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Networking Basics

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1 INTRODUCTION

Each of the past three centuries was dominated by a single new technology. The 18th century was the era of the great mechanical systems accompanying the Industrial Revolution. The 19th century was the age of the steam engine. During the 20th century, the key technology was information gathering, processing, and distribution. Among other developments, we saw the installation of worldwide telephone networks, the invention of radio and television, the birth and unprecedented growth of the computer industry, the launching of communication satellites, and, of course, the Internet.

As a result of rapid technological progress, these areas are rapidly converging in the 21st century and the differences between collecting, transporting, storing, and processing information are quickly disappearing. Organizations with hundreds of offices spread over a wide geographical area routinely expect to be able to examine the current status of even their most remote outpost at the push of a button. As our ability to gather, process, and distribute information grows, the demand for ever more sophisticated information processing grows even faster.

Although the computer industry is still young compared to other industries (e.g., automobiles and air transportation), computers have made spectacular progress in a short time. During the first two decades of their existence, computer systems were highly centralized, usually within a single large room. Not infrequently, this room had glass walls, through which visitors could gawk at the great electronic wonder inside. A medium-sized company or university might have had
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2 one or two computers, while very large institutions had at most a few dozen. The idea that within forty years vastly more powerful computers smaller than postage stamps would be mass produced by the billions was pure science fiction.

The merging of computers and communications has had a profound influence on the way computer systems are organized. The once-dominant concept of the “computer center” as a room with a large computer to which users bring their work for processing is now totally obsolete (although data centers holding thousands of Internet servers are becoming common). The old model of a single computer serving all of the organization’s computational needs has been replaced by one in which a large number of separate but interconnected computers do the job. These systems are called computer networks. The design and organization of these networks are the subjects of this book.

Throughout the book we will use the term “computer network” to mean a collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information. The connection need not be via a copper wire; fiber optics, microwaves, infrared, and communication satellites can also be used. Networks come in many sizes, shapes and forms, as we will see later. They are usually connected together to make larger networks, with the Internet being the most well-known example of a network of networks.

There is considerable confusion in the literature between a computer network and a distributed system. The key distinction is that in a distributed system, a collection of independent computers appears to its users as a single coherent system. Usually, it has a single model or paradigm that it presents to the users. Often a layer of software on top of the operating system, called middleware, is responsible for implementing this model. A well-known example of a distributed system is the World Wide Web. It runs on top of the Internet and presents a model in which everything looks like a document (Web page).

In a computer network, this coherence, model, and software are absent. Users are exposed to the actual machines, without any attempt by the system to make the machines look and act in a coherent way. If the machines have different hardware and different operating systems, that is fully visible to the users. If a user wants to run a program on a remote machine, he† has to log onto that machine and run it there.

In effect, a distributed system is a software system built on top of a network. The software gives it a high degree of cohesiveness and transparency. Thus, the distinction between a network and a distributed system lies with the software (especially the operating system), rather than with the hardware.

Nevertheless, there is considerable overlap between the two subjects. For example, both distributed systems and computer networks need to move files around. The difference lies in who invokes the movement, the system or the user.

† “He” should be read as “he or she” throughout this book.

