Free Essay

Microprocessor Wars

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By SamuelAldrich
Words 1792
Pages 8
Microprocessor Wars
Samuel W. Aldrich
Principles of Marketing
Tracy Foote
July 3rd, 2012

Microprocessor Wars Computer processors are very complicated electronic devices that are used to be the brain of computers. They process all data in the computer and have revolutionized the world in every facet possible, creating new and quicker ways to accomplish tasks. There are a few companies that produce the x86 microarchitecture chips found in almost every desktop and many mobile devices today but only two are true heavy hitters in the market, Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The market slug fest that has been happening between these two companies have driven the pace at which computing has advanced by leaps and bounds. They are a perfect example of how competition and not just supply and demand push industries to their pinnacle. To give a little background to the current market situation, Intel was the original inventor of the x86 microarchitecture central processing unit in 1978. Advanced Micro Devices didn’t start making chips until 1982; four years after Intel had already released their first x86 microprocessor chip as a company. Advanced Micro Devices along with Intel has over 99.5% of the market for x86 architecture central processing units. This means the two companies quite literally own the market and control the supply of computer processors. MaximumPC.com’s own history of the situation that expertly describes the beginnings and even reciprocal situation of today market states:
“Much has been made recently over the x86 licensing agreement between Intel and AMD, and we have to travel back to 1982 to see how it all began. That was the year AMD inked a deal allowing them to manufacture and sell both 8086 and 8088 processors. The very next year, AMD released the Am286, an exact clone of Intel's 286 processor, right down to the pin count, but with a higher frequency. And not just faster, but almost twice as fast at 20MHz. In some respects, the Am286 can be viewed as the first punch thrown in a fight that has been going on for almost 30 years” (Lilly, 2009). The two companies have long battled for the market of central processing units but Intel has always had the upper hand with a much larger market wealth and higher research and development budget. This has enabled them to capture a rough estimate of 82 percent of the central processing unit market, leaving Advanced Micro Devices a measly 17 percent. Although Advanced Micro Devices has a considerably smaller market share in sheer volume numbers, it has recently begun changing its market strategy to survive. This strategy is a smart move that is lauded by most industry analyst as a smart move that will give Advanced Micro Devices a shot at surviving Intel’s ability to out-produce and out-perform Advanced Micro Device’s processors. Their strategy is to stop trying to compete with Intel in the top performance central processing unit market, i.e. the Intel Core i7 units and their Intel Core i7 Extreme series and instead focus on producing considerably cheaper processors that come with built in graphics processing units. Looking at the market as a whole, most computers sold in the United States don’t have dedicated graphics put in the computers. Most consumers in the United States have dedicated gaming consoles such as the X-Box 360 and the Play Station 3, making the need to have dedicated graphics cards unnecessary as they don’t play computer games. Advanced Micro Devices aims to create demand for cheap processors that come with graphics cores capable of playing high quality graphics and decoding high definition movies. Advanced Micro Devices up until two years ago, had only produced processors that didn’t include graphics cores. It wasn’t until research from market surveys showed a growing trend towards cheaper desktops and laptops without dedicated graphics. These cheaper computers were selling three to one against more expensive computers (identified as $1,000 or more). This showed that there was a market for Advanced Micro Devices to exploit. “Marketing information by itself has little value. The value is in the customer insights gained from the information and how these insights are used to make better marketing decisions” (Armstrong, 2012). Advanced Micro Devices saw that the cheaper integrated computers were selling better but also realized a move towards high definition streaming and movies would cause demand for graphics processing. As stated before, Advanced Micro Devices had been losing to Intel on the high performance end of the central processing unit market because of a smaller research and development budget that couldn’t compete with Intel’s. Part of a strategy to branch into a different market to bring in more revenue, Advanced Micro Devices purchased Array Technologies Incorporated (ATI). Array Tech Inc. is a producer of dedicated graphics cards and is in a similar battle as Advanced Micro Devices with Intel. NVidia is the Intel of the graphics card market and a similar situation existed between Array Tech Inc. (henceforth referred to as ATI Inc.) and NVidia. Advanced Micro Devices