Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

In: People

Submitted By jakqwe1
Words 393
Pages 2
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi a Hungarian by blood and was born in Fiume, Italy in 29 September 1934 and grew up in Europe during world war II between the ages of 7-10. As a teenager Dr. Csikszentmihalyi tried to read philosophy, learn religion, and take on forms of art to try to find an answer to how people affected by the war were able to withstand the tragedies that they had witnessed; and how they could even try to live normal lives. Csikszentmihalyi claims to have come upon psychology while at a ski resort in Switzerland. At the time the snow at the resort had melted so he couldn’t ski, and he was too poor to go to a movie. Instead he found a free presentation in Zurich on flying saucers. Csikszentmihalyi was intrigued by the presentation in Zurich and began reading books by Kyle Young before immigrating to the United States in 1952. While studying psychology in the U.S. Csikszentmihalyi started trying to understand the roots of happiness and the results of people being happy. Csikszentmihalyi began looking at creative people/artists, and tried to understand what makes them feel happy even though what they were doing didn’t exactly mean they would become rich or famous from it. He is known for his study of happiness and creativity , but he is best known for his years of research on study of flow. He is described by former the president of the American Psychological Association, Martin Seligman as the world’s leading researcher on positive psychology. Professor Csikszentmihalyi once said "Repression is not the way to virtue. When people restrain themselves out of fear, their lives are by necessity diminished. Only

through freely chosen discipline can life be enjoyed and still kept within the bounds of reason." His works are influential and are often cited. Csikszentmihalyi is the former head of the department of psychology at he University of Chicago…...

Similar Documents

Domestic Terrorism 3410 Mid Term

...and fluctuates according to historical and geographical contexts. Question 3 options: | True | | False | Save Question 4 (1 point)   Anarchism is a theory of governance that rejects any form of ________ authority. Question 4 options: | female or minority | | false or misleading | | central or external | | governmental | Save Question 5 (1 point)   One of the main objectives of terrorism is usually to gain publicity for some cause. Question 5 options: | True | | False | Save Question 6 (1 point)   According to _____, murder, especially murder-suicide, constitutes the highest form of revolutionary struggle. Question 6 options: | Johann Most | | Karl Marx | | Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi | | Albert Schweitzer | Save Question 7 (1 point)   As there is very little organized legislation one might call the law of terrorism, typical perpetrators are usually charged with ______. Question 7 options: | disturbing the peace | | terrorism | | political incitement | | other offenses | Save Question 8 (1 point)   Guerilla warfare is an unacceptable form of combat and is therefore classified as terrorism. Question 8 options: | True | | False | Save Question 9 (1 point)   The most important date in the study of terrorism is ____. Question 9 options: | September 11 | | May 5 | | December 25 | | April 19 | Save Question 10 (1 point)  ......

Words: 1685 - Pages: 7

Art 260

...contemporary art have a purpose, role, responsibility? -it only concerns with itself with the audience -art is a tool for something 3. Philosophical perspective: -what role does beauty play in contemporary art? does a work of art need to be beautiful? -> aesthetics -why is something considered as art while other things may not? -what is the basis of value judgment? (beautiful art” or good art”) who can make it? What kind of a behavior is art making? - non-utilitarian purpose -exploration, innovation -play -problem olving? -transcending “normal” modes of operation, seeking novelty and chaos - special kind of experience, heightened experience of being -creaitng an alternative reality -“flow” experience: mihaly csikszentmihalyi consider relationship between -skill (experience and ability to solve the problem/accomplish the task) -challenge )(novelty, innovation, investment) Why do we do it? Instinctual: basic human instinct for seeking balance, harmony, rhythm experience of mystery expression of imagination need for communivation with others ritualistic and symbolic fuctions experience with FLOW Motivated ((conscious, intentional) communication of an idea, emotion seeking pleasure, entertainment political and social functions: -agent of confrontations: change, transgression, subversion, anarchy -agent of confirmation: propaganda, commercialism- consumer culture (ads) What is art being used for? why do we look at it? -......

