍﻷﺤﺴـﺎﺀ، ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ، ﻤـﺞ )93(، ﻉ )08(،‬ ‫ﺹ.ﺹ:7-25، ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺒﻼل، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺇﺴﻤﺎﻋﻴل. )5002(. ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴـﻕ، ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ، ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺘﻴﻡ، ﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ. )9991(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺎﺏ، ﻋﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻴﺩ. )8891(. ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل: ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﺭﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﺴـﻌﻭﺩ، ﻤـﺞ )31(، ﻉ )1(، ﺹ:‬ ‫23-83.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺠﺎ، ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ. )4002(. ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴـﺔ، ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺭﺒﺎﺒﻌﺔ، ﻋﻠﻲ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ. )3002(. ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ، ﺩﺍﺭ ﺼﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻡ، ﺴﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ. )7991(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﺴﻌﻭﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ، ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺴﻼﻤﺔ، ﺍﻨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ. )3002(. ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨـﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ، )ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ(، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ، ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻋﺔ، ﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻜﺭ، ﺠﻤﺎل. )0002(. ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺒﺩﻭﻟـﺔ ﻗﻁـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴـﺔ، ﻤـﺞ )41(، ﻉ )65(،‬ ‫ﺹ.ﺹ: 551-481.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻉ، ﺨﻠﻴل ﻭﺤﻤﻭﺩ، ﻭﺨﻀﻴﺭ. )0002(. ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ، ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺸـﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺭﻓﻲ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ.)5002(. ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ، ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺤـﻭﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸـﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴـﻊ،‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﻠﻲ، ﻨﺎﺼﺭ. )1891(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ، ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ، ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ، ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻋﻁﻭﻱ، ﺠﻭﺩﺕ ﻋﺯﺕ. )1002(. ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ: ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻁﻴﺔ، ﻤﺎﺠﺩﺓ. )3002(. ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ )ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋـﺔ(، ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸـﺭﻭﻕ ﻟﻠﻨﺸـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺭﺒﺎﻭﻱ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ. )4991(. ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴـﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ، )ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴـﺘﻴﺭ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ(، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻓﺅﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ. )0002(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ، ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ، ﻉ )38(، ﺹ.ﺹ:15-09، ﻤﺴﻘﻁ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻴﺭﺓ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ. )9991(. ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴـﻴﺔ، ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺸـﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ، ﺨﺎﻟﺩ. )2991(. ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ )ﺴﻠﺴـﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ(، ﻤﺞ )7(، ﻉ)2(، ﺹ.ﺹ: 11-63 ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤﻠﺔ، ﻋﻤﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﻅ. )0991(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، )ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ(، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺩﺍﻭﻱ، ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ. )3002(. ﺩﻭﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ "ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ" ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ ﻤﺅﺘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ )ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ(، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﺔ، ﻤـﺞ )81(،‬ ‫ﻉ )4(، ﺹ.ﺹ:14-88، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﻭﺘﻲ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻗﺎﺴﻡ. )3991(. ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤـﻲ: ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺴﺒﺔ، ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻤﺩﺓ، ﻨﻀﺎل ﺼﺎﻟﺢ. )0002(. ﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﺔ، ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ ﻤﺅﺘـﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ )ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ(، ﻤـﺞ )51(، ﻉ )6(، ﺹ.ﺹ:‬ ‫141-591، ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻫﺭ، ﺃﺤﻤﺩ. )0002(. ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ ﻤﺩﺨل ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ، ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ، ﻤﺼﺭ.‬