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Although this book primarily focuses on networks, many of the topics are also important in distributed systems. For more information about distributed systems, see Tanenbaum and Van Steen (2007).
1.1 USES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
Before we start to examine the technical issues in detail, it is worth devoting some time to pointing out why people are interested in computer networks and what they can be used for. After all, if nobody were interested in computer networks, few of them would be built. We will start with traditional uses at companies, then move on to home networking and recent developments regarding mobile users, and finish with social issues.
1.1.1 Business Applications
Most companies have a substantial number of computers. For example, a company may have a computer for each worker and use them to design products, write brochures, and do the payroll. Initially, some of these computers may have worked in isolation from the others, but at some point, management may have decided to connect them to be able to distribute information throughout the company.
Put in slightly more general form, the issue here is resource sharing. The goal is to make all programs, equipment, and especially data available to anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the resource or the user. An obvious and widespread example is having a group of office workers share a common printer. None of the individuals really needs a private printer, and a high-volume networked printer is often cheaper, faster, and easier to maintain than a large collection of individual printers.
However, probably even more important than sharing physical resources such as printers, and tape backup systems, is sharing information. Companies small and large are vitally dependent on computerized information. Most companies have customer records, product information, inventories, financial statements, tax information, and much more online. If all of its computers suddenly went down, a bank could not last more than five minutes. A modern manufacturing plant, with a computer-controlled assembly line, would not last even 5 seconds. Even a small travel agency or three-person law firm is now highly dependent on computer networks for allowing employees to access relevant information and documents instantly.
For smaller companies, all the computers are likely to be in a single office or perhaps a single building, but for larger ones, the computers and employees may be scattered over dozens of offices and plants in many countries. Nevertheless, a sales person in New York might sometimes need access to a product inventory 34database in Singapore. Networks called VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) may be used to join the individual networks at different sites into one extended network. In other words, the mere fact that a user happens to be 15,000 km away from his data should not prevent him from using the data as though they were local. This goal may be summarized by saying that it is an attempt to end the “tyranny of geography.”
In the simplest of terms, one can imagine a company’s information system as consisting of one or more databases with company information and some number of employees who need to access them remotely. In this model, the data are stored on powerful computers called servers. Often these are centrally housed and maintained by a system administrator. In contrast, the employees have simpler machines, called clients, on their desks, with which they access remote data, for example, to include in spreadsheets they are constructing. (Sometimes we will refer to the human user of the client machine as the “client,” but it should be clear from the context whether we mean the computer or its user.) The client and server machines are connected by a network, as illustrated in Fig. 1-1. Note that we have shown the network as a simple oval, without any detail. We will use this form when we mean a network in the most abstract sense. When more detail is required, it will be provided. This whole arrangement is called the client-server model. It is widely used and forms the basis of much network usage. The most popular realization is that of a Web application, in which the server generates Web pages based on its database in response to client requests that may update the database. The client-server model is applicable when the client and server are both in the same building (and belong to the same company), but also when they are far apart. For example, when a person at home accesses a page on the World Wide Web, the same model is employed, with the remote Web server being the server and the user’s personal45computer being the client. Under most conditions, one server can handle a large number (hundreds or thousands) of clients simultaneously.
If we look at the client-server model in detail, we see that two processes (i.e., running programs) are involved, one on the client machine and one on the server machine. Communication takes the form of the client process sending a message over the network to the server process. The client process then waits for a reply message. When the server process gets the request, it performs the requested work or looks up the requested data and sends back a reply. These messages are shown in Fig. 1-2. Figure 1-2. The client-server model involves requests and replies. A second goal of setting up a computer network has to do with people rather than information or even computers. A computer network can provide a powerful communication medium among employees. Virtually every company that has two or more computers now has email (electronic mail), which employees generally use for a great deal of daily communication. In fact, a common gripe around the water cooler is how much email everyone has to deal with, much of it quite meaningless because bosses have discovered that they can send the same (often content-free) message to all their subordinates at the push of a button.
Telephone calls between employees may be carried by the computer network instead of by the phone company. This technology is called IP telephony or Voice over IP (VoIP) when Internet technology is used. The microphone and speaker at each end may belong to a VoIP-enabled phone or the employee’s computer. Companies find this a wonderful way to save on their telephone bills.
Other, richer forms of communication are made possible by computer networks. Video can be added to audio so that employees at distant locations can see and hear each other as they hold a meeting. This technique is a powerful tool for eliminating the cost and time previously devoted to travel. Desktop sharing lets remote workers see and interact with a graphical computer screen. This makes it easy for two or more people who work far apart to read and write a shared blackboard or write a report together. When one worker makes a change to an online document, the others can see the change immediately, instead of waiting several days for a letter. Such a speedup makes cooperation among far-flung groups of people easy where it previously had been impossible. More ambitious forms of remote coordination such as telemedicine are only now starting to be used (e.g., 56remote patient monitoring) but may become much more important. It is sometimes said that communication and transportation are having a race, and whichever wins will make the other obsolete.
A third goal for many companies is doing business electronically, especially with customers and suppliers. This new model is called e-commerce (electronic commerce) and it has grown rapidly in recent years. Airlines, bookstores, and other retailers have discovered that many customers like the convenience of shopping from home. Consequently, many companies provide catalogs of their goods and services online and take orders online. Manufacturers of automobiles, aircraft, and computers, among others, buy subsystems from a variety of suppliers and then assemble the parts. Using computer networks, manufacturers can place orders electronically as needed. This reduces the need for large inventories and enhances efficiency.
1.1.2 Home Applications
In 1977, Ken Olsen was president of the Digital Equipment Corporation, then the number two computer vendor in the world (after IBM). When asked why Digital was not going after the personal computer market in a big way, he said: “There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home.” History showed otherwise and Digital no longer exists. People initially bought computers for word processing and games. Recently, the biggest reason to buy a home computer was probably for Internet access. Now, many consumer electronic devices, such as set-top boxes, game consoles, and clock radios, come with embedded computers and computer networks, especially wireless networks, and home networks are broadly used for entertainment, including listening to, looking at, and creating music, photos, and videos.
Internet access provides home users with connectivity to remote computers. As with companies, home users can access information, communicate with other people, and buy products and services with e-commerce. The main benefit now comes from connecting outside of the home. Bob Metcalfe, the inventor of Ethernet, hypothesized that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of users because this is roughly the number of different connections that may be made (Gilder, 1993). This hypothesis is known as “Metcalfe’s law.” It helps to explain how the tremendous popularity of the Internet comes from its size.

