Free Essay

New Technology on Aircraft Maintenance

In: Science

Submitted By dunaway3
Words 2709
Pages 11
Impacts of New Technology on Aircraft Maintenance

Abstract
In this research paper the author identifies several key areas of interest when introducing new technologies in the aviation industry. The majority of the focus surrounds the maintainability of these new technologies and the significant impacts to the maintainers themselves. Much emphasis is given to the people responsible to maintain the aircraft from a human factors perspective. There are many maintenance aspects addressed in the paper to include the impacts on Training and Certification of aircraft mechanics, design considerations in terms of capabilities and ease of access of components and associated equipment. Advancements in procedures, interactive technical manuals and specific emerging maintenance techniques and troubleshooting are introduced from the maintainer’s perspective and those impacts addressed. The key impacts of new technology are summarized for domestic, international, military aircraft operational environments, and the paper concludes with an examination of the advantages and disadvantages of new technologies on aircraft maintenance.
Keywords: aircraft maintainability, design for maintenance, personnel training, human factors
Impacts of New Technology on Aircraft Maintenance
Advancements in technology are a continuous and necessary aspect of our culture. The desire to stay ahead of the competition in both domestic and international environments is what makes our country’s aviation and aerospace industry one of, if not the best in the world today. Very rapid technological advancements in the aviation industry include continuing advancements in physical aircraft design characteristics, avionics and display systems, electrical systems, flight control systems, hydraulic and pneudraulic systems, fuel and propulsion systems, and structural and aircraft skins, to include advancements in the new types of materials used.
While the desired continuous advancements in technology are necessary to maintain the competitive edge in the industry, and there are many key advantages to implementing these new technologies, there are also some disadvantages and tremendous challenges for developing the ability to maintain the aircraft, not to mention the costs associated to keep the new technology aircraft maintainable. In his book, Introduction to Aircraft Design, John P. Fielding states, “Good design for maintenance will minimize such costs. Figure 8.16 shows an overall plan for maintainability (ease of maintenance). Not all of these features are within the control of the designer, but he or she must be aware of them” (Fielding, 1999, p. 124).

suitable tools good maintenance manuals adequately skilled personnel good work and storage facilities suitable test and diagnostic equipment
PLAN FOR
GOOD
MAINTAINABILTY good supply train good installation design with easy access maintainable equipment
Figure 8.16 The main factors affecting maintenance. |