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‫ﻤﺘﻭﻟﻲ، ﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺯﻴﺩ. )7991(. ﺍﺯﺩﺍﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ، ﻤﺠﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ، ﻉ‬ ‫)33(، ﺹ.ﺹ: 25-85 ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭﺓ، ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭﺓ، ﻤﺼﺭ.‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ،ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﺩ. )9991(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻤـﻭﻙ،‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻉ)61(، ﺹ.ﺹ:331- 651 ﻗﻁﺭ.‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ، ﻴﻭﺴﻑ. )3991(. ﻤﺩﻯ ﺭﻀﺎ ﻁﻼﺏ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ، ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ، ﻤـﺞ )8(، ﻉ )65(، ﺹ.ﺹ 591-932 ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺭﺓ،‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ.‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭل، ﺭﻨﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺼﻑ. )3002(. ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺭﺸـﺩﻱ ﻭﻤﺭﺸـﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﺭﺴـﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴـﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ، ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ، ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﺤﺎﺕ، ﺸﺤﺎﺩﺓ ﺴﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻭﺍﺩ. )3991(. ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ، ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ،‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻭﻱ، ﺴﻨﺎﻥ. )4002(. ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ، ﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﺠـﺩﻻﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻫﻭﺩ، ﺩﻻل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ. )4991(. ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻨﻅـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺎﻅﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ، ﻉ )62(، ﺹ.ﺹ:‬ ‫583-514.‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺴﻴﻥ، ﻓﺎﻁﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ. )0991(. ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ،‬ ‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ، ﻋﻤﺎﻥ، ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ.‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬

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‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )1( ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ – ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ – ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ – ﻁﻭﻟﻜﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻡ ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻱ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺸﺤﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺒﺩﻩ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺯﻫﺩ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺠﻴﺩ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺤﺴﻥ ﺘﻴﻡ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﺫﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﻌﺯﻭﺯ ﻋﻼﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺯﻴﺎﺩ ﺒﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﻋﻤﺭ ﻨﺠﻴﺏ‬ ‫♦ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‬

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‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )2( ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ / ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺤﻀﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻀل..................... ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﻭل " ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟـﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟـﺩﻯ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒـﺎﺕ ﻨﻴـل ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﻭﺭﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺒﺭﻜﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ،‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ / ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ، ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻥ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل: ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫6-‬ ‫7-‬ ‫8-‬ ‫ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫5-‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ، ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻌﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﻌﺔ ﻁﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺜﻘﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠـﻴﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺼﺩﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ،‬ ‫ﻟﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺠﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻀﺭﺍﺘﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﻡ ﺒﺈﺒﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺃﻴﻜﻡ ﺒﻜل ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﻌـﺩﻴل ﺃﻱ ﻓﻘـﺭﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺒـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ: ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺴﻤﻴﺢ ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﻁ‬
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‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺴﺘﺴﺘﻐل ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ.‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ: ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ) ‪ ( X‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ:‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺜﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫1- ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ:‬ ‫2- ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ:‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﺄﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ + ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻋﺎل‬ ‫ﹴ‬ ‫3- ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻤﻥ 5 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ – 01 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ 5 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 01 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ -51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫4- ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ:‬ ‫03 – ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ 04 ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 05 ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 03 ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫04- ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ 05 ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫5- ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ:‬ ‫0052- 0003 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 0052 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫1003 - 0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫6- ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ:‬ ‫7- ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫8- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ:.........‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ) ‪ ( x‬ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ:‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‪Challenge‬‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘــــ ﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻘﻅ ﻭﺃﻨﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﺩ ﺒﺘﻠﻬﻑ ﺒﺎﻻﺴـﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻔﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ.‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻴﺴﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻲ.‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺒﻕ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﺠﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺄﻨﻨﻲ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤـﺎ ﺴـﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺠﺒﺭﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻤـل‬

‫1‬ ‫2‬ ‫3‬ ‫4‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫8‬ ‫9‬ ‫01‬ ‫11‬ ‫21‬ ‫31‬ ‫41‬

‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻏﺩﺍ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ.‬

‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬

‫ﻟﻥ ﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕ ﺠﺎﺩﺍ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻋﻤل ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺸـﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺱ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﺯﻭﺝ ﻭﺘﻨﺠﺏ ﺃﻁﻔـﺎﻻ ﺘﻔﻘـﺩ ﺤﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ.‬

‫ﺭﻏﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻓﺄﻨﻨﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻊ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻤﻘﺩﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬

‫611‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒـﺕ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻹﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﻌﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤل ﺒﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺃﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺎﺵ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫71‬ ‫81‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻜﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺼﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻭﻟﻪ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻻ ﻴﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺒﺫل ﺠﻬﺩﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺠﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺤـﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻴﺭ ﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﻼﻤﻲ ﻭﺨﻴﺎﻻﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺴﺅﺍل ﺇﻻ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜـﺩ ﻤﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻥ ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻴﺴﺄل ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‬

