Free Essay

Meniscus Tear Process

In: People

Submitted By EssayMontana
Words 1142
Pages 5
Knee Injury - Meniscal Cartilage Tear

The menisci are cartilage tissues which act like shock absorbers in the knee joint. A meniscus can be torn, commonly after a forceful twisting injury to the knee. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and locking of the knee. Some heal by themselves, but an operation to fix, trim or remove the torn meniscus may be advised.
Meniscal cartilage injury
The knee is commonly injured in sports, especially rugby, football and skiing. You may tear a meniscus by a forceful knee movement whilst you are weight bearing on the same leg. The classical injury is for a footballer to rotate (twist) the knee whilst the foot is still on the ground - for example, whilst dribbling round a defender. Another example is a tennis player who twists to hit a ball hard, but with the foot remaining in the same position. The meniscus may tear fully or partially. How serious the injury is depends on how much is torn and the exact site of the tear.

Meniscal tears may also occur without a sudden severe injury. In some cases a tear develops due to repeated small injuries to the cartilage or to degeneration (wear and tear) of the meniscal cartilage in older people. In severe injuries, other parts of the knee may also be damaged in addition to a meniscal tear. For example, you may also sprain or tear a ligament.

Meniscal cartilage does not heal very well once it is torn. This is mainly because it does not have a good blood supply. The outer edge of each meniscus has some blood vessels, but the area in the center has no direct blood supply. This means that although some small outer tears may heal in time, larger tears, or a tear in the middle, tend not to heal.
What are the symptoms of a meniscal tear?
The symptoms of a meniscal injury depend on the type and position of the meniscal tear. Many people have meniscal tears without any knee symptoms, especially if they are due to wear and tear. * Pain. The pain is often worse when you straighten the leg. If the pain is mild, you may be able to continue to walk. You may have severe pain if a torn fragment of meniscus catches between the tibia and femur. Sometimes, an injury that you had in the past causes pain months or years later, particularly if you injure the knee again. * Swelling. The knee often swells within a day or two of the injury. Many people notice that their knee is slightly swollen for several months if the tear is due to degeneration. * Knee function. You may be unable to straighten the knee fully. In severe cases you may not be able to walk without a lot of pain. The knee may lock from time to time if the torn fragment interferes with normal knee movement. Some people notice a clicking or catching feeling when they walk. (A locked knee means that it gets stuck when you bend it and you can't straighten it without moving the leg with your hands.)
Note: a "clicking joint" (especially without pain) does not usually mean you have a meniscal tear.

For some people, the symptoms of meniscal injury go away on their own after a few weeks. However, for most people the symptoms persist long-term, or flare up from time to time, until the tear is treated.
How is a meniscal tear diagnosed? * The story and symptoms often suggest a meniscal tear. A doctor will examine the knee. Certain features of the examination may point towards a meniscal tear. * Your doctor may sometimes advise an X-ray of the knee. An X-ray will not show cartilage tissue, but it can check for any bone damage which might have also occurred with the injury. * The diagnosis can be confirmed by an MRI scan of the knee (see separate leaflet called 'MRI Scan' for more detail) or by arthroscopy (keyhole surgery - see below).
What is the treatment for a meniscal tear?
When you first injure your knee the initial treatment should follow the PRICE formula: protect, rest, ice, compression (with a bandage) and elevation. This, combined with painkillers, helps to settle the initial pain and swelling. Further treatment may then depend on the size of the tear, the severity of symptoms, how any persisting symptoms are affecting your life, your age, and your general health.
Non-operative treatment
Small tears may heal by themselves in time, usually over about six weeks. Some tears which do not heal do not cause long-term symptoms once the initial pain and swelling subside, or cause only intermittent or mild symptoms. In these cases, surgery may not be needed. You may be advised to have physiotherapy to strengthen the supporting structures of the knee, such as the quadriceps and hamstring muscles.
Surgery
If the tear causes persistent troublesome symptoms then an operation may be advised. Most operations are done by arthroscopy (see below). The types of operations which may be considered include the following: * The torn meniscus may be able to be repaired and stitched back into place. However, in many cases this is not possible. * In some cases where repair is not possible, a small portion of the meniscus may be trimmed or cut out to even up the surface. * Sometimes, the entire meniscus is removed. * Meniscal transplants have recently been introduced. The missing meniscal cartilage is replaced with donor tissue, which is screened and sterilized much in the same way as for other donor tissues such as for kidney transplants. These are more commonly performed in America than in the UK. * There is a new operation in which collagen meniscal implants are inserted. The implants are made from a natural substance and allow your cells to grow into it so that the missing meniscal tissue regrows. This is not yet available at all hospitals.
Arthroscopy is a procedure to look inside a joint by using an arthroscopy. An arthroscopy is like a thin telescope with a light source. It is used to light up and magnify the structures inside a joint. Two or three small (less than 1 cm) cuts are made at the front of the knee. The knee joint is filled up with fluid and the arthroscopy is introduced into the knee. Probes and specially designed tiny tools and instruments can then be introduced into the knee through the other small cuts. These instruments are used to cut, trim, biopsy, grab, ect, inside the joint. Arthroscopy can be used to diagnose and also to treat meniscal tears. See the separate leaflet called 'Arthroscopy and Arthroscopic Surgery' for more details.