saw an opportunity to take that technology and bring graphics processing to the central processing unit. It all comes down to analyzing competitors and assessing competitor’s objectives, strategies, and weaknesses and then selecting which competitor position to attack. Advanced Micro Devices was able to find a way to attack Intel at its weak spot, integrated graphics (Armstrong, 2012). Something that the purchase of a graphics card manufacturer could prove beneficial for. So in 2006 Advanced Micro Devices purchased ATI Inc. in an attempt to broaden their market segments and increase their revenue while initiating a new processor that could finally compete against Intel’s best. While Intel also rolled out integrated graphics cores in their processors with their Sandy Bridge line of processors and most recently with their Ivy Bridge processors, their ability to compute graphics still lacked greatly to even the most simple and cheap dedicated graphics card. This is where Advanced Micro Devices was able to get the upper hand; they owned the second largest graphics card manufacturer in the world and had the expertise to create graphics cores that were considerably better than Intel’s best on processor graphics cores.
”The new APUs are built around AMD's latest Radeon HD 7000 series GPUs and its new "Bulldozer" CPU core architecture, which sports the company's third-generation Turbo Core technology to dynamically shift power between CPU and GPU depending upon application needs. Combined, the CPU and GPU cores deliver more than 700 gigaflops of computing performance—several times more than the fastest x86 CPUs—to boost performance of hundreds of applications” (Damon, 2012). The strategy took by Advanced Micro Devices not only showed that they were intuitive enough to realize that trying to compete with a foe that dwarfed them in size and revenue was folly but created an entirely new product that they named an Accelerated Processing Unit (APU). This Accelerated Processing Unit didn’t try to compete with the bleeding edge performance processing units of Intel but instead created a new market for computer processors that were able to sufficiently handle high definition video encoding and play quality graphic computer games without any need for a dedicated graphics card. The idea has been tried before but it failed, Intel had released two editions of processors back in the 1990s that were so dismal at processing graphics that many consumers reeled at the mention of “integrated graphics”. These new Accelerated Processing Units could be put into mobile workstations such as laptops and netbooks or in desktop computers. The best part about the Accelerated Processing Unit was the price, 200-300 dollars for the highest performing units. Compare that to Intel’s competing performance point processors that hover around 300 dollars and suffer greatly in graphic performance in comparison and usually require at least a 100 dollar graphics card to get the same graphical performance the of the Accelerated Processing Unit. This meant that Advanced Micro Devices has created a new product that is going to revolutionize the way computer manufacturers and enthusiast computer builder’s purchase. The cheaper Accelerated Processing Units gave Advanced Micro Devices the new market they needed so badly, one that appealed to a majority of computer consumers in the United States where over 66 percent of the world’s computers are purchased. This gives computer manufacturers the ability to produce smaller, cooler, and cheaper computers that appeal to the demanding United States computer market that has been steadily moving towards the smallest and cheapest computers possible. Because of the enhanced abilities of the computer manufacturers to produce unique and smaller computers, there will be an increased demand by consumers for these Accelerated Processing Units and by default, the computer manufacturers will start turning to Advanced Micro Devices for their processors instead of Intel. Now it may seem counterproductive for Advanced Micro Devices to build processors that can outperform low end dedicated graphics cards because it would eat up demand for those low end graphics cards produced by its subsidiary company ATI Inc. In reality all this does is shift the demand for the low end graphics solutions to integrated options championed by their line Accelerated Processing Units. A move that means only a shift in revenue from one part of the company to another for Advanced Micro Devices but if looked at from NVidia’s point of view, it means a loss in market share. NVidia doesn’t have any share in the central processing unit market and as such will lose most of its demand for their low end graphics cards. ATI Inc. will benefit in the long run because their production basis is switched to Accelerated Processing Units while NVidia actually has to cut that part of their company. This shows that the competition within a market leads to innovative ideas when faced with difficult choices. Instead of fighting a losing battle for an increasingly competitive market, Advanced Micro Devices switch to a smaller alternative to current computer products gave them the ability to compete and potentially gain much more market share.