‫91‬ ‫02‬ ‫12‬ ‫22‬ ‫32‬ ‫42‬ ‫52‬ ‫62‬ ‫72‬ ‫82‬ ‫92‬ ‫03‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻀﻊ ﺨﻁﻁﺎ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺄﻜﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺤﻘﺎ ﺃﺘﻭﻕ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺯﻋﺞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﻨﺕ ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺎ ﺒﺈﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻤـل ﻤﻌـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻨﻲ ﻋﻤل ﺸﻲﺀ ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻋﺭﻑ‬

‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﻤﺘﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﺭﻑ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻤﻀﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻭﺭﺃﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭﻱ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻜﺸﺨﺹ ﺤﺭ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺯﻋﺞ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺤﻴـﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻜﺏ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻗﻠﻴـل ﺃﻓﻌﻠـﻪ‬

‫ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬

‫711‬

‫ﺍﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻬـﺩ ﻭﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻥ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻭﺠﻬﻨﻲ ﻭﺘﺭﺸﺩﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ‪Control‬‬

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‫ﺃﺤﺩ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻫﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬

‫33‬ ‫43‬ ‫53‬ ‫63‬ ‫73‬ ‫83‬ ‫93‬ ‫04‬ ‫14‬ ‫24‬

‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺤﺏ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤـل ﻭﺠـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻻ ﻴﺤﻭﻱ ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺭﻑ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻻ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻤل ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻐﻀﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻤﻨﻲ ﻟﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺯﻋﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒـﻪ ﻤﻔﻴـﺩ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺎﻭل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺫﻴﻨﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻲ‬

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‫ﺸﻲﺀ ﻴﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻴﺅﻤﻨﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﻌﺯﺍل ﻟﺠـﺫﺏ‬

‫ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺒﺭﺭ ﻟﺘﺄﻨﻴﺏ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺼل ﺘﻘﺼﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﺍ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻌﺘﻨـﻲ ﺒـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﻜﺒﺭ‬
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‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ) ‪ ( x‬ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻼﻗﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺴﻡ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤـل ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻀـﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺭﺹ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻁﻼﻋـﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻸﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺒﺭﺃﻴﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻨﺤﻨﻲ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺘﻔﻭﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻨﻲ ﻴﻘ ّﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻭﺩ ﺠﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺒﻴﻨﻲ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺴﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺭﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫21-‬ ‫31-‬ ‫41-‬ ‫51-‬ ‫61-‬ ‫71-‬ ‫81-‬

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‫ﻭﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺘﻘﻠﻘﻨﻲ ﻜﺜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﺄﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﺸﻜل ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻁﺔ ﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻭﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻀﺎﻴﻘﻨﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﻀﺎﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻁﺎﻗﺎﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺄﻨﻲ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺤﻘﻕ ﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻴﻔﻴﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠـﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻌﻠـﻡ‬

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‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻜﺘﺴـﺎﺏ ﺨﺒـﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻁﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺸﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻲ ﻨﻤﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﻨﻴﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓـﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫021‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻀـﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻼﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺯﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﻬ ٌ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)ﻜﺘﺏ ﺸﻜﺭ، ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ،...، ﺃﻟﺦ (‬ ‫34-‬ ‫44-‬ ‫54-‬ ‫24-‬ ‫93-‬ ‫04-‬ ‫14-‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ: ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺒﺫﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻀﻁﺭ ﻟﻤﺯﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻤل ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻲ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻴﺭﻀﻲ ﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل )ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ،‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓل، ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺒﻨﺎﺀ، ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ (‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ: ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺄﺴـﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﻡ‬ ‫65-‬ ‫75-‬ ‫55-‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫35-‬ ‫45-‬ ‫64-‬ ‫74-‬ ‫84-‬ ‫94-‬ ‫05-‬ ‫15-‬ ‫25-‬

‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫121‬

‫85- ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺇﺭﺸـﺎﺩﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ ﺒﺤـل‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫95- ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺄﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ‬ ‫06- ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫16- ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫26- ﻴﺴﺘﺠﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ ﺒﺄﺴـﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫221‬

‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )3( ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺴﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻴﻡ‬

‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ / ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ/ ﺃﺨﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ،،،‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﻭﺭﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺒﺭﻜﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ،‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﻭل " ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﻴل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺠﺴـﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ / ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ، ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ ﻫـﺩﻑ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻥ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل: ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺠﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻀﺭﺍﺘﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺭﻡ ﺒﺎﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ، ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺴﺘﺴـﺘﻐل ﻷﻏـﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ.‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﺯﻴل ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻜﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺴﻤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﻁ‬

‫321‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ: ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ) ‪ ( X‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ:‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺜﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﺄﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ 5 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ – 01 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫1- ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ:‬ ‫2- ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ:‬ ‫ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ + ﺩﺒﻠﻭﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫3- ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ01ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ- 51 ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 0052 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫1003- 0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫7- ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫8- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ:.........‬ ‫8-‬ ‫ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ 5 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﻱ:‬ ‫0052- 0003 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 0053 ﺸﻴﻘل‬ ‫7-‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ) ‪ ( x‬ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ:‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ‪Challenge‬‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻘﻅ ﻭﺃﻨـﺎ ﺠـﺎﻫﺯ ﻟﻼﺴـﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻴﺴﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺒﻕ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﺎ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻏﺩﺍ‬ ‫3‬ ‫4‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫8‬ ‫9‬ ‫01‬ ‫11‬ ‫1‬ ‫2‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻭﻗﻔﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘــــﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ.‬

‫ﻋﻤل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﺭﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻟﻭ‬

‫ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻲ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ.‬ ‫ﻜﻨﺕ ﺠﺎﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل.‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬

‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻬﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻤﺱ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺘﺭﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫21‬

‫ﺭﻏﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﻡ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻊ‬

‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬

‫521‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻤﻘﺩﺭ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ـﺭ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜـ‬ ‫ـﺨﺹ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻴﺭ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬

‫31‬ ‫41‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬

‫ﻹﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﻌﻘﻭل‬ ‫51‬

‫ﺍﻋﻤل ﺒﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ‪Commitment‬‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘــــﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺃﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺎﺵ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻜﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺼـﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﻻ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺤـﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‬

‫61‬

‫71‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻴﺭ ﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﻼﻤﻲ‬

‫81‬

‫ﺃﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺴﺅﺍل ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜـﺩ‬

‫91‬ ‫02‬ ‫12‬ ‫22‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﻟﻪ‬

‫ﺃﻀﻊ ﺨﻁﻁﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺄﻜـﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺤﻘﺎ ﺃﺘﻭﻕ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻤل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻭﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻨﻲ ﻋﻤل ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻤﻬﻤـﺔ ﺼـﻌﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﺃﺘﻀﺎﻴﻕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﻨﺕ ﻤﻬﺘﻤـﺎ ﺒﺈﻨﺠـﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫32‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻋـﺭﻑ ﻤﺘـﻰ ﺍﺤﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫42‬

‫ﺃﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﻭﺭﺃﻱ‬

‫ﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬

‫621‬

‫ﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭﻱ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻜﺸﺨﺹ ﺤﺭ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺯﻋﺞ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺤـﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴـﺭ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻜﺏ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻗﻠﻴـل‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ‪Control‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻟﻭ ﺘﻌﺎﺭﻀﺕ ﻤﻊ‬

‫52‬ ‫62‬ ‫72‬ ‫82‬ ‫92‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘــــﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺃﺤﺩ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺇﻫﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ ﻟﻸﺸـﺨﺎﺹ ﺫﻭ‬

‫03‬ ‫13‬ ‫23‬

‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺭﻑ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴـﺔ ﻻ‬

‫33‬ ‫43‬ ‫53‬ ‫63‬ ‫73‬

‫ﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻤل ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻐﻀﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻤﻨﻲ ﻷﺴـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﺼـﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﺸـﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬

‫721‬

‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻤل ﺸﻲﺀ ﻴﻤﻨﻌﻪ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻤﺘﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ـﺩ ﺃﻥ ـﺎﺱ ﻴﺅﻤﻨـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨـ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺘﻘـ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺼﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺎﻭل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴـﺅﺫﻴﻨﻲ ﻻ‬

‫83‬

‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫93‬ ‫04‬ ‫14‬

‫ﺒﺎﻻﻨﻌﺯﺍل ﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺃﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬

‫821‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ) ‪ ( x‬ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴـﺎﻋﺩﺘﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺹ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻁﻼﻋـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤـﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫6-‬ ‫7-‬ ‫8-‬ ‫9-‬ ‫01-‬ ‫5-‬ ‫1-‬ ‫2-‬ ‫3-‬ ‫4-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺨﺫ ﺒﺭﺃﻴﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻨﺤﻨﻲ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺘﻔﻭﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ:ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺒﻴﻨﻲ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫41-‬ ‫51-‬ ‫61-‬ ‫31-‬ ‫11-‬ ‫21-‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫921‬

‫71-‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﺄﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻁﺔ ﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻁﺎﻗﺎﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴـﺔ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺄﻨﻲ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻴﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻌﻠـﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻁﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺸﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﻴـﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻲ ﻨﻤﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﻨﻴﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫53-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫13-‬ ‫23-‬ ‫33-‬ ‫43-‬ ‫03-‬ ‫92-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫82-‬ ‫62-‬ ‫72-‬ ‫42-‬ ‫52-‬ ‫81-‬ ‫91-‬ ‫02-‬ ‫12-‬ ‫22-‬ ‫32-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫031‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫63-‬ ‫73-‬

‫83- ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺯﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫93- ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫04- ﺇﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﻜﺘـﺏ ﺸـﻜﺭ، ﺸـﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ: ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ‬ ‫14- ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﺼـﻭل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ،...، ﺃﻟﺦ (‬

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘـــــﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫24- ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺒﺫﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫34-‬ ‫44- ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫54- ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠـﻲ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫64- ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﺼﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻨﺎﺀ، ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ (‬

‫ﺨﻼل )ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ، ﺼـﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓـل، ﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻡ‬

‫74- ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺭﺍﺘﺒﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬ ‫84- ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬

‫131‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺭﻗﻡ )4(‬

‫231‬

133

134

135

An-Najah National University Faculty of Graduate Studies

Hardiness Behaviour and its Relationship with Job Satisfaction among the Headmasters of Government schools in the northern districts of West Bank

Prepared by

Sadeq Sameeh Sadeq Al- Qarout

Supervised by

Dr. Abed Mohammed Assaf
& Dr. Abdul Nasser Abdul Rahim Al-Qadumi

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in Educational Administration, Faculty of Graduate Studies, at AnNajah National University, Nablus, Palestine. 2006

a

Hardiness Behaviour and its Relationship with Job Satisfaction among the Headmasters of Government schools in the northern districts of West Bank Prepared by Sadeq Sameeh Sadeq Al- Qarout Supervised by Dr. Abed Mohammed Assaf Dr. Abed Al Naser Abed Al Raheem Qadumi

Abstract
This study aimed at identifying the degree of Hardiness behaviour and its relationship with job satisfaction among the headmasters of government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank from the perspective of headmasters themselves. The study also aimed at identifying the effects of the variables of (gender, education level, experience, salary, school's location, and the level of the school) on the degree of Hardiness behavior among the headmasters of government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank. The population of the study composed of all headmasters of the government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank during the year 2005/2006. The number of study's population was (642), while the number of the sample reached (221) with a (35%). The study's samples were chosen randomly by stratified random sampling. To accomplish the aims of study, the researcher developed two forms of questionnaires according to some previous studies on the subject and they are: b 1- Hardiness behaviour questioner which consist of 41 items. 2- Job satisfaction questioner which consist of 48 items. In addition, the researcher was assured of the validity of the two questionnaires by including the opinions of expertise. The researcher determined the reliability factor study instrument by the usage of Cronbach Alpha formula and the ovalall stability factor of the hardiness behaviour reached (0.89) and for the job satisfaction reached (0.88). The study reached to the following conclusions: 1- The degree of Hardiness behaviour among the Headmasters of Government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank was high, that is the total response degree reached (76.2%). 2- The arrangements of the criteria of hardiness behaviour for the Headmasters of Government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank were as following: 1. Commitment (77.2%) 2. Control (76.4%) 3. Challenge (74.8%) 3- The degree of job satisfaction among the Headmasters of Government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank was moderate, that is, the total response degree reached (68.8%). 4- There is a positive statistical relationship between the Hardiness behaviour and job satisfaction among the Headmasters of c Government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank person correlation factor was (0.37). 5- There are no significant differences at ( α = 0.05) with respect to the Hardiness behaviour among the Headmasters of Government schools in the Northern districts of the West Bank due the level of the school). Due to the study's objectives the researcher recommends the following: 1- Establish an effective system of bonuses and compensation tangible and intangible the reflective positively on the behaviour of the school headmaster that fulfills his needs and ambitions. 2- The decrease of the duties of the headmaster's responsibilities by giving them to the school secretary or any other teacher. 3- Establish a framework of compensation system that is characterized with social justice and objectivity to achieve a high level for fulfilling the needs and job satisfaction. 4- Conducting more study to know the relation between Hardiness behaviour and job satisfaction. to the (gender, education level, experience, salary, schools' location and

