Multi Cultural Work Life Balance Literature Reviews

In: Business and Management

Submitted By winshag
Words 3132
Pages 13
Is it suitable for Multicultural Organizations to inherit the assumption that Work Life Balance Policies are Gender Neutral?

Introduction

Definition

Work Life Balance is not a homogenous concept, and not amenable for precise definition as different people interpret WLB differently; the ideal ‘balance’ can vary at stages of the life cycle (Chandra, V., 2012). Experts within the field have faced difficulties in trying to define the concept, regardless of the wealth existing literature on the subject.

WLB policies have been defined as ‘those that enhance the autonomy of workers in the process of coordinating and integrating work and non work aspects of their lives (Felstead et al, 2002). From an employees perspectives it is the maintenance of a balance between work and family responsibilities. This definition allows for a wide range of policies to be included under the guise of WLB initiatives. WLB policies in an organizational setting include, but are not limited to, flexible working arrangements, child and dependent care and family and parental leave (Bardoel, 1998).

Importance

Many Human Resource Professionals, employers associations, government departments, trade unions, academics and voluntary organizations around the world are currently debating and often enacting, policies and practices designed to promote work life balance (Fleetwood, S., 2007). The effective management of WLB is an issue increasingly recognized as of strategic importance to organizations and of significance to employees (Cieri, H., Holmes, B., Abbott, J., Pettit, T., 2005). In more recent years there has been an exponential growth in WLB practices (Chandra, V., 2012) due to globalization, organizational reorganization and efficiency drives, increasingly sophisticated technology responsible for bringing about 24/7 workplaces; blurring the distinction between work and home…...

Similar Documents

Work Life Balance

...Seven Categories of Work-Life Effectiveness Successfully Evolving Your Organization’s Work-Life Portfolio • Caring for Dependents • Health and Wellness • Workplace Flexibility • inancial Support F for Economic Security • Paid and Unpaid Time Off • Community Involvement • liciting Management E Buy-In and Transforming Organizational Culture C1 Defining Work-Life Effectiveness Work-life refers to specific organizational practices, policies and programs that are guided by a philosophy of active support for the efforts of employees to achieve success within and outside the workplace. These employersponsored initiatives comprise a strategic framework referred to as the worklife portfolio, a key element of the organization’s total rewards strategy to attract, motivate and retain employees. Career Build Your Portfolio Step One: Assess your present work-life situation It is easy to construct the outline of your organization’s existing work-life portfolio by performing a simple inventory of the policies, practices and programs currently offered within each category of the work-life portfolio. A useful resource for this activity is the Work-Life Audit, available on the Alliance for Work-Life Progress website. www.awlp.org/pub/selfaudit.pdf he term “work-life” refers to the T intersection of self (the worker), career (work), family and community. Self Life Family Community Creating and Sustaining a Successful......

Words: 3733 - Pages: 15

Work Life Balance

...Sociologica http://asj.sagepub.com/ Work-Life 'Balance' in Europe Rosemary Crompton and Clare Lyonette Acta Sociologica 2006 49: 379 DOI: 10.1177/0001699306071680 The online version of this article can be found at: http://asj.sagepub.com/content/49/4/379 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Nordic Sociological Association Additional services and information for Acta Sociologica can be found at: Email Alerts: http://asj.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://asj.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://asj.sagepub.com/content/49/4/379.refs.html >> Version of Record - Nov 13, 2006 What is This? Downloaded from asj.sagepub.com at University of Huddersfield on October 7, 2012 ACTA SOCIOLOGICA 2006 Work–Life ‘Balance’ in Europe Rosemary Crompton and Clare Lyonette Department of Sociology, City University, London, UK abstract: Although work–life ‘balance’ is an EU policy priority, within Europe there are considerable variations in the nature and extent of supports that national governments have offered to dual-earner families. In general, the Nordic welfare states offer the highest level of supports, although other countries, such as France, have historically offered extensive childcare supports to working mothers. We examine national variations in reported levels of work–life conflict, drawing upon......

Words: 9246 - Pages: 37

Work Life Balance

...Factors Affecting Work Life Balance among University Teachers: the case of Pakistan Noor Fatima: Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Pakistan. noor_e_fatimah@hotmail.com Dr Shamim A.Sahibzada: Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Pakistan. shamim@szabist-isb.edu.pk Abstract Balance in work and family life is an emerging challenge for both employees and employers. The present research categorises selected variables as work and family related factors to study work life balance. This paper analyses the determinants of work and life imbalance with respect to male and female university teachers. A total of 146 teacher’s responses from both private and public sector universities are included in the study. Statistical analysis reveals that partner support, colleague support and job resources are positively associated with the work life balance whereas unfair criticism at job is negatively associated with work life balance. Independent sample t-test is used to analyse the effect of independent variables on work life balance with respect to male and female university teachers. The variables, partner support, childcare responsibilities, elder dependency, and colleagues support have different effect when analysed by male and female university teachers as independent samples. Keywords: Work life balance, University, Teachers, 1. Introduction Work/life is commonly referred to as work and family. To balance between......