References

Armstrong, Philip Kotler and Gary. Principles of Marketing for Ashford University, 14th Edition.
Pearson Learning Solutions. <vbk:9780558783433#outline(11.17.3.1)>.
AMD Inc. (2012). Amd accelerated processing units. Retrieved from http://www.amd.com/us/products/technologies/fusion/Pages/fusion.aspx Lilly, P. (2009, April 04). A brief history of cpus: 31 awesome years of x86. Retrieved from http://www.maximumpc.com/article/features/cpu_retrospective_the_life_and_times_x86?page=0,0
Intel Inc. (2012). Company overview. Retrieved from http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/company-overview/company-overview.html Damon, P. (2012, May 15). Amd rolls out 'trinit'y apus for mainstream, ultrathin laptops.
Retrieved From http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2404471,00.asp…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

80386 Microprocessor

...80386 MICROPROCESSOR It is a 32-bit microprocessor. It has 32 bit data bus and 32 bit address bus, so it can address up to 232 = 4GB of RAM. Features -Multitasking -Memory management -Software protection -Segmentation and paging -Large memory system(64Tbytes in virtual mode) Operating modes -Real mode -Protected mode -Virtual mode Internal architecture: There are 6 parallel functional units: -The bus unit: The bus interface unit provides a 32-bit data bus, a 32-bit address bus and control signals. 8-bit (byte), 16-bit (word) and 32-bit (double word) data transfers are supported. It has separate pins for its address and data bus lines. This processing unit contains the latches and drivers for the address bus, transceivers for the data bus, and control logic for signaling whether a memory input/output, or interrupt acknowledgement bus cycle is to be performed. -The prefetch unit: The prefetch unit performs a mechanism known as an instruction stream queue. This queue permits a prefetch up to 16 bytes (8 memory words) of instruction code which is used by the instruction decoder. Whenever bytes are loaded into the queue they are automatically shifted up through the FIFO to the empty location near the output. -The decode unit: It reads the machine-code instructions from the output side of the prefetch queue and decodes them into microcode instruction......

Words: 4779 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Microprocessor

...Introduction to Microprocessor A microprocessor is a single chip integrating all the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. It includes all the logical functions, data storage, timing functions and interaction with other peripheral devices. In some cases, the terms 'CPU' and 'microprocessor' are used interchangeably to denote the same device. Like every genuine engineering marvel, the microprocessor too has evolved through a series of improvements throughout the 20th century. A brief history of the device along with its functioning is described below. Its Working It is the central processing unit which coordinates all the functions of a computer. It generates timing signals, sends and receives data to and from every peripheral used inside or outside the computer. The commands required to do this are fed into the device in the form of current variations which are converted into meaningful instructions by the use of a Boolean Logic System. It divides its functions in two categories, logical functions and processing functions. The arithmetic and logical unit and the control unit handle these functions respectively. The information is communicated through a bunch of wires called buses. The address bus carries the 'address' of the location with which communication is desired while the data bus carries the data that is being exchanged. Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU) This part of the central processing unit deals with operations such as addition,......

Words: 1249 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Microprocessor

... 1. Data Representation and Number Systems 1.0 Introduction. All data in a digital computer is stored as electronic signals, either voltages or currents. These electronic signals are used to represent other data types such as numbers or letters or other items. In most digital computers systems the electronic signals can only handle two signal levels represented by a digit 0 and a digit 1, namely high or low. These values are also known as, 1 or 0, ON or OFF, SET or RESET or TRUE or FALSE. 1.1 Digital signals. A microprocessor system operates on digital signals. Digital signals are represented by two discrete voltage levels or states which are often known as either ‘high’ (5 V) or ‘low’ (0 V) with respect to each other. The high state is often known as a logic one ( 1) and the low known as a logic ( 0 ). 1.2 Data transmission. The bus in a microprocessor system transmit data in parallel form. [pic] Figure : 1 Data can also be transmitted in serial form [pic] Figure : 2 1. Decimal Number In everyday situations, a system of counting using a base of ten is employed. This is known as a decimal system, and its main justification for use is often quoted as being that human beings have ten fingers with which to count. A decimal number is composed of one or more digits chosen from a set of ten digits {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} Base number is 10. The weights are all multiples of 10. Example: 3 5 7 ----- digits 102 101 ......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ibm Power6 Microprocessor (64 Bit)