Following surgery, you will have physiotherapy to keep the knee joint active (which encourages healing) and to strengthen up the surrounding muscles to give support and strength to the knee.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Tears Idle Tears

...Lowe, D.J Lord Alfred Tennyson’s “Tears, Idle Tears,” On the Edge Lord Alfred Tennyson’s “Tears, Idle Tears,” conveys the complex emotions of one whose life is steadily reaching its end and death is looming over him. He has come to that point in his life where he truly realizes his position. Death is no longer surreal as it once was; however, the speaker is still at peace because he has lived his life. His friends have all gone on and now his own time has arrived. This poem is a lamentation of that person as they are reminded of their past and “of the days that are no more”. The poem’s message is reinforced through Tennyson’s diction and similes, which create many parodies within the poem. However, theses parodies are the keys to the readers’ noticing and understanding the intricate thoughts of one so near to that final breathe. The poem begins with the speaker describing his tears as “idle” and being groundless. Tennyson is not saying that the tears are unmoving or that they are without cause. The speaker may not necessarily be able to admit to the exact reasoning behind the tears, but he knows what causes them to surface, “some divine despair”. Yet despair is not divine; divine means heavenly or celestial. Tennyson means that the focus is on something from above. However, the irony can truly be seen in the physical cause of the tears, “In looking on the happy-autumn fields.” The word autumn implies harvest, almost winter, which signifies an end to something......

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Trail of Tears

...S., and the name of this migration was given the name the Trail of Tears. The migration of the Trail of Tears started i when President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act in 1930, which was setup up to rid the new American land of all natives and free it for all the new English settlers. This gradual process of removing these 46,000 natives tribes took place over a seven year span, between 1930-1937. This inter-regional migration of the the Native American tribes included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and the Seminole peoples. They were all from the southeastern areas of the newly colonized United States. Though the natives were not removed immediately when the English settlers arrived to America, because most of them did feel the natives did have a right to their land. For example, when the Europeans arrived in the early 1540’s the Cherokee peoples still lived in the Appalachian mountain area. English settlers started moving into Cherokee land more and more, and even signed treaties with them to settle trade agreements. Eventually the English had over run the Cherokee and practically forced them into selling their lands. These natives where very dependent on their land, and although they did make an impact on their environment the Cherokee and other natives alike working their best to conserve their lands (Perdue page 10). One passage from Perdue who wrote a book about the Trail of Tears shows just how important the land was for the people, “The forests......