Words: 6862 - Pages: 28

Work-Life Balance

...THE IMPACT OF NON-WORK ACTIVITIES IN WORK BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM Nowadays, non-work activities are demanding increased attention, because people desire a career that leaves them with time and energy to devote to work and life demands. For many members of The Marketing Store, demands of work and personal lives can lead to conflict between the two roles and decrease overall life satisfaction. This report was designed to analyze the impact of non-work activities in work behaviour in The Marketing Store. Specifically the analysis of this report seeks answers to these questions: 1) Why should the management care about work-life balance? 2) What can the management do to reduce this conflict? 3) What can employees do to cope effectively with work-life balance? BACKGROUNG This report was authorized by Professor Rhonda Malomet. At her request, a study of the impact of non-work activities in work behaviour was developed. It was primarily based on interviews and survey. The purpose of this report was to analyze the current situation in The Marketing Store regarding the work-life conflict, and come up with suggestions that might contribute to reduce this conflict. The Marketing Store is a medium size company located at 1209 King Street West, Toronto. It is a marketing services agency, specializing in brand activation, in sales promotion, and field marketing. Among its clients are well known companies such as McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and Best Buy. Data for this......

Words: 1133 - Pages: 5

Work Life Balance

...The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0142-5455.htm Quality of work life and career development: perceptions of part-time MBA students Jessica Li College of Information, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA, and Quality of work life and career development 201 Received 19 April 2010 Revised 8 November 2010 Accepted 10 November 2010 Roland K. Yeo Kuwait Maastricht Business School, Salmiya, Kuwait Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine what employees perceive as positive and negative aspects of their work, and how these affect their perceptions of the quality of work life (QWL) and their career development decisions. Design/methodology/approach – This is a qualitative study using data collected from an online discussion forum. Thematic and textual analysis was performed to identify core themes associated with perceptions of QWL and career development. Data analysis was based on the researchers’ interpretations of narratives based on the online postings of 140 part-time MBA students and guided by the literature. Findings – Four major themes emerged as domains of tensions within which employees operated to construct meanings around their work life. These include: internal and external tension, private and public tension, self and otherness tension, and present and future tension. Career development support, flexibility and autonomy in job design as well as flexibility in career......

Words: 9993 - Pages: 40

Work Life Balance

...examines why work-life balance is essential for every employee. Some of the reasons why organizations should maintain a work-life balance for all the employees include stress reduction. It increases the ability of the employees to deliver while at the work place. It creates harmony between the private life of an employee and their work-life. It raises employee commitment in the organization, therefore, increasing productivity. It enhances flexibility among employees in the work place. A proper work-life balance also helps an organization attract and retain employee competitive employees in the organization. The paper also examines the different strategies that can be used by organizations to ensure better work-life balance for the employees. They include offering employees adequate vacation. Organizations can offer flextime for the employees as it enables them, enjoy their vacations. Proper staffing also ensures employees are not over worked. Introduction Work-life balance refers to a concept that entails prioritizing between career and lifestyle where lifestyle includes family, leisure or pleasure. The work-shy refer to the employees who are never inclined to work. It refers to a concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) that enables employees to manage their energy and time between work and other aspects of life. It involves efforts by an employee to create time for personal activities and the workplace. It is not true to state that work-life......

Words: 1160 - Pages: 5

Work Life Balance Reflection

...Work-Life Balance Reflection This essay deals with the Work-life Balance workshop which took place on the EBS Campus Schloss on the 12th and 13th of September there were five different workshops which were held by different presenters and concerned a variety of topics. Work Life Balance is not just a phrase it is a very important thing. To organize your social- with your business life will help you to get everything done right. And it could prevent you from getting burned out. At the very beginning we did a spaghetti-challenge to build up some kind of team spirit and to show us that if you do not trial and error you will never succeed and learn how to cope with stress and failure in a playful manner. It was a great idea, but I think the group size was too big to organize it well, it just took too long to get together and this stuff done. Though it showed to me that even such simple things as building up a spaghetti tower with a marshmallow on top could cause a lot of stress and pressure. In the workshop Manage yourself, held by Ms Petra Weiler, we were told to realize, that we have a certain amount of time per week and have to plan it how we want to pass it and how we could arrange our free time around our duties. This skill is very important to be successful in your professional and students life. You could procrastinate and not organize your time and if it comes to the deadlines you will have a lot of stress to do it on time or you could have planned your time and......