The major areas impacted with these new technologies are: * The people performing the maintenance * The hardware and software involved * The procedures and techniques * The varying environments
People Performing the Maintenance
Because people are the most valuable resource, we’ll start with the necessary considerations involving those responsible for keeping the aircraft flying. Those considerations include: * Training and Certification * Human Factors
Training and Certification
Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 65, Subpart D, provides the requirements for aircraft maintenance mechanics. The basic paragraphs of Subpart D include general eligibility requirements, ratings, knowledge, experience, skill, displaying certificates, inspection authorization duration, renewals, and privileges and limitations. While these requirements appear to be very specific, they pose challenges in regards to introducing and implementing new technologies that impact already certificated mechanics. Keeping in mind that most certificated mechanics have already completed the required education and certificate requirements prior to being hired by the airlines, how do they keep up after being hired with the advancements in technology being implemented on the aircraft they are responsible to maintain? Training already certificated mechanics on new technologies being implemented by the airlines costs the airlines in a number of ways. Not only do they have to pay for the training itself in the form of tuition, there are often other associated fees and travel costs. The real “kicker” though is continuing operations during that mechanic’s absence. “Maintenance personnel must be properly trained and licensed in basic aviation maintenance skills as well as on the specific equipment they are assigned to maintain. The FAA states that those personnel eligible for a mechanic certificate must be at least 18 years of age and be able to read, write, speak, and understand English” (Kinnison, 2004, p. 54).
Human Factors Considerations “A great deal of progress has been made toward improving and evaluating the reliability of hardware systems; however, the place where systems most frequently fail is in the interface of humans with the system. Human reliability is generally much lower and more difficult to control than hardware reliability” (Stephans, 2004, p. 135). One would think there would be very specific maintenance Human Factors requirements in the aviation industry, but alas there is not. Why wouldn’t we have the same level of human factors emphasis put on those who maintain the aircraft as we do for those operate them? I personally find this to be a significant shortfall, and there are many in the industry who share my views. In August 2011, the FAA submitted a final report; Prioritizing Maintenance Human Factors Challenges and Solutions: Workshop Proceedings, where it was reported, “Dr. Bill Johnson, Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Human Factors in Maintenance, facilitated the workshop for key AVS and selected industry and international personnel responsible for developing and delivering maintenance human factors (MXHF) information relevant to Title 14 CFR Parts 65, 91, 121, 135, and 145. Workshop delegates participated in guiding organizational human factors initiatives and curricula development based on their experience in human factors R&D, operations, or investigation” (FAA, 2011, p. iii). While it’s good to see people are concerned and finally coming together to discuss the issues, we need real requirements, and we need them sooner rather than later.
The Hardware and Software Involved When trying to implement new technologies, there are many aspects to consider in terms of the hardware and software involved. The design itself, to include the development process, capabilities of the system or specific components, and the ease of access to those components and use of additional ground support equipment are all items critical to successfully implementing new technologies.
Design Considerations As mentioned earlier, when designing something new, or retrofitting an existing design, one must always think about the maintenance aspects. Design considerations in terms of maintainability should be solicited from those who actually maintain the hardware or software. Most organizations follow established processes when updating equipment and systems. The development process normally consists of developing potential requirements, formally reviewing those requirements, coming up with potential or conceptual design solutions, even if those design solutions include commercial of the shelf (COTS) components. Once you have the potential or conceptual design solution, the next phase would be a preliminary design review, followed by a critical design review, and a series of detailed design reviews, and finally manufacturing and testing. Why did I take you through this process in such detail? The answer is simple; it is absolutely critical to include maintenance aspects in every phase of development or run the risk of creating or updating a system that is either impossible or very expensive to maintain.
Capabilities
When you think of capabilities, it’s very easy to only think of the capabilities associated with the performance characteristics of the new technology. For example, if you wanted to update a flight deck display, your first thoughts would most likely entail the display location, size, modes of operation, and performance features and capabilities. What about the maintenance capability possibilities? Is there some sort of built in test feature to aid maintainers in assessing the status of the display? Can the display be duplicated on another panel in the flight deck? These are just a couple of capabilities based items to consider when selecting a newer technology to replace dated or obsolete systems.
Ease of Access As a former aircraft maintainer myself, one of the first questions I ask myself about a new system, or a retrofitted system, is the ease in which I can locate, remove and replace components. The ease of access concept also includes any additional ground test equipment required to perform the maintenance or repair of the aircraft system. I’ve personally come across many situations where I’ve had to remove several aircraft components just to access the one bad component. This is very time consuming, jeopardizes the integrity of those other systems, creates a need to perform additional system operational checkouts and obviously drives up maintenance costs, especially repair times; critical to aircraft operations.
The Procedures and Techniques Every good aircraft maintainer relies on his or her own experience and that experience is developed through the use of procedures and developing effective maintenance techniques. The older and well established technical manuals, in most cases, provide system theory of operation, step by step instructions for specific tasks such as removal and replacement of components, operational checkouts, and basic troubleshooting steps.
Interactive and Electronic/Digital Manuals Technical Manuals have always been a significant part of aircraft maintenance. The advancements in aircraft technology also include advancements in how we update, manage, distribute, and use the technical information and procedures to maintain aircraft. “It should be immediately apparent that producing, distributing, and updating these documents is a considerable task. For that reason, we have established the technical publications department within the technical services directorate of our typical midsized airline” (Kinnison, 2004, p. 125). That being said, just imagine the challenges associated to introducing new technologies and systems. Another challenge is maintaining the ability to support those aircraft that have been upgraded while still managing those that have not; maintaining technical manual libraries can be a significant challenge. I personally found this to be a significant challenge as an aircraft maintainer. When an unscheduled maintenance discrepancy was reported by the aircrew on a specific aircraft and system, I had to conduct some preliminary research to discern whether or not the aircraft in question had been modified or not in order to gather the correct tools, technical manuals, and potential replacement components prior to dispatching to the aircraft. All of these activities take time and increase repair times; critical to aircraft operations, as previously mentioned.
Troubleshooting Methods and Techniques While most of the older technical manuals provide basic troubleshooting steps for specific and known system malfunctions, it seems the newer technical publications, often in the form of laptops, simply take the technician or mechanic through a series of steps in order to repair the system and perform an operational checkout with little or no thought by the technician or mechanic. I find this personally troubling because I believe it is degrading the technician’s or mechanics real knowledge of the system and troubleshooting techniques and overall ability. Over relying on the technology alone seems a bit risky, and I believe it should be a combination of the knowledge and skill of the technician coupled with the new technology approach as the most appropriate method to maintain our newer technology aircraft. I’ve found no matter how comprehensive these new technical manuals can be, it always seems there will eventually be some sort of anomaly appear that is not addressed in the technical manual and it is then up to the technician or mechanic to figure it out.
The Varying Environments The impacts of new technologies on aircraft maintenance introduce challenges globally and across many functions. The impacts and challenges to domestic carriers aren’t always similar to international carriers, and certainly U.S. Military aircraft operations are impacted differently and face additional unique maintenance challenges associated to the implementation of new technologies.
Domestic Commercial Carriers In the training and certification and human factors considerations paragraphs above we addressed the FAA training and certification requirements and the lack human factors requirements and guidance considerations for aircraft maintenance. Domestic Commercial Carriers are bound to comply with the FAA requirements while still addressing the human factors aspects of implementing aircraft maintenance systems to support advancing technologies. These are critical tasks given the very competitive environment in the U.S. aviation industry. Companies and airlines must do a balancing act to advance the technology of their aircraft while adapting their maintenance approaches required to maintain those aircraft, while remaining competitive; posing many challenges.
International Commercial Carriers The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized United Nations organization developed in 1944. The ICAO is a cooperative effort amongst its members to establish standards and recommended practices for international aviation operations. The ICAO in the international arena is obviously less stringent than how we operate here in the United States. This concept trickles down to aircraft maintenance as well. The level of fidelity in adequate aircraft maintenance systems will vary internationally from state to state. Just like in the U.S., international carriers are also very competitive, and with what I perceive as a relaxed atmosphere, pose obvious basic aircraft maintenance challenges, not to mention the additional challenges posed when introducing new technologies.
U.S. Military Aircraft Operations U.S. Military Aircraft Operations face very unique maintenance challenges when implementing new technologies. The training systems in place for aircraft maintenance technicians are quite elaborate, often lengthy, and involve the progression of skills based on rank, experience, and certification of specific tasks on specific airframes. In this type of environment, when a new technology is introduced, whether in the form of a completely new aircraft, or retrofitting existing aircraft, you can see the ramifications imposed to develop the proper training and getting the aircraft maintainers through the training and certifications required to maintain the new technology, system, or aircraft while maintaining the ever ready state required by our Armed Forces. I know from personnel experience how daunting this task can be. While training for an upcoming deployment, our squadron was selected as the first to receive an upgraded weapons delivery system with mere months to implement the new system, train individuals to maintain that system in a forward deployed operational environment was a significant challenge to say the least.
The Industry as a Whole The global aviation industry as a whole is varying and complex. As you can see, the maintenance challenges associated to introducing new technologies require a tremendous amount of effort regardless of the environment.
Key Advantages and Disadvantages With the introduction of new technologies, there are apparent and not so apparent advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages
The apparent advantages to implementing new technologies could include improved safety of flight, improved efficiencies of aircraft performance; improved materials used, and improved aircraft and system capabilities and features. Some of the not so apparent advantages could include improved processes, techniques, and methods used to maintain new technology systems and aircraft.
Disadvantages
The obvious disadvantages include the costs associated to implementing maintenance systems to support maintaining the new technologies. If the associated costs to maintain a proposed new technology are high enough, it may alter the decision the implement that technology in the first place. This is another reason why maintainability aspects must be considered early on, and through the development cycle of implementing a proposed new technology.
Summary and Conclusion Make no mistake; the advancements in aviation technology are generally a good thing as long as proper consideration is given to all aspects associated to developing and implementing those new technologies, especially from a maintainability perspective. The sustainability and maintenance costs of aircraft continue to be the single greatest challenge in the aviation industry. “Although there has been a considerable amount of improvement in the quality and reliability of components and systems, as well as in materials and procedures, over the 100-year life of aviation, we still have not reached total perfection. Aviation equipment, no matter how good or how reliable, still needs attention from time to time” (Kinnison, 2004, p. 13).