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Trail of Tears

...Sara Watson HIST 1301-325 Trail of Tears Major General Winfield Scott arrived May 8 to take command of the military operation of the removal of the Cherokee Indians. His May 10, 1838 address to the Cherokee people basically said that the president had sent him with an army to make them obey the Treaty of 1835 to move to the other side of the Mississippi. He says that they need to leave with haste but hopefully without disorder. Scott states that his troops are coming to help “assist” the Cherokees if they are refusing or not leaving fast enough. Scott really did want them to leave without having to shed any blood or have any resistance. Scott had told his troops to be kind to the Cherokees and compatible with their removal. His intentions were humane but the larger portion of his army was state levies unaccustomed to discipline and without his professional susceptibilities. Most of the Cherokee to be removed were inhabitants of Georgia and their apprehension was conducted by Georgia militia who had long as a matter of policy been habituated to dealing harshly with Indians. Cherokee were to be herded and confined while awaiting transportation west. There was little to no likelihood of attempted resistance. Within days nearly 17000 Cherokee had been crowded into the stockades. Sanitation measures were inadequate and many inmates sickened. Many lost any will to live and lost all glimmer of hope. In the first and second weeks of June 2 detachments of some 800......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Human Tears

...humans the only species to shed tears of sorrow and joy? Tears are less important when you are alone because there is no one to witness them’ When it came to solving the riddle of the peacock's tail, Charles Darwin's powers of evolutionary deduction were second to none – the more extravagant their feathered displays, he reasoned, the greater their chances of attracting a peahen. But when he tried to account for the human propensity to weep, Darwin found himself at a loss. "We must look at weeping as an incidental result, as purposeless as the secretion of tears from a blow outside the eye," he wrote in 1872. In this Darwin was almost certainly wrong. In recent decades, scientists have offered several accounts of how the capacity for tears may have given early hominids an adaptive advantage. These range from the aquatic ape theory, according to which tears were an adaptation to saltwater living, to the notion that by blurring our vision tears may serve as a "white flag" to potential aggressors – a signal that the crier is incapable of harm. Then there are the straightforward biological theories, such as the claim that tears evolved to keep the eye moist and free of harmful bacteria. But perhaps the theory enjoying the widest currency at the moment is the notion that tears are a form of social signalling that evolved from mammalian distress calls – a clear visual signal in other words that someone is in pain or danger and needs help. "Tears are highly symbolic," says Ad......

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Day of Tears

...ethnicity, and culture are Day of Tears, by Julius Lester and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, by Sherman Alexie. These award-winning novels illustrate the fact that the viewpoints of authors who are members of the minority groups about which they write have a unique perspective that can be universally appreciated. That these works of literature have universal appeal is a testament to the writing skills of both authors, as well as to the way in which each of them has blended historical fact and fiction, to paraphrase Mr. Lester in his Author’s Note in Day of Tears (175). Although both novels furnish us with multiple examples of how African-Americans and Native Americans were, and in the case of Diary, still are being mistreated at the hands of the white majority, they nevertheless serve to affirm the fact that the resilience of the children exposed to these horrors transcends a mere discussion of race because resilience is part of the human spirit. Both books are replete with examples proving this thesis. These novels are of recent vintage. Day of Tears was first published in 2005, while Diary was copyrighted in 2007. Both authors are “insiders,” that is to say, they are members of the minority groups that are the subjects of their writing. The book jacket of the paperback edition of Diary proclaims that the work is “inspired by his [Alexie’s] own experiences growing up.” We learn from Lester’s Author’s Note that Day of Tears was inspired by an......