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Women Work Life Balance

...Work Life Balance for Women [Name of the Writer] [Name of the Institution] Table of Contents Abstract iii Introduction 2 Problems in Work Life Balance 4 Demographic Variables and Work Life Balance 4 Achieving the Balanced Life 6 Self Efficacy 6 Emotional Intelligence 7 Employer Efforts 7 Conclusion 10 References 11 Abstract Work-life balance describes the practices at work place that create an equilibrium in demands of employees to maintain a healthy family life and work activities. The demands and pressure is a greater challenge for female workforce to balance work life activities. The conflicts in such situation also has significant impact in career advancements of women. Organisations also play their part by creating a healthy work place culture that reflects cornerns for needs of employees during work and after work. Organisations should periodically review their contemprorary work processes and practices. They should determine the inefficiencies and reasons of stress that negatively effect motivation and commitment of female employees. This research study aims to undertake the factors that can affect the career women work-life balance. Work Life Balance for Women Introduction Work Life balance is a term that suggests the individuals how much control they have on the situations like when to work and how to work. It describes those practices that an individual aims to achieve equilibrium between family......

Words: 2709 - Pages: 11

Work Life Balance

...2003 Research Quarterly ❶y❸❹ Work/Life Balance Challenges and Solutions Nancy R. Lockwood HR Content Expert y SOCIETY FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SHRM Research ❶y❸❹ 2003 SHRM®Research Quarterly Abstract In organizations and on the home front, the challenge of work/life balance is rising to the top of many employers’ and employees’ consciousness. In today’s fast-paced society, human resource professionals seek options to positively impact the bottom line of their companies, improve employee morale, retain employees with valuable company knowledge, and keep pace with workplace trends. This article provides human resource professionals with an historical perspective, data and possible solutions—for organizations and employees alike—to work/life balance. Three factors—global competition, personal lives/family values, and an aging workforce— present challenges that exacerbate work/life balance. This article offers the perspective that human resource professionals can assist their companies to capitalize on these factors by using work/life initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Work/Life Balance: Challenges and Solutions I n a society filled with conflicting responsibilities and commitments, work/life balance has become a predominant issue in the workplace. Three major factors contribute to the interest in, and the importance of, serious consideration of work/life balance: 1) global competition; 2) renewed interest in......

Words: 7141 - Pages: 29

Work Life Balance

...Abstract Work-life balance effects families all over America. This paper examines many contributing factors that determine the work life balance of families and they include ethnicity, social status, type of work, work leave policies, flexibility of employers, and what industry employees are employed in. There are few government regulations that help with the work-life balance of employees. Most of the work-life balance decisions are made by the employee’s family structure and employers policies. When there are work life imbalances stress, spillover, and burnout occur at work and also effect the family. This literature review aims at looking at all the factors that contribute to the growing issue of work-life balance in America. Currently only one law, the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) passed by the United States (US) government gives employees unpaid time off for certain situations. The review reveals a lack of US government and private companies’ involvement in creating better work-life balance policies for employees. Work-Life Balance People across the United States struggle with work-life balance. Married and un-married people are just trying to make ends meet and provide for family. The same people have to make sure the house stays maintained and children are taken care of. Finding time for stress relieving activities or something enjoyable can be tough. Companies can help with work-life balance by providing certain policies to increase the......

Words: 4643 - Pages: 19

Work Life Balance

...Impact of Work Life Balance on Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is identification of work life balance (WLB) dimensions which significantly contribute in enhancing the performance of the employees of the public sector organizations (PSOs) of Pakistan. This study has identified six dimensions of work life balance: organizational commitment, employee wellbeing, work family conflict, decision authority, care for family demands and job stress. The views of 131 public sector employees working at different tiers were collected to identify the impact of work life balance on employee’s performance in public sector organizations of Pakistan. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used for drawing samples from population. Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. This study indicates that a statistically significant positive relationship exist between each of identified dimension of work life balance as each of the dimension if catered for, help in enhancing the performance of the employees in PSOs. Importance of employee’s wellbeing and care for family demands as key dimension of work life balance is also emphasized by this study. Consequently this study contributes in providing guidelines to introduce various dimensions of WLB to enhance employee’s performance in PSOs of Pakistan. Keywords: WLB, employee’s performance, public......