Words: 1962 - Pages: 8

Media: Mirror of Society

...from unhealthy to healthy. The negative being that viewer’s want to take the quickest and easiest ways in order to achieve results, which can lead to dangerous side effects and habits. So the question is, is it even worth it to try to look perfect if dangerous methods have to be used? We see all over the world, individuals trying to look their best by working out consistently, dieting, or both. All of which are done with one goal in mind, too look good to yourself and everyone else. Most of time individuals don’t try to look perfect for themselves but also for society. We try to adjust the standards of beauty and fitness that are perceived in magazines and ads. We construct the perfect self by picking up traits society wants to see. Csikszentmihalyi states in his essay, “What Is the Self?” that human perfection has been promoted throughout history and perfection is part of our nature (274). The idea of the perfect body hasn’t just evolved recently; it has been a part of the construction of selfhood for many centuries. People worry more about conforming to society’s image than being themselves nowadays, which takes a toll on individuals mentally because they might not be able to live up to society’s standards. Some individuals will try anything in order to look good. Individuals base their idea of the perfect body off of magazines and fitness ads such as Muscle and Fitness or Vogue; what they don’t know is that most of these models weren’t blessed with great bodies but that......

Words: 2036 - Pages: 9

Theories About the Relation Between Flow, Habit and Addiction

...help from CSI model, a phenomenon called “Boredom Bouncing” can be found when the level of challenge continue to increase while the individual has a low level of skills to finish the objects. The blurry line between flow and addiction should be considered with individuals’ self-control level. And after building the CSI model, a question should be asked is that whether there is a fourth variable that may affect the CSI model? If we add Time as the fourth element of the model, can we generate a four-dimensional model that can solve the addiction problem over time? Reference Brown, Stuart L., and Christopher C. Vaughan. Play: How It Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul. New York: Avery, 2009. Print. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row, 1990. Print....

Words: 2425 - Pages: 10

Five Psychologists

...Freud’s ideas including the Oedipus complex, and believed that society and culture also played a significant role in individual human development. He believed life was a contradiction since humans were both part of nature and separate from it . From this conflict arise basic existential needs including relatedness, creativity, rootedness, identity and a frame of orientation. He wanted to understand the laws that govern the life of an individual and the laws of the society, of men in their social existence. He strongly believed in forgetting the baggage the past weighed upon an individual and move ahead and realise one’s true potential and worth . Through his creative work, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi states the theory that people are happiest when they are in a state of flow- a state of concentration or complete absorption with the activity at hand and the situation therein. They are so engrossed that nothing else seems to matter. It is identical to the feeling of being in the zone or in the groove, an optimal state of intrinsic motivation where the person is fully immersed in what they are doing. Drawing a similarity with Mihaly’s this theory, I could relate my experience in a particular project at my workplace. Being a part of the R&D unit of a Maharatna company- Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., research projects if successful and the technology transferred to the manufacturing units thereon could bring rich dividends for......

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

Business

... | |[pic]|25. Flow, a term that refers to a deep state of focus resulting in losing track of time was defined as such and written | | |about by | | |Answer | | |Selected Answer: | | |[pic] c.  Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi | | |Correct Answer: | | |[pic] c.  Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi | Question 26 2 out of 2 points | | | |[pic]|26. Empathy is the art of | | |Answer | | |Selected Answer: ...

Words: 2191 - Pages: 9

Effects of Stimuli Upon Stress.

...mean occurs, stress levels are said to decrease, supporting the hypothesis. Similarly, a high standard deviation reflects a high level of spread amongst the data, and in which case, the median will be used as a more representative measure of the central measure. Results Figure 1: Mean, median and S.D. Conditions [3s.f] Pre-exposure: Post-exposure: OHI HR OHI HR Mean 3.99 75.9 4.56 71.0 Standard Deviation 0.54 9.94 1.08 8.06 Median 4.03 78.5 4.35 70.5 References Fredrickson, Barbara L, (2001). The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. American Psychologist, Vol. 56, No.3, 218-226. Seligman, Martin E.P, Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, (2000). Positive Psychology: An Introduction. American Psychologist, Vol. 55, No.1, 5-14. P. Hills, M. Argyle, 2002. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 33, 1073–1082. H. Schriffrin, S. N. (2008). Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship Between Happiness and Perceived Stress. Fredericksburg: University of Mary-Washington. Retrieved August 28th, 2014 W. Knight, N. R. (2001). Relaxing Music Prevents Stress-Induced Increases in Subjective Anxiety, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Healthy Males and Females. Melbourne: Monash University. Retrieved August 28th , 2014...