Words: 1614 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Trail of Tears

...Trail of Tears California College San Diego HIS220 October 4, 2014 Will Palmer Trail of Tears Long before Amerigo Vespucci and other European explorers reached the New World, Native Americans successfully inhabited the land. There has been much debate as to how many people were here. It has been documented as high as 16 million to as low as under four million (Brinkley, 2008). The Europeans’ relationship with the Native Americans was that of give and take. Both taught each other techniques for cultivating crops, the introduction of domestic livestock and basic survival. The Europeans not only bought with them diseases that killed millions of Native Americans, but also their conviction that their own civilization was greatly superior to that of the natives (Brinkley, 2008). This discussion will include Andrew Jackson’s opinion and policy concerning Native Americans, white Americans’ opinion of Native Americans, the “Five Civilized Tribes,” and the Trail of Tears. Before becoming the President of the United States, Andrew Jackson had already made a name for himself in history. He was a lawyer, politician and judge, wealthy planter and merchant, and in 1801 received the appointment of the commander of the Tennessee militia. During the War of 1812, white settlers near the Spanish owned Florida border were under attack by the Creek Indians. According to Brinkley (2008), on March 27, 1814, in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Jackson and his men retaliated and......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Trail of Tears

...Trail of Tears The book The Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation by John Ehle was published on September 22, 1988 by Anchor Books. The book has 424 pages. John Ehle, the author, has written over seventeen books. Most of his books deal with civil rights, the Cherokee Nation, French wine and cheese and Irish whiskey. This book specifically deals with the Cherokee Nation during around the 1790s to the 1840s. The book did not seem to really discuss the actual trail of tears but rather the Cherokees Nation rise and fall. However, the book seemed to focus on the more successful or richer Cherokees. Reflecting on the title, it is called the rise and fall of the Cherokee nation but Ehle only seems to cover the rise and fall of specific people and events. The Trail of Tears focuses mainly on Major Ridge and his family, specifically his son John Ridge and his nephews Elias Boudinot and Stand Waite and other missionaries who were sent to convert the Cherokees to Christianity. Major Ridge would not convert to Christianity but did accept some of the white ways for his family. The principal chief of the Cherokee was named John Ross who was believed by many to be in state of denial. Ross and his followers blame Ridge and his followers for selling the Cherokee out when they sign the Treaty of 1835 that puts the seal on the removal. . Major Ridge was born around 1771 and died on June 22, 1839. Ridge married Sehoya who was a mixed-blood Cherokee in 1792. Ridge could......

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Tears

...Running Head: Trails of Tears The Trails of Tears Deborah Horton February 23, 2015 The Trails of Tears was during the time when the Cherokee people from North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia were forcefully removed from their homeland during 1838-1839. They traveled by foot, horse, wagon and boat to Oklahoma. The Trails of Tears was known during the 1800’s. Priceless gold was discovered on the lands. The land consisted of millions of acres in Georgia, Tennessee and Carolina. In the early 1800’s and appeal was issued to remove the Cherokee from the lands of Georgia, but the appeal did not go through. After these efforts failed they tried to buy land. The Cherokee became one of the Five Civilized Tribes the others included the Seminoles, Chickasaw, Choctaw and the Creek. In the 1830”s the Cherokee agreed to surrender the territory in exchange for land which was considered Indian Territory. Most escaped to North Carolina and bought land. Somewhere forced west which they called the Trail of Tears. There were so many thousands of people and many died from hunger and disease. The Cherokee’s main source of food mainly came from agricultural. They grew their own beans, corn and squash they also ate cow, hogs etc. The Trails of Tears consisted of cultural differences between Native Americans and Americans which caused them to be move to the South. The Cherokee were people who lived on land that was valuable and had good resources and......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Meniscal Tear

...– My meniscus injury and the processes in which I went through Intro – About a year and a half ago I was training pretty hard to get into shape for the fire academy here at rio hondo. I would run atleast 5 miles a day to keep good cardio, haha I don’t do much of any running any more. Well, One of those days I went on an uphill run with a 20lb weight pack and experienced some pain in my left knee, about a month later It still hurt so i went to the doctor and after an MRI it was determined that I may have torn my meniscus and I would not be able to attend the academy until it healed. Today im going to go over some knowledge I gained about these types of injuries by experiencing one first hand. Body – 1. First off I am going to start with some quick anatomy on the largest joint in your body .inside there are 4 ligaments that holds the bones together. ACL PCL MCL LCL you have your KNEE CAP and then your MENISCUS. The meniscus is a rubbery, C-shaped disc that cushions your knee. Each knee has two of them, one at the outer edge of the knee and one at the inner edge, they serve to spread and cushion the weight across the knee. A tear in the meniscus can either be bad or much worse depending on the location because the outside of the menisci has really good circulation but the inside has almost no circulation at all making this knee injury a very uncertain window to recover from, some can recover in a month, others like me can take over a year. In my case I have two tears,......