Access to remote information comes in many forms. It can be surfing the World Wide Web for information or just for fun. Information available includes the arts, business, cooking, government, health, history, hobbies, recreation, science, sports, travel, and many others. Fun comes in too many ways to mention, plus some ways that are better left unmentioned.
Many newspapers have gone online and can be personalized. For example, it is sometimes possible to tell a newspaper that you want everything about corrupt 67politicians, big fires, scandals involving celebrities, and epidemics, but no football, thank you. Sometimes it is possible to have the selected articles downloaded to your computer while you sleep. As this trend continues, it will cause massive unemployment among 12-year-old paperboys, but newspapers like it because distribution has always been the weakest link in the whole production chain. Of course, to make this model work, they will first have to figure out how to make money in this new world, something not entirely obvious since Internet users expect everything to be free.
The next step beyond newspapers (plus magazines and scientific journals) is the online digital library. Many professional organizations, such as the ACM (www.acm.org) and the IEEE Computer Society (www.computer.org), already have all their journals and conference proceedings online. Electronic book readers and online libraries may make printed books obsolete. Skeptics should take note of the effect the printing press had on the medieval illuminated manuscript.
Much of this information is accessed using the client-server model, but there is different, popular model for accessing information that goes by the name of peer-to-peer communication (Parameswaran et al., 2001). In this form, individuals who form a loose group can communicate with others in the group, as shown in Fig. 1-3. Every person can, in principle, communicate with one or more other people; there is no fixed division into clients and servers.
Figure 1-3. In a peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers. Many peer-to-peer systems, such BitTorrent (Cohen, 2003), do not have any central database of content. Instead, each user maintains his own database locally and provides a list of other nearby people who are members of the system. A new user can then go to any existing member to see what he has and get the names of other members to inspect for more content and more names. This lookup process can be repeated indefinitely to build up a large local database of what is out there. It is an activity that would get tedious for people but computers excel at it.