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Construction of Positivity in the Indian Scenario

...Scenario Construction of Positivity in Indian Scenario Construction of Positivity in Indian Scenario Dr. Jamal Akhtar*, Sarah Kazmi Rizvi** *Professor, Department Of Psychology, Govt. MLB Girls PG College (Autonomous), Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India ; email: jamal.akhtar28@gmail.com ** M.B.A., Delhi School of Economics, Delhi University, Delhi, India ; email: sarahkazmi90@gmail.com Abstract- Positivity refers to the degree to which something is positive or the quality or state of being positive. Positivity is that which accepts the world as it is, takes inspiration from it and sees the brighter side of it. Positive Psychology, a newly developed branch of Psychology, is an evolving branch of psychology developed by Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszenmihalyi in 1998. It was developed in order to get an insight and understanding in to various dimensions of the concept of positivity. The aim of this branch of psychology was summed up by its authors in the following words: “We believe that a psychology of positive human functioning will arise that achieve a scientific understanding and effective interventions to build thriving in individuals, families and communities.” Positive psychologists seek to find and nurture genius and talent and to make normal life more fulfilling rather than treating mental illness. The paper deals with a study carried out on Indian adults (both young and middle-aged males and females) to understand what constitutes as ‘positive’ in their lives with......

Words: 3285 - Pages: 14

Summary "Finding Flow"

...Schultz Professor Bodi ENG 112 13 September 2015 Achieving “Flow” []In “Finding Flow” Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi explores the idea of what it means “to live” (544). Csikszentmihalyi compares living with his idea to flow. Throughout the “Finding Flow” excerpt, Csikszentmihalyi discusses the idea of flow is to have a clear and concise goal, provide immediate feedback, and to balance skills and action opportunities (548). Csikszentmihalyi discusses a study he and his students conducted on employees of a factory that assembled railroad cars. Csikszentmihalyi goes on to describe the workplace as “a huge dirty hanger where one could hardly hear a word because of the constant noise” (545). The general morale and attitude of the employees were poor and most waited for the end of the day to hurry out of the factory to drown out every day monotony of factory life with other activities. There was one employee in particular, Joe, who Csikszentmihalyi describes as a married, sixty-something year old, almost illiterate man who was self taught to fix everything in that factory. Joe and his wife had a large rock garden filled with misty fountains that Joe built. Even when it was dark out, the fountains made a rainbow. The other factory workers had respect for Joe and would ask for his help to fix things. Csikszentmihalyi asks,“ What makes a life like his serene, useful, and worth living?” (545). Csikszentmihalyi goes on to discuss that often different parts of life do not line up with all......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Psychology

...Positive Psychology An Introduction Martin E. P. Seligman Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quali~.' of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework .['or a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish. E ntering a new millennium, Americans face a historical choice. Left alone on the pinnacle of economic and political leadership, the United States can continue to increase its material wealth while ignoring the human needs of its people and those of the rest of......

Words: 8985 - Pages: 36

Education & Philosophy

...through in learning; going from curiosity, through exploration, into making mistakes and learning from them. We need to let it happen. We as adults need to hold the safe and loving space around them that creates the feeling of freedom that allows all this real learning to happen. We also need to help them understand themselves. One result of understanding themselves, amongst the many others stated already is that they begin to recognize their passions. Their passions need to guide them into their vocations. A career followed without love for it, is imprisonment. Imprisonment leads to pain and conflict. Hence, we need to help children find those things that make them “flow” and have the kind of “optimal experiences” described by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1990), in which they are one with what they are learning, in which they experience wholeness and joy. That needs to be the basis for defining a vocation and a career. A child at play is in a state of “flow”. When playing, children are wholly present, exploring with every last cell of their bodies, being present, losing sense of time, feeling no pain, hunger or thirst. They are as alive as we know them to be. Play needs to be at the heart of education that is significant to life. That is where children start experiencing “flow” and learning what it means to truly love something they do. In such an education, the teacher is not passing on knowledge to a child. As Gibran (1971, 17) said so impact fully, “You may give them......