d…...

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...MARKETING PLAN RESEARCH DEFINITION: A marketing plan is a business document written for the purpose of describing the current market position of a business and its marketing strategy for the period covered by the marketing plan. Marketing plans usually have a life of from one to five years. PURPOSE: The purpose of creating a marketing plan is to clearly show what steps will be undertaken to achieve the business' marketing objectives. CONTENT OF MARKETING: A marketing plan for a small business typically includes Small Business Administration Description of competitors, including the level of demand for the product or service and the strengths and weaknesses of competitors. 1. Description of the product or service, including special features 2. Marketing budget, including the advertising and promotional plan 3. Description of the business location, including advantages and disadvantages for marketing 4. Pricing strategy 5. Market Segmentation The main contents in marketing plan are: * Executive Summary Brief statement of goals and recommendations based on hard data. * Environmental Analysis Presents data on the market, product, competition, distribution, macro-environment. (Product fact book) S.P.I.N.S. Situation “Where am I”, Problem identification/Implications “What is happening”, Needs Assessment “Why is it happening”, Solutions “What can I do about it” Market Situation: Data on target market, size and growth for past......

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...ASB-1104 Introduction to Marketing Assignment 1 In view of the dynamic nature of the marketing environment, to what extent do you consider consumers to be, in practice, central to marketing activities? Name: ZHUOMING AN Student No: 500356688 Tutor: David James Introduction What is marketing? The answer is not changeless. There are some different definitions about marketing. The Chartered Institute of Marketing define that "Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumers' requirements profitably." (CIM). Taking a concern into this definition, it indicates that marketing begins before a product or service is developed. In additional, it also explain that marketing involves identifying an unsatisfied consumer need or want and determining if a profitable opportunity exists. Another definition is that “A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others." (Kotler et al., 2005). The basic idea of this definition is that core to all marketing activities is customer satisfaction, which means marketing is an ongoing process as consumer demands and the environment is constantly changing. Products need to adapt as demands change. At the same time, marketing does not involve misleading, tricking or manipulation the customer. The Jobber also define the marketing is "The achievement of corporate goals through......

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...Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling that product or service. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and customer relationship management that also benefits the organization. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer behavior and providing superior customer value. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. Organizations may choose to operate a business under five competing concepts: the production concept, the product concept, the selling concept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing concept.[1] The four components of holistic marketing are relationship marketing, internal marketing, integrated marketing, and socially responsive marketing. The set of engagements necessary for successful marketing management includes capturing marketing insights, connecting with customers, building strong brands, shaping the market offerings, delivering and communicating value, creating long-term growth, and developing marketing strategies and plans.[2] Marketing may be defined in several ways, depending......

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...Omar Rochell Marketing MKT/421 April 7, 2011 Nikki Jackson Introduction Marketing is exposed to someone every day, even when they do not seem realize it. Driving down the roads you see billboards everywhere and that is part of marketing. Logos people were on their shirts and signs in the middle or on the sign of football fields are all part of marketing. Even when a child is marketing themselves to their parents to borrow the car or go to a party they are marketing themselves to their parents in exchange for the car or the party. A set of activities that will benefit both parties’ objectives is my own personal definition of marketing. This paper will be defining marketing in different perspectives. Discussing the importance of marketing in a organizational success will also be discussed with examples included from different organizations. As an organization it is important to know what marketing is and how to establish success. What is Marketing “Marketing is defined as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that will have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”(American Marketing Association, 2011) Marketing is a process that helps links the consumer, customer, and public to information that will help identify and market opportunities. Marketing research will generate, and evaluate different types of market actions, monitor marketing performance, and help......