Words: 799 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Lateral Meniscus - Posterior Horn Rupture

...ESSAY - (lateral-) meniscus - posterior horn rupture In sports and orthopedics, a tear of a meniscus is a rupture of one or more fibrocartilage strips in the knee called menisci. Anatomy There are two menisci in the knee. The menisci are C-shaped wedges of fibrocartilage located between the tibial plateau and femoral condyles. While the ends of the thigh bone and the shin bone have a thin covering of soft hyaline cartilage, the menisci are made of tough fibrocartilage and contain 70% type I collagen. They conform to the surfaces of the bones they rest on. One meniscus rests on the medial tibial plateau; this is the medial meniscus. The other meniscus rests on the lateral tibial plateau; this is the lateral meniscus. The larger semilunar medial meniscus is attached more firmly than the loosely fixed, more circular lateral meniscus. The anterior and posterior horns of both menisci are secured to the tibial plateaus. Anteriorly, the transverse ligament connects the 2 menisci; posteriorly, the meniscofemoral ligament helps stabilize the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the femoral condyle. The coronary ligaments connect the peripheral meniscal rim loosely to the tibia. Although the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) passes in close proximity, the lateral meniscus has no attachment to this structure.[4] The joint capsule attaches to the entire periphery of each meniscus but adheres more firmly to the medial meniscus. An interruption in the attachment of the......

Words: 2457 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Trail of Tears

...Trail of Tears At the beginning of the 1830’s about 100,000 Native Americans owned millions of acres of land throughout the southeast of the United States. These states were Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Florida, the Native Americans believed this land was the land their ancestors had, and their God had given to them. The southern Indians had plenty of land about twenty five million acres, virtually the entire inland south and were more numerous than the Northern Indian people. By the end of the decade very few Native Americans still remained in this land because the government forced them to leave their land because the white wanted their territory. White settles wanted Indian land because they wanted to grow cotton, and there was gold where the Cherokees inhabited. The Native Americans were forced to walk thousands of miles to Indian Territory, many of them died of diseases or hunger, and this is why it became known as the trail of tears. Most Native Americans belonged to the five tribes which were the: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. The Choctaw were the first to negotiate for their land with the federal government in 1830 they agreed to give up their property for western land. The government in the other hand had no experience in transporting large amount of people from state to state so on the journey to their new land many Native Americans died from exhaustion, exposure, malnutrition and disease while traveling. In 1828 Andrew...

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Slap Tear

...SLAP Lesion Tear A SLAP lesion tear is an injury to the shoulder. This can cause painful symptoms and difficulty with overhead activities whether they be athletic or those of daily living. In 1985, Andrews et al were the first to describe the superior labrum tear. In their experience, they identified tears of the labrum from throwing athletes located anterosuperor near the origin of the bicep tendon. The cause of the lesion to tear was the bicep tendon being pulled off the labrum from the force generated during the throwing motion. As time went on, the labral tears got categorized into four different types of classifications called SLAP lesions by Snyder in 1990. A SLAP lesion, as described by Snyder involves tears of the superior aspect of the glenoid labrum that extend anteriorly and posteriorly to the biceps insertion. As an examiner, in order to detect a SLAP lesion, there needs to be an investigation of patients activities, any previous shoulder injuries, and or any factors that could lead up to this injury. The highest incidence of SLAP lesions is seen in the 20 to 29 and 40 to 49 years of age. In order to understand the mechanism of a SLAP lesion it is best to understand the anatomy of the shoulder. The shoulder is a ball and socket joint made up of three bones: humerus that is the upper arm bone, shoulder blade of the scapula, and the clavicle. The humerus bone fits into the rounded socket of the scapula, which is called the glenoid fossa. Surrounding the......