Words: 9654 - Pages: 39

Expatriates: Work Life Balance

...There are three types of travel stressors that can affect a business travel: pre-trip, trip, and post-trip stressors (DeFrank et al, 2000:60). There are also several factors that influence the psychological and physiological well-being of travelling executives: demographics, personality, job, organisational, home and family, and travel impedance. First of all, pre-trip stressors (DeFrank et al, 2000:60) reflect the demanding and challenging tasks that must be solved before going on business travel. These are: trip planning, work arrangements, and home and family issues. It is true that, a successful business travel requires strategic and thorough planning. However, this process can be very stressful and challenging. One might think that all these tasks are taken care of by an assistant or travel staff. And that is true. Nevertheless, an executive still has to give his input on his own preferences regarding air travel, hotel, meeting dates, and flight times. Work arrangements can also add up to an executive pre- trip stress. While trying to find a subordinate to delegate his tasks and making sure that urgent business matters are being resolved, an executive will only fear a tremendous pressure. Family is another concern that executives have to cope with. According to a survey (DeFrank et al, 2000:61) , 75% of married travellers feel that it is difficult to be away from home for long periods. Trip stressors include characteristics of the travel, travel logistics, health......

Words: 4086 - Pages: 17

Work/Life Balance

...Dissertation Draft “Work/Life Balance” PREPARED BY: Mbogo .W.A (Moi) © 2011 Abstract This study is used to determine the cultural readiness of employers and employees for work/life initiatives. There are strategies that have been used to evaluate the importance of work life balance and culture through considering the perceived managerial support that affects the employee’s decision to devote time for family and the job. It has been observed that organizational time puts a lot of emphasis through time demands and expectations that may distort or interfere with family responsibilities. In this study, the main focus is to identify how work life balance and family benefits are merged and translated to the benefits that workers get that are translated to greater commitments, reduced work/family conflicts, and reduced intention to leave. The study results will be used to confirm the issue of work life initiatives, such as the work/family culture that is related to work attitudes as well as perceived managerial supports that are linked with less intention to move away from work places. Furthermore, this research will study the work/life balance and its implications on both for men and women, focusing on the differences in marital status and managerial positions to understand the relationship between gender, managerial level and work/life balance. The paper aims at exploring the idea of work/life balance that incorporates the benefits that both employers and......

Words: 7471 - Pages: 30

Work-Life Balance Scale

...Work-Life Balance Scale* A study regarding the six aspects of work-life balance scale Presented By: Tazeen Hamid Umer Qasim Presented To: Miss Saba Rana Final Research Project Human Resource Management Work-Life Balance Scale* Introduction Work-life (W-L) Balance Scale is meant to diagnose the level and areas of W-L balance in an organization, as perceived by its employees. It should be responded by their employees at various levels in different departments/sections. (Pareek, 2002) Creating a balance between one’s personal life and one’s professional life is now considered to be the very tool in achieving a prosperous multidimensional life. Organizations worldwide are trying hard to create a balance for their employees, which in turn would create a healthy and satisfied workforce that would allow any organization to grow successfully. The study presented here discusses work-life balance of fifty individuals (twenty five Working Males and twenty five Working Females) with respect to the following six aspects namely: 1. Social Needs 2. Personal Needs 3. Time Management 4. Team Work 5. Compensation and Benefits 6. Work The ability to combine work, family commitments and personal life is important for the wellbeing of all household members. It is also important for society as a whole, as it ensures that people have sufficient time, to socialize and participate in the life of the community. This chapter presents a selection of......

Words: 5070 - Pages: 21

Work Life Balance

...Benefits of Work-life balance Benefits for you Employees in companies already implementing work-life practices enjoy significant benefits such as: * Being able to effectively manage multiple responsibilities at home, work and in the community without guilt or regret. * Being able to work in flexible ways so that earning an income and managing family/other commitments become easier. * Being part of a supportive workplace that values and trusts staff. People want to be able to have1: * a good quality of life * an enjoyable work life and career progression * training and development * good health * affordable childcare or eldercare * further education * more money * time to travel * time with friends and family * time to do sports and hobbies * time to do voluntary work Benefits for your business Good work-life balance policies and practices are good for business.  Some of the benefits for you and your staff are: * Getting and keeping the right staff * Getting the best from staff * Being an ‘employer of choice’ and future proofing * Improving productivity Getting and keeping the right staff Finding and keeping good staff can be difficult especially in a tight labour market. Employers who can offer work-life balance and flexible work options are likely to have the competitive edge, gain access to a wider recruitment pool, and are more likely to hold onto existing staff.  As a result......

Words: 6719 - Pages: 27