Peer-to-peer communication is often used to share music and videos. It really hit the big time around 2000 with a music sharing service called Napster that was shut down after what was probably the biggest copyright infringement case in all of recorded history (Lam and Tan, 2001; and Macedonia, 2000). Legal applications for peer-to-peer communication also exist. These include fans sharing public domain music, families sharing photos and movies, and users downloading public software packages. In fact, one of the most popular Internet applications of all, email, is inherently peer-to-peer. This form of communication is likely to grow considerably in the future.
All of the above applications involve interactions between a person and a remote database full of information. The second broad category of network use is person-to-person communication, basically the 21st century’s answer to the 19th century’s telephone. E-mail is already used on a daily basis by millions of people all over the world and its use is growing rapidly. It already routinely contains audio and video as well as text and pictures. Smell may take a while.
Any teenager worth his or her salt is addicted to instant messaging. This facility, derived from the UNIX talk program in use since around 1970, allows two people to type messages at each other in real time. There are multi-person messaging services too, such as the Twitter service that lets people send short text messages called “tweets” to their circle of friends or other willing audiences.
The Internet can be used by applications to carry audio (e.g., Internet radio stations) and video (e.g., YouTube). Besides being a cheap way to call to distant friends, these applications can provide rich experiences such as telelearning, meaning attending 8A.M. classes without the inconvenience of having to get out of bed first. In the long run, the use of networks to enhance human-to-human communication may prove more important than any of the others. It may become hugely important to people who are geographically challenged, giving them the same access to services as people living in the middle of a big city.
Between person-to-person communications and accessing information are social network applications. Here, the flow of information is driven by the relationships that people declare between each other. One of the most popular social networking sites is Facebook. It lets people update their personal profiles and shares the updates with other people who they have declared to be their friends. Other social networking applications can make introductions via friends of friends, send news messages to friends such as Twitter above, and much more.
Even more loosely, groups of people can work together to create content. A wiki, for example, is a collaborative Web site that the members of a community edit. The most famous wiki is the Wikipedia, an encyclopedia anyone can edit, but there are thousands of other wikis.
Our third category is electronic commerce in the broadest sense of the term. Home shopping is already popular and enables users to inspect the online catalogs of thousands of companies. Some of these catalogs are interactive, showing products from different viewpoints and in configurations that can be personalized. 89After the customer buys a product electronically but cannot figure out how to use it, online technical support may be consulted.
Another area in which e-commerce is widely used is access to financial institutions. Many people already pay their bills, manage their bank accounts, and handle their investments electronically. This trend will surely continue as networks become more secure.
One area that virtually nobody foresaw is electronic flea markets (e-flea?). Online auctions of second-hand goods have become a massive industry. Unlike traditional e-commerce, which follows the client-server model, online auctions are peer-to-peer in the sense that consumers can act as both buyers and sellers.
Some of these forms of e-commerce have acquired cute little tags based on the fact that “to” and “2” are pronounced the same. The most popular ones are listed in Fig. 1-4.

Figure 1-4. Some forms of e-commerce. Our fourth category is entertainment. This has made huge strides in the home in recent years, with the distribution of music, radio and television programs, and movies over the Internet beginning to rival that of traditional mechanisms. Users can find, buy, and download MP3 songs and DVD-quality movies and add them to their personal collection. TV shows now reach many homes viaIPTV (IP TeleVision) systems that are based on IP technology instead of cable TV or radio transmissions. Media streaming applications let users tune into Internet radio stations or watch recent episodes of their favorite TV shows. Naturally, all of this content can be moved around your house between different devices, displays and speakers, usually with a wireless network.
Soon, it may be possible to search for any movie or television program ever made, in any country, and have it displayed on your screen instantly. New films may become interactive, where the user is occasionally prompted for the story direction (should Macbeth murder Duncan or just bide his time?) with alternative scenarios provided for all cases. Live television may also become interactive, with the audience participating in quiz shows, choosing among contestants, and so on.
Another form of entertainment is game playing. Already we have multiperson real-time simulation games, like hide-and-seek in a virtual dungeon, and flight 910simulators with the players on one team trying to shoot down the players on the opposing team. Virtual worlds provide a persistent setting in which thousands of users can experience a shared reality with three-dimensional graphics.
Our last category is ubiquitous computing, in which computing is embedded into everyday life, as in the vision of Mark Weiser (1991). Many homes are already wired with security systems that include door and window sensors, and there are many more sensors that can be folded in to a smart home monitor, such as energy consumption. Your electricity, gas and water meters could also report usage over the network. This would save money as there would be no need to send out meter readers. And your smoke detectors could call the fire department instead of making a big noise (which has little value if no one is home). As the cost of sensing and communication drops, more and more measurement and reporting will be done with networks.
Increasingly, consumer electronic devices are networked. For example, some high-end cameras already have a wireless network capability and use it to send photos to a nearby display for viewing. Professional sports photographers can also send their photos to their editors in real-time, first wirelessly to an access point then over the Internet. Devices such as televisions that plug into the wall can use power-line networks to send information throughout the house over the wires that carry electricity. It may not be very surprising to have these objects on the network, but objects that we do not think of as computers may sense and communicate information too. For example, your shower may record water usage, give you visual feedback while you lather up, and report to a home environmental monitoring application when you are done to help save on your water bill.