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...How does Marketing affect the Global Economy Introduction: Nowadays, the development of global economy is closely related to the Marketing which involves some professional behaviour to sell or promote the goods. There are no possibilities to push the economic growth without the strategies of the Marketing, on the other hand, the Marketing cannot be separated from the global economy. During the financial crisis, the amounts of global transaction declined keeping company with the economic recession. In this case, it illustrates directly the interaction between the Marketing and the global economy. Not only does the Marketing play a fundamental role in the development of the micro companies’ economy, it is also irreplaceable for the progress of the society and the prosperity of the macro economy. However, it is hard to maintain the favourable condition between the Marketing and the global economy always. This essay is intended to explain what Marketing is and the affection to the global economy. Main body: Part 1: The conception and the meaning of the Marketing and the global economy A: The Marketing Philip Kotler once elaborated that Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with other (1991). However, it is difficult to get an accurate principle of Marketing because of various interpretations from different researchers. To give some examples, referring......

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...Marketing is an expansive area of expertise that encompasses many different areas, skills and job descriptions. According to Merriam-Webster, broken down to its basic form, marketing is defined as: “The activities involved in making people aware of a company’s products and making sure that the products are available to be bought.” Working in a marketing position involves showcasing a company in a positive light, showing why customers should purchase products and drawing in a targeted audience to consider goods and services. But what does a marketer do? Unfortunately there isn’t one set job description for everyone in this position. But we connected with marketing pros to give you a sneak peek at three common types of marketing. Taking a closer look at these options will help you determine if this field is right for you. 1. Digital marketing Digital marketing is just what it sounds like: marketing that’s gone digital! This type of marketing utilizes the internet and all things technology to get the word out about products, services or companies. Digital marketing has a slew of benefits, according to Don Crow, CEO of Verge Pipe Media. He says two of the most obvious advantages are scale and cost. “Considering 70 percent of all phones today are smartphones, it's increasingly important that brands and organizations think about how to connect with consumers on this increasingly important digital device,” Crow explains. There are many jobs that fall under the......

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...BTEC LEVEL 3 BUSINESS P1-Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organizations Introduction In this task (P1) I will describe and explain how different marketing techniques are used to market products in two different organizations. The first one being Cotswold wildlife park and the second organization being Tesco. Using these two organizations I will describe the marketing techniques that they used to market products. Marketing 1) Marketing is the action, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and the society at large. http://www.ama.org/AboutAMA/Pages/Definition-of-Marketing.aspx 2) Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others. http://www.marketingteacher.com/what-is-marketing/ 3) Marketing is traditionally the means by which an organization communicates to, connects with, and engages its target audience to convey the value of and ultimately sell its products and services. http://heidicohen.com/marketing-definition/ From the first definition of marketing, what I understand is that marketing is a process or activity that takes place by interacting directly to the customer or client. It is doing actions that will benefit the customer as well as the......

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...chapter 1 Marketing’s Role in the Global Economy When You Finish This Chapter, You Should 1. Know what marketing is and why you should learn about it. 2. Understand the difference between micro-marketing and macro-marketing. 3. Know why and how macromarketing systems develop. 4. Understand why marketing is crucial to economic development and our global economy. 5. Know why marketing special— ists—including middlemen and — facilitators—develop. 6. Know the marketing functions and who performs them. 7. Understand the important new terms (shown in red). www.mhhe. When it’s time to roll out of bed in the morning, does your General Electric alarm wake you with a buzzer—or by playing your favorite radio station? Is the station playing rock, classical, or country music—or perhaps a Red Cross ad asking you to contribute blood? Will you slip into your Levi’s jeans, your shirt from L. L. Bean, and your Reeboks, or does the day call for your Brooks Brothers interviewing suit? Will breakfast be Lender’s Bagels with cream cheese or Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes—made with grain from America’s heartland—or some extra large eggs and Oscar Mayer bacon cooked in a Panasonic microwave oven imported from Japan? Will you drink decaffeinated Maxwell House coffee—grown in Colombia—or some Tang instant juice? Will you eat at home or is this a day to meet a friend at the Marriott-run cafeteria—where you’ll pay someone else to serve your breakfast? After breakfast, will you head off to......

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