...IBM POWER6 Microprocessor (64 bit) Term Paper: ECE312 Rahul Sihag Section: K2103, Roll no: B26 B Tech CSE Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab, India rahulsihagg@gmail.com Abstract— This term paper is about IBM POWER6 Microprocessors. It covers Introduction, Core chapters including definition, description, history, design etc. It also includes their Applications, Future perspective and Conclusion etc. Index Terms— Introduction, Core chapters, Applications & Future perspective, Conclusion. I. INTRODUCTION A. Microprocessors A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Intel introduced its first 4-bit microprocessor 4004 in 1971 and its 8-bit microprocessor 8008 in 1972. B. IBM POWER6 Microprocessors The POWER6 is a microprocessor developed by IBM that implemented the Power ISA v.2.03. When it became available in systems in 2007, it succeeded the POWER5+ as IBM's flagship Power microprocessor. The POWER6 processor is the latest generation in the POWER line of PowerPC......

Words: 3085 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Intel Pentium Microprocessor Flaw

...Pentium Microprocessor Flaw NT1110 19 October, 2013 Pentium Microprocessor Flaw Pentium microprocessor flaw was in the floating-point math subsection. The flaw was found where the division result returned by the Pentium microprocessor was off by approximately sixty-one parts per million. Once Intel pinpointed the flaw, their solution was to keep the information within the company and not disclose the information to the public. Regardless of the fact that the flaw did not affect all microprocessors, it actually only affected a very small number of customers, Intel should have openly acknowledged the problem. When customers would call into Intel with issues concerning the flaw, Intel would input a certain code into it in order to verify that was in fact the problem. Once the problem was identified, Intel then would implement a solution. However, if Intel had openly accepted and informed the clients about the issue, it most likely would have saved them not only money but also their reputation between the company and their existing clients. Needless to say, their decision resulted in some very unhappy customers. If this same type of flaw was to be found in a new CPU today, the company would surely fail. With a problem in the floating-point math subsection with an error of approximately sixty-one parts per million, this would cause too many problems for the clients today. Especially considering that Intel declined the opportunity to inform their customers and supply a......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Microprocessor Flaw

...“In June 1994, Intel engineers discovered a flaw in the floating-point math subsection of the Pentium microprocessor. Under certain data dependent conditions, low order bits of the result of floating-point division operations would be incorrect, an error that can quickly compound in floating-point operations to much larger errors in subsequent calculations. Intel corrected the error in a future chip revision, but nonetheless declined to disclose it. In October 1994, Dr. Thomas Nicely, Professor of Mathematics at Lynchburg College independently discovered the bug, and upon receiving no response from his inquiry to Intel, on October 30 posted a message on the InternetWord of the bug spread quickly on the Internet and then to the industry press. Because the bug was easy to replicate by an average user (there was a sequence of numbers one could enter into the OS calculator to show the error), Intel's statements that it was minor and "not even an erratum" were not accepted by many computer users. During Thanksgiving 1994, The New York Times ran a piece by journalist John Markoff spotlighting the error. Intel changed its position and offered to replace every chip, quickly putting in place a large end-user support organization. This resulted in a $500 million charge against Intel's 1994 revenue. Ironically, the "Pentium flaw" incident, Intel's response to it, and the surrounding media coverage propelled Intel from being a technology supplier generally unknown to most computer......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper on Microprocessor Systems

...******************** ********************************** Term Paper On discipline “Microprocessor Systems” Done by ***** Student of ******** Checked by ********* Task Design MP System, based on single-chip 8-bit microprocessor KR580VM80AOA with the following characteristics: 1. CPU: KR580VM80A0A. 2. RAM: 24 KBytes 3. ROM: 40 KBytes 4. Controlling for parity. 5. Number of digital inputs: 8. 6. Number of digital outputs: 8. 7. Interrupt controller, with a fixed order of service. 8. DMA channel. 9. Serial channel. 10. Timer / counter. Content Introduction 1. The description of applied elements 2.1 Microprocessor KR580VM80A 2.2 Oscillator of clock pulses KP580ГФ2 2.3 Control unit of interruptions KP580BH5 2.4 System control unit KR580VK28 2.5 Programmed consecutive interface KR580VV51 2.6 Control unit of the keyboard and display KR580VV79 2.7 Microcircuit of random-access memory K537PУ17 2.8 Microcircuit of ROM K573PФ6 2.9 Microcircuit of decoder K155ID3 2.10 Microcircuit K514ИД2 2.11 Buffer register 1533АП5 2. Calculation part 3.12 Calculation and planning of address space of memory 3.13 Construction of circuit designs of decoding of addresses of memory 3.14 Calculation and planning address for input-output devices 3.15 Construction of circuit designs of decoding......