A technology called RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) will push this idea even further in the future. RFID tags are passive (i.e., have no battery) chips the size of stamps and they can already be affixed to books, passports, pets, credit cards, and other items in the home and out. This lets RFID readers locate and communicate with the items over a distance of up to several meters, depending on the kind of RFID. Originally, RFID was commercialized to replace barcodes. It has not succeeded yet because barcodes are free and RFID tags cost a few cents. Of course, RFID tags offer much more and their price is rapidly declining. They may turn the real world into the Internet of things (ITU, 2005).
1.1.3 Mobile Users
Mobile computers, such as laptop and handheld computers, are one of the fastest-growing segments of the computer industry. Their sales have already overtaken those of desktop computers. Why would anyone want one? People on the go often want to use their mobile devices to read and send email, tweet, watch movies, download music, play games, or simply to surf the Web for information. They want to do all of the things they do at home and in the office. Naturally, they want to do them from anywhere on land, sea or in the air.
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Connectivity to the Internet enables many of these mobile uses. Since having a wired connection is impossible in cars, boats, and airplanes, there is a lot of interest in wireless networks. Cellular networks operated by the telephone companies are one familiar kind of wireless network that blankets us with coverage for mobile phones. Wireless hotspots based on the 802.11 standard are another kind of wireless network for mobile computers. They have sprung up everywhere that people go, resulting in a patchwork of coverage at cafes, hotels, airports, schools, trains and planes. Anyone with a laptop computer and a wireless modem can just turn on their computer on and be connected to the Internet through the hotspot, as though the computer were plugged into a wired network.
Wireless networks are of great value to fleets of trucks, taxis, delivery vehicles, and repairpersons for keeping in contact with their home base. For example, in many cities, taxi drivers are independent businessmen, rather than being employees of a taxi company. In some of these cities, the taxis have a display the driver can see. When a customer calls up, a central dispatcher types in the pickup and destination points. This information is displayed on the drivers’ displays and a beep sounds. The first driver to hit a button on the display gets the call.
Wireless networks are also important to the military. If you have to be able to fight a war anywhere on Earth at short notice, counting on using the local networking infrastructure is probably not a good idea. It is better to bring your own.
Although wireless networking and mobile computing are often related, they are not identical, as Fig. 1-5 shows. Here we see a distinction between fixed wireless and mobile wireless networks. Even notebook computers are sometimes wired. For example, if a traveler plugs a notebook computer into the wired network jack in a hotel room, he has mobility without a wireless network.
Figure 1-5. Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing.

Conversely, some wireless computers are not mobile. In the home, and in offices or hotels that lack suitable cabling, it can be more convenient to connect desktop computers or media players wirelessly than to install wires. Installing a wireless network may require little more than buying a small box with some electronics in it, unpacking it, and plugging it in. This solution may be far cheaper than having workmen put in cable ducts to wire the building.
Finally, there are also true mobile, wireless applications, such as people walking around stores with a handheld computers recording inventory. At many busy 1112airports, car rental return clerks work in the parking lot with wireless mobile computers. They scan the barcodes or RFID chips of returning cars, and their mobile device, which has a built-in printer, calls the main computer, gets the rental information, and prints out the bill on the spot.
Perhaps the key driver of mobile, wireless applications is the mobile phone. Text messaging or texting is tremendously popular. It lets a mobile phone user type a short message that is then delivered by the cellular network to another mobile subscriber. Few people would have predicted ten years ago that having teenagers tediously typing short text messages on mobile phones would be an immense money maker for telephone companies. But texting (or Short Message Service as it is known outside the U.S.) is very profitable since it costs the carrier but a tiny fraction of one cent to relay a text message, a service for which they charge far more.
The long-awaited convergence of telephones and the Internet has finally arrived, and it will accelerate the growth of mobile applications. Smart phones, such as the popular iPhone, combine aspects of mobile phones and mobile computers. The (3G and 4G) cellular networks to which they connect can provide fast data services for using the Internet as well as handling phone calls. Many advanced phones connect to wireless hotspots too, and automatically switch between networks to choose the best option for the user.
Other consumer electronics devices can also use cellular and hotspot networks to stay connected to remote computers. Electronic book readers can download a newly purchased book or the next edition of a magazine or today’s newspaper wherever they roam. Electronic picture frames can update their displays on cue with fresh images.
Since mobile phones know their locations, often because they are equipped with GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, some services are intentionally location dependent. Mobile maps and directions are an obvious candidate as your GPS-enabled phone and car probably have a better idea of where you are than you do. So, too, are searches for a nearby bookstore or Chinese restaurant, or a local weather forecast. Other services may record location, such as annotating photos and videos with the place at which they were made. This annotation is known as “geo-tagging.”

