Mytask

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By boldoo
Words 2000
Pages 8
Artificial Intelligence

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Outline
♦ What is AI? ♦ A brief history ♦ The state of the art

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What is AI?

Systems that think like humans Systems that think rationally Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationally

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Acting humanly: The Turing test
Turing (1950) “Computing machinery and intelligence”: ♦ “Can machines think?” −→ “Can machines behave intelligently?” ♦ Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game
HUMAN HUMAN INTERROGATOR

?
AI SYSTEM

♦ Predicted that by 2000, a machine might have a 30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes ♦ Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years ♦ Suggested major components of AI: knowledge, reasoning, language understanding, learning Problem: Turing test is not reproducible, constructive, or amenable to mathematical analysis
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Thinking humanly: Cognitive Science
1960s “cognitive revolution”: information-processing psychology replaced prevailing orthodoxy of behaviorism Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain – What level of abstraction? “Knowledge” or “circuits”? – How to validate? Requires 1) Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (top-down) or 2) Direct identification from neurological data (bottom-up) Both approaches (roughly, Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience) are now distinct from AI Both share with AI the following characteristic: the available theories do not explain (or engender) anything resembling human-level general intelligence Hence, all three fields share one principal direction!

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Thinking rationally: Laws of Thought
Normative (or prescriptive) rather than descriptive Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes? Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic: notation and rules of…...

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