References
Fielding, J.P. (1999). The costs of reliability and maintainability. Introduction to Aircraft Design. (pp. 124). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Stephans, R.A. (2004). The Future of System Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kinnison, H.A. (2004). Aviation Industry Certification Requirements. Aviation Maintenance Management. (pp. 13, 54, 125). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Aircraft Certification Service. (2011). Prioritizing Maintenance Human Factors Challenges and Solutions: Workshop Proceedings. Retrieved from http://www.hf.faa.gov…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Aircraft Maintenance

...Module 3 Aircraft Systems and Aircraft Maintenance Learning Objective #10 Determine the requirements for maintenance records, compliance with Airworthiness Directives (AD), preventive maintenance, and alterations. Web Support link: http://www.avweb.com/news/savvyaviator/190596-1.html The Savvy Aviator While browsing the Internet and reading through various FAA websites, I came across a column by a passionate pilot that likes to spread the good, educated, aviation word. I chose column #23: Maintenance Records highlighting the importance of detailed and accurate records, and compliance with FARs. One thing I found refreshing was how casual the author speaks to his audience, yet delivers a wealth of knowledge that is typically only gained through years of experience, both on and off the ground. The author goes into great detail as to what is required from the regulatory sense and what is required per good pilot and mechanic sense. He further breaks it down by addressing complying with airworthiness directives and how to annotate them properly, alterations and the depth at which they need to be captured, and preventive and routine maintenance. I found this article to be very informative and challenged my current maintenance practices, both personally and professionally. The article was simplistic enough that the youngest of aviator or manager would glean the basics, and maybe a few inches deeper of aviation knowledge, and those that have been at this for more than a...

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

New Technology

...New Technology in my Field The article that I chose is on how New Intel vPro Technology enhances security, adds automatic tune ups and thinks for itself. This technology consists of a more energy efficient combination of Intel quad-core or dual processors the new Intel Q45 Express Chipset and Intel 82567 Gigabit Network Connection and Intel Active Management Technology 5.0. This technology allows for a more controlled