An area in which mobile phones are now starting to be used is m-commerce (mobile-commerce) (Senn, 2000). Short text messages from the mobile are used to authorize payments for food in vending machines, movie tickets, and other small items instead of cash and credit cards. The charge then appears on the mobile phone bill. When equipped with NFC (Near Field Communication) technology the mobile can act as an RFID smartcard and interact with a nearby reader for payment. The driving forces behind this phenomenon are the mobile device makers and network operators, who are trying hard to figure out how to get a piece of the e-commerce pie. From the store’s point of view, this scheme may save them most of the credit card company’s fee, which can be several percent. 1213Of course, this plan may backfire, since customers in a store might use the RFID or barcode readers on their mobile devices to check out competitors’ prices before buying and use them to get a detailed report on where else an item can be purchased nearby and at what price.
One huge thing that m-commerce has going for it is that mobile phone users are accustomed to paying for everything (in contrast to Internet users, who expect everything to be free). If an Internet Web site charged a fee to allow its customers to pay by credit card, there would be an immense howling noise from the users. If, however, a mobile phone operator its customers to pay for items in a store by waving the phone at the cash register and then tacked on a fee for this convenience, it would probably be accepted as normal. Time will tell.
No doubt the uses of mobile and wireless computers will grow rapidly in the future as the size of computers shrinks, probably in ways no one can now foresee. Let us take a quick look at some possibilities. Sensor networks are made up of nodes that gather and wirelessly relay information they sense about the state of the physical world. The nodes may be part of familiar items such as cars or phones, or they may be small separate devices. For example, your car might gather data on its location, speed, vibration, and fuel efficiency from its on-board diagnostic system and upload this information to a database (Hull et al., 2006). Those data can help find potholes, plan trips around congested roads, and tell you if you are a “gas guzzler” compared to other drivers on the same stretch of road.
Sensor networks are revolutionizing science by providing a wealth of data on behavior that could not previously be observed. One example is tracking the migration of individual zebras by placing a small sensor on each animal (Juang et al., 2002). Researchers have packed a wireless computer into a cube 1 mm on edge (Warneke et al., 2001). With mobile computers this small, even small birds, rodents, and insects can be tracked.
Even mundane uses, such as in parking meters, can be significant because they make use of data that were not previously available. Wireless parking meters can accept credit or debit card payments with instant verification over the wireless link. They can also report when they are in use over the wireless network. This would let drivers download a recent parking map to their car so they can find an available spot more easily. Of course, when a meter expires, it might also check for the presence of a car (by bouncing a signal off it) and report the expiration to parking enforcement. It has been estimated that city governments in the U.S. alone could collect an additional $10 billion this way (Harte et al., 2000).
Wearable computers are another promising application. Smart watches with radios have been part of our mental space since their appearance in the Dick Tracy comic strip in 1946; now you can buy them. Other such devices may be implanted, such as pacemakers and insulin pumps. Some of these can be controlled over a wireless network. This lets doctors test and reconfigure them more easily. It could also lead to some nasty problems if the devices are as insecure as the average PC and can be hacked easily (Halperin et al., 2008).