Words: 2249 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Trail of Tears

...Trail Of Tears “Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race.” ― Martin Luther King Jr The Trail of Tears was an unjust and On September 15, 1830, at Little Dancing Rabbit Creek, the Chiefs of the Choctaw Nation and representatives of the U.S. met to discuss the impact of a bill recently passed by the Congress of the U.S. This bill with all the same good intentions of those today who believe they know better than we how to conduct our lives, allowed for the removal of all Indian peoples to the West of the Mississippi River. It had been made clear to the Choctaw, that the Whites in Washington cared little for the Native americans situation, that either they willingly moved, or by military force they would be moved. were not ignorant savages, but industrious farmers, merchants, and businessmen of all types. We were educated people, many were Christians. The native americans had an organized system of government and a codified body of law. Some of these people were not even Indians, many strangers and orphans had been taken in over the years. The Chiefs and Warriors signed the treaty, realizing they had no option.(of what nation?) For doing this the government officials guaranteed, in the body of the treaty, (what treaty?)safe conveyance to our new homes. (where did you find this information?)(Do not forget for a moment that in this treaty, the Choctaw traded 10.3 million acres of......

Words: 836 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Trail of Tears

...Native Americans ( Cherokee) Randall Cartright Eth/125 January/29/2012 Don Yost Abstract Native Americans ( Cherokee) They have faced migration, and annexation. Consequences: Extermination ( almost), expulsion, and segregation. Trail of Tears How? How could a horror have come from such an innocent act? A child sells a trader a rock. But greed unrestricted fears no God. And it has an appetite that can never be satiated. It has been my fate to have been involved in, and an observer of a nation turning it’s back on all of it’s most noble principles. How you recover from that will be left to posterity and the great Judge of all to address. For me it started when I was a young man back in the Smokey Mountain region of Tennessee. I was selected to go with the great Chief Junaluska to fight with the United States soldiers against the Creek. The Creek nation had aligned themselves with the invading British. Who could have believed that such bravery would be repaid someday with such treachery? It was Chief Junalusk’s idea alone to capture the Creek’s canoes at the battle of Horse Shoe and cut of their only means of retreat. It was Chief Junaluska’s quick action that saved Andrew Jackson’s life. I heard Andrew Jackson say to Chief Junaluska:” As long as the sun shines and the grass grows, there will be friendship between us, and the feet of the Cherokee shall be toward the east.” How quickly would those words become a mockery to......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Tears

...the sofa letting herself sunk to the depth whilst holding back the sobs. I wonder what was wrong that she had this lackluster attitude. When tiny pearls started clinging at the end of her wet eyelashes, it dawned upon me that something demoralizing had happened. “Your papa and mama had been in a road mishap. It was horrible. Your sisters went to the scene but they got hit by another car. I’m so sorry dear.” she finished her sentence as if it was really a daunting task with her defiant sniffle. A child at my age would not understand the meaning of death what else to envisage the death of their family. Aunt Jane’s nose started turning red as she continuously cried in agony. Few hours past and other relative started coming by with pools of tears. It was an unbearable truth. I reminisced every gleeful moment I had spent with my family. Never could I imagine my biggest fear of losing my loved ones metamorphosed into reality. I could not respite in peace that night. My stomach was hurting and making tiger noises, but everybody was crying so I was afraid to say I was hungry. At dawn my eyes captured the majestic enormous ball rises from the horizon, poking the velvety sky crust to rise in pride, to defeat the malevolent darkness, as if giving me strength that everything would be better in this inexorable life journey. It was the day of the funeral. The church was filled with undying sullen faces. There was 4 coffin in front of the altar. It smelled so sweet from the......

Words: 977 - Pages: 4