Words: 3184 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Microprocessor Slides Vhdl

...ECE-362 Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 1 Introduction to VHDL Introductory Concepts Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? In0 0 yOut In1 1 select Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? In0 0 yOut In1 1 select = 0 Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What hardware structure would perform an equivalent operation ? In0 0 yOut In1 1 select = 0 Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) q In the following ‘C’ program Yout is assigned the value of in0 or In1 depending on the value of Select :- if (select == 0) yOut := in0 else yOut := in1; ? What......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Is War

...Is War Primarily the Product of ‘Human Nature’? It is too great a task to identify a common cause of all wars, past and present, then attribute it responsibility for their commencing. However, what can be done is to identify certain foundations common in all “war”, and pay heed to how “states [or other structures] actually behave, behind the façade of their values-based rhetoric” (Kaplan, 2012, p.1). It will be this essay’s goal to determine first, what needs be included in the definition of “human nature”, and what constitutes “war”, and second, stake the claim that all political action, including that of states, is derived primarily from this definition of human nature. The first task is to define what is meant by “war”, and while definitions abound, it is possible to order them into one of two categories supplied by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. The first is the modern conventional view, that war is “the state of armed conflict between nations or states” (Oxford, 2007, p.3573), and the second, considerably broader, of “any active hostility or struggle between living beings” (Oxford, 2007, p.3573). The former accounts well for conflicts that were overwhelmingly state-centric, such as the First World War, and marks a clear distinction between war and individual political violence: war is the business of states. However, is the Vietnam War to be understood—like the Korean—as a simple north versus south conflict, despite the northern state only assuming active......

Words: 2214 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Wars

...War is an organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. It is generally characterised by extreme violence, social disruption and an attempt at economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of (collective) political violence or intervention. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called peace. While some scholars see warfare as an inescapable and integral aspect of human nature,[1] others argue that it is only inevitable under certain socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[2] For some, the practice of war is not linked to any single type of political organization or society. Rather, as discussed by John Keegan in his A History of Warfare, war is a universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by the society that wages it. Another argument suggests that since there are human societies in which warfare does not exist, humans may not be naturally disposed for warfare, which emerges under particular circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is the Second World War, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests.[3] Proportionally speaking, the most destructive war in modern history is the War of the Triple Alliance, which took the lives of over 60% of......

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Microprocessor

...applications, however I chose to research both topics so it can help myself get a better understanding about microcontrollers. James Pearson ET355PMicroprocessors | “The microprocessor, also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU), is the brain of all computers and many household and electronic devices. Multiple microprocessors, working together, are the "hearts" of datacenters, super-computers, communications products, and other digital devices. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. The 4004 was not very powerful; it was primarily used to perform simple mathematical operations in a calculator called “Busicom.” Just like microwaves or telephones, devices with microprocessors have become so integrated into our daily lives, that we cannot imagine a life without them. It’s sometimes hard to believe that only 60 years ago, computers were rare and were not available for the wider public. It wasn't until the '80s that computers entered our homes and - thanks to the microprocessor - really made an impact on the average person's life. Nowadays, modern microprocessors can perform extremely sophisticated operations in areas such as meteorology, aviation, nuclear physics and engineering, and take up much less space as well as delivering superior performance. Over the past 40 years, microprocessors have become faster and more powerful, yet increasingly smaller and more affordable. The manufacturing of a CPU is a highly complex and demanding process......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intel and the Microprocessor

...Term Paper: History of Intel and its microprocessors The microprocessor is a chip made of silicon that holds a central processing unit. Both the term’s central processing unit or CPU and microprocessor can be used and mean the same thing. The human brain has been compared to a microprocessor. Microprocessors are ultra fast calculators and what makes a microprocessor appear intelligent is the speed at which it can process data. The electronics industry names, microprocessors first by makers name and then model family name or number. A recent example, are the Intel Core i7 and AMD FX 8 Core Black Edition. Microprocessors provides scientist, engineers, architects, graphic designers, researchers, and other professionals with the processing power users to perform all the many functions needed to do their jobs and make new discoveries and explore what before could not have been even imagined. The history of microprocessors will be covered; this includes the history of Intel Corporation, important highlights in the development of the microprocessor. All digital computers use electronic switches. These switches represent binary digits or bits. The first computers used vacuum tubes as switches to represent on-or-off binary data, but vacuum tubes had many problems. Without the invention of the transistor, microprocessors and the modern computer would not be possible. Bell Laboratory engineers John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the transistor in 1947 (transistor).......