Words: 2564 - Pages: 11

Designing the Experience

...interaction design. Based on the work of John Dewey, Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, and Richard Carlson, I identify two types of experience in user–product interactions: satisfying experiences and rich experiences. A satisfying experience is a process–driven act that is performed in a successful manner. A rich experience has a sense of immersive continuity and interaction, which may be made up of a series of satisfying experiences. Based on this definition, I identify a set of design principles with which to create products that evoke rich experiences. These principles are intended to encourage designers to think about how to create user–product interactions that suggest values and communicate meanings that enrich the quality of life. Narrative plays a key role in these design principles. Our series of life experiences form a narrative; the values that designers impart in an object form a narrative which is elaborated by a user to satisfy his specific needs. The interaction between an individual and a product is a juxtaposition of narratives. A rich user–product interaction forms a narrative that meshes with the series of experiences that make up one’s life story. It evokes an experience which becomes one of the extended experiences that shape our lives. 3 DESIGNING FOR EXPERIENCE: AN APPROACH TO HUMAN–CENTERED DESIGN CONTENTS I. Introduction II. What is Experience? John Dewey: Having an Experience Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: The meaning of products Richard Carlson:......

Words: 13374 - Pages: 54

Resarch Yerm Paper

...paper then closes with a series of recent psychological findings, both positive and negative, on the topics of motivation, affect, optimal experience, creativity, procrastination, and interruption. These are seen as instrumental to the realization of learning systems that strive to foster self-actualization. 2. Self-actualization, learning and creativity: a synergistic cycle Self-actualization, ‘‘the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming’’ (Goble, 1970), as stated in Abraham Maslow’s theory of basic needs, is fundamentally equivalent to the goals for education, learning environments, and creativity, espoused by notable educators and psychologists: Teresa Amabile, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Edgar Faure, Alan Kay, Seymour Papert, and Paul Torrance. These goals emphasize learning in relation to creativity, incubation, play, imagination, analogy, flexibility, optimal experience, joy, well-being, and adequate challenge. There is agreement not only that learning and creativity are essential to self-actualization, but also that self-awareness, intrinsic motivation, and self-actualization are fundamental to learning and creativity as well: there is a synergistic cycle. In the following paragraphs I will summarize relevant contributions of each of the aforementioned individuals. Amabile has created a social psychology and computational model of creativity. Her structure includes three components within the......

Words: 7748 - Pages: 31

How Flow and Csikszentmihalyi Came to Be

...Running head: HOW FLOW AND CSIKSZENTMIHALYI How Flow and Csikszentmihalyi Came To Be S Langford Regis University Kristy Frush April 12, 2009 How “Flow” and Csikszentmihalyi Came to Be One may wonder who Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is. In this discussion a review his life as a child and into his adult life and how he came into discovery of the “flow” development. Discussions of his accomplishments as well as those who are inspired by him are given. Sometimes a person needs to know about a person’s background in order to appreciate the obstacles experienced for the realization that is possible for others to overcome ones past and realize the possibility of a more positive future. A view of how the “flow” has benefitted some. Csikszentmihalyi is known for his obsession for serenity, the man behind the “flow” and his life experiences getting there. On September 29, 1934 he was born in Fiume, Italy to his father a Hungarian diplomatic (Answers, 2006). He lived in various places growing up such as Rome and Florence. During his time as a child he spoke various languages from German, Hungarian, and Italian which proved to be an asset while living in an Italian prison camp during World War II. He lived through bombing throughout Rome as well as POW and refugee camps. It was during this time he learned how to play chess which became his way of escaping the world and the routines of the daily life activities of and from the war (Starr, 2008). The rules and......

Words: 2212 - Pages: 9

Personal Development on Motivation

...see the | |holistic benefit implied when teaching and learning are on the same course. Teaching and learning can lead to | |practical memorable experiences and enjoyment. | |Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi claims enjoyment has eight major components. Instructors and learners can ask | |themselves what is enjoyable or lacking in any classroom setting by inquiring, do I have a chance of completing | |the task? Can I concentrate on the task? Are there clear goals and immediate feedback? Do I feel involved enough| |that I become unaware of other frustrations? Do I have a sense of control over the task? Can I lose myself in | |this task without worry and is my sense of time altered? Examining these aspects, and seeking to fulfil them, | |leads to an optimal experience Csikszentmihalyi, and others, have named Flow. | |Csikszentmihalyi has an interesting, if not controversial, view on rote learning. Memorising, he says, is worth | |the effort. Not only does it create order and content, there is the advantage of being able to amuse oneself | |without external stimulation. Rote memory, encourages Csikszentmihalyi, creates a feeling of ownership and | |connectedness with the subject area. | |[pic] |Rote learning is known to help develop......

Words: 5629 - Pages: 23