.1.4 Social Issues
Computer networks, like the printing press 500 years ago, allow ordinary citizens to distribute and view content in ways that were not previously possible. But along with the good comes the bad, as this new-found freedom brings with it many unsolved social, political, and ethical issues. Let us just briefly mention a few of them; a thorough study would require a full book, at least.
Social networks, message boards, content sharing sites, and a host of other applications allow people to share their views with like-minded individuals. As long as the subjects are restricted to technical topics or hobbies like gardening, not too many problems will arise.
The trouble comes with topics that people actually care about, like politics, religion, or sex. Views that are publicly posted may be deeply offensive to some people. Worse yet, they may not be politically correct. Furthermore, opinions need not be limited to text; high-resolution color photographs and video clips are easily shared over computer networks. Some people take a live-and-let-live view, but others feel that posting certain material (e.g., verbal attacks on particular countries or religions, pornography, etc.) is simply unacceptable and that such content must be censored. Different countries have different and conflicting laws in this area. Thus, the debate rages.
In the past, people have sued network operators, claiming that they are responsible for the contents of what they carry, just as newspapers and magazines are. The inevitable response is that a network is like a telephone company or the post office and cannot be expected to police what its users say.
It should now come only as a slight surprise to learn that some network operators block content for their own reasons. Some users of peer-to-peer applications had their network service cut off because the network operators did not find it profitable to carry the large amounts of traffic sent by those applications. Those same operators would probably like to treat different companies differently. If you are a big company and pay well then you get good service, but if you are a small-time player, you get poor service. Opponents of this practice argue that peer-to-peer and other content should be treated in the same way because they are all just bits to the network. This argument for communications that are not differentiated by their content or source or who is providing the content is known as network neutrality (Wu, 2003). It is probably safe to say that this debate will go on for a while.
Many other parties are involved in the tussle over content. For instance, pirated music and movies fueled the massive growth of peer-to-peer networks, which did not please the copyright holders, who have threatened (and sometimes taken) legal action. There are now automated systems that search peer-to-peer networks and fire off warnings to network operators and users who are suspected of infringing copyright. In the United States, these warnings are known as DMCA takedown notices after the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. This 1415search is an arms’ race because it is hard to reliably catch copyright infringement. Even your printer might be mistaken for a culprit (Piatek et al., 2008).
Computer networks make it very easy to communicate. They also make it easy for the people who run the network to snoop on the traffic. This sets up conflicts over issues such as employee rights versus employer rights. Many people read and write email at work. Many employers have claimed the right to read and possibly censor employee messages, including messages sent from a home computer outside working hours. Not all employees agree with this, especially the latter part.
Another conflict is centered around government versus citizen’s rights. The FBI has installed systems at many Internet service providers to snoop on all incoming and outgoing email for nuggets of interest. One early system was originally called Carnivore, but bad publicity caused it to be renamed to the more innocent-sounding DCS1000 (Blaze and Bellovin, 2000; Sobel, 2001; and Zacks, 2001). The goal of such systems is to spy on millions of people in the hope of perhaps finding information about illegal activities. Unfortunately for the spies, the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits government searches without a search warrant, but the government often ignores it.…...

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...which services provided by the network reside at multiple sites. 7.What is point to point connection? Ans:It provides a dedicated link between two devices. The entire capacity of the link is reserved for transmission between the two devices e.g. when we change the TV channels by remote control we establish a point to point connection between remote control and TV control system. 8.What is multipoint connection? Ans: In multipoint connection more than two specific devices share a single link. Here the capacity of the channel is shared either separately or temporally. 9.What is a topology? Ans: Topology of a network is defined as the geometric representation of the relationship of all the links and linking devices (node) to one another.Four basic topologies are star, bus, ring and mesh. Star – Here each device has a dedicated point to point link only to a central controller called hub. WWW.PROFMARIAMICHAEL.COM Page 1 COMPUTER NETWORK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS Bus -It is multipoint. One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in the network. Ring -Here each device has a dedicated point to point connection only with the two devices on either side of it. Mesh -Here every device has a dedicated point to point link to every other device. 10.Define LAN, MAN and WAN. Ans: LAN- A local area network (LAN) is a privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building or campus. It allows resources to be shared between personal computers and work......

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...Assignment 2: Networking oy ABSTRACT In the following pages I will describe the features of telecommunications networks, including key networking technologies. I will cover the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, including each layer. I will discuss whether the telephone networks and computer networks will remain distinct in the future. I will describe various network media and how they are changing. I will explain the differences among LANS, WANS, CANS, and MANS. I will describe three (3) ways in which businesses use internet services and protocol. (For example, what is VOIP, and how is it used?) Assignment 2: Networking Telecommunications network is the network of lines, trunks and telephone switches operated by telephone companies, long distance companies and competitive local exchange carriers. A network consist of two or more connected computers. A basic network includes computers, network, interfaces, a connection medium, network operating system software and either a hub or a switch. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a data communication model consisting of seven layers. The model was designed to formulate a standard for allowing different types and brands of computers to communicate with one another. Each layer has a specific responsibility or function. Seven Layers of OSI model Physical – The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional......