Words: 1753 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Modelling of Modern Microprocessors

...Modelling Of Modern Microprocessors Siddhant (Author) Department of Computer Science Lovely Professional University Phagwara, India siddhant_s@outlook.com Abstract--Microprocessors are also known as a CPU or central processing unit is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. This paper covers the evolution in microprocessors and the changes in the architecture of the microprocessor, the details of the latest microprocessors and the machines using them. The paper also discusses how the number of transistors affects the performance of processor.   A microprocessor can move data from one memory location to another. A microprocessor can make decisions and jump to a new set of instructions based on those decisions. The native language of a microprocessor is Assembly Language. The above mentioned are the three basic activities of a microprocessor. An extremely simple microprocessor capable of performing the above mentioned operations loos like: Index terms—Modern, architecture, Intel, PC, Apple. I. INTRODUCTION The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer, whether it is a desktop machine , a server or a laptop . The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982).The microprocessor is made up of transistors. CHIPA......

Words: 1808 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Evolution of Microprocessor

...Microprocessor Evolution: 4004 to Pentium-4 Joel Emer Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Based on the material prepared by Krste Asanovic and Arvind November 2, 2005 First Microprocessor Intel 4004, 1971 Image removed due to copyright restrictions. To view image, visit http://news.com.com/Images+Moores+L aw+turns+40/2009-1041_3-56490195.html November 2, 2005 6.823 L15- 2 Emer • 4-bit accumulator architecture • 8µm pMOS • 2,300 transistors • 3 x 4 mm2 • 750kHz clock • 8-16 cycles/inst. 6.823 L15- 3 Emer Microprocessors in the Seventies Initial target was embedded control • First micro, 4-bit 4004 from Intel, designed for a desktop printing calculator Constrained by what could fit on single chip • Single accumulator architectures 8-bit micros used in hobbyist personal computers • Micral, Altair, TRS-80, Apple-II Little impact on conventional computer market until VISICALC spreadsheet for Apple-II (6502, 1MHz) • First “killer” business application for personal computers November 2, 2005 6.823 L15- 4 Emer DRAM in the Seventies Dramatic progress in MOSFET memory technology 1970, Intel introduces first DRAM (1Kbit 1103) 1979, Fujitsu introduces 64Kbit DRAM => By mid-Seventies, obvious that PCs would soon have > 64KBytes physical memory November 2, 2005 Microprocessor Evolution 6.823 L15- 5 Emer Rapid......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

...5D6H = 150AH 20000H + 12FFH = 212FFH FFFFH + 2222H = 12221H 21-Answer the following: How many nibbles are 16 bits? 4 How many bytes are 32 bits? 4 If a word is defined in 16 bits, how many words is a 64-bit data item? 4 What is the exact value (in decimal) of 1 meg? 1,000,000 How many kilobytes is 1 meg? 1,000 What is the exact value (in decimal) of 1 gigabyte? 1,000,000,000 How many kilobytes is 1 gigabyte? 1,048,576 How many megs is 1 gigabyte? 1,024 If a given computer has a total of 8 megabytes of memory, how many bytes (in decimal) is this? 8388608 How many kilobytes is this? 8,192 Chapter 1 1-True or false. A general purpose microprocessor has on-chip ROM? False 2-True or false. A microprocessor has on-chip ROM? True 3-True or false. A microprocessor has on-chip I/O ports? True 4-True or false. A microprocessor has a fixed amount of RAM on the chip? True Chapter 2 1-In the 8051, looping action with the instruction “DJNZ Rx, rel address” is limited to 256 iterations. 2-If a conditional jump is not taken, what is the next instruction to be executed? The instruction following the jump. 3-In calculating the target address for a jump, a displacement is added to the contents of register PC....

Words: 319 - Pages: 2