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...Network Basics Server- system that responds to requests across a computer network to provide a network service. AW server is the server, the software and the data they generate. Client- computer that receives services from a server. AW server install a client in PCs that accesses the AW server Node- any addressable location on a network; can be a phone, printer, monitor, a CT, AW server. How many nodes are you going to connect? Meaning how many connections are you going to have to the network- as in if the doctor, a nurse and tech want it they are already connected into the network. We connect one and that is the server for AW. Mixed mode networks, meaning different nodes connected. Main line of connection in the network is the backbone. NIC (network interface card) card, card needed for networking without it you can’t connect to the network; give a MAC address specific address for that node. It is physically configured on the node. Some customers will not give you the info you need until they get the MAC address- how do you get it? You have the FE do it at install. Servers have multiple NIC cards, “redundancy” Hand FE the IP info the FE before install. Software- must be configured Protocol- how do I communicate with you (IT uses this a lot). Need to know to talk to each other you need an IP address (internet protocol address) subnet mask, and default gateway. IP- connect to the network on a unique address Subnet mask- lets you group like computers together...

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...NETWORKING (Author’s name) (Institutional Affiliation) Telecommunication networks and OSI Telecommunications network is an assemblage of links and connecting points where several lines join together which are capable of conveying data, visual and audio activities of conveying information. Besides, audio connectivity, it also includes internet, forms of telephony and wireless equipment. Telecommunication network serve to provide efficient transmittance of data from original point to destination point, for example, a telephone call. Usually, the process that allows users to act together in a real time manner takes place within seconds. Public switched telephone network, internet and private computer networks are common forms of telecommunicating network. These are used in voice and visual communications and in businesses. A telecommunicating network is made up of terminals, computers, links, equipment and software of telecommunication. These are important in accessing the network, channeling transmitted information and regulating conveyance of messages over networks. Telecommunication network can be set up as wide area network which allows for reliable and controlled transmission of information between nodes that are geographically distant. This network model is used by most businesses across the world. Local area network provides more secure same information as in a wide area network on a small geographical area. It provides......

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...Telecommunications and Networks Ghana Telecom University College Lecturer - Lempogo Forgor 2013 Objectives  By the end of this unit, students should be able to: Demonstrate understanding of computer networking, including the concepts and types as well as hardware and software Compare and contrast internet, extranet and intranet Demonstrate practical knowledge of using the internet Discuss the business value of computer networks INF 162: Introduction to Information Systems - GTUC 2013 Delivery Overview  Computer Networks and Networking  Types of computer networks  Network Connection technologies  Hardware in computer Networking  The business value of internet, extranet and intranet INF 162: Introduction to Information Systems - GTUC 2013 Delivery What is a Computer Network?  A computer network is a group of computer systems and other computing hardware devices that are linked together through communication channels to facilitate communication and resource-sharing among a wide range of users.  Computer Network is a set of interconnected computer systems using special communication devices, media and software. INF 162: Introduction to Information Systems - GTUC 2013 Delivery What is Computer networking?  Networking in the field of computing is the practice of linking computer devices together to support digital communication among them.  The computers and devices on the network are called Network Nodes. ......

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...GENERAL SIR JOHN KOTELAWALA DEFENCE UNIVERsity | Assignment 01 | Advanced Network and Security | | ICT/12/0121 WMIL Wasalage | 9/23/2013 | | Abstract This document contains a detailed explanation about the ISO OSI Reference Model used in networking and it also contains details about the networking devices used in setting up LANs & WANs. Abstract This document contains a detailed explanation about the ISO OSI Reference Model used in networking and it also contains details about the networking devices used in setting up LANs & WANs. Acknowledgement I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to Mrs. Punsisi Premaratne who gave me this opportunity to do this project in the networking field. Secondly i would like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame. Acknowledgement I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to Mrs. Punsisi Premaratne who gave me this opportunity to do this project in the networking field. Secondly i would like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame. Table of Contents Abstract 01 Acknowledgement 02 Table of Content 03 List of Figures 04 1.0 Introduction to ISO OSI Reference Model 05 1.1 Physical Layer 07 1.2 Data Link Layer 08 1.3 Network Layer 10 1.4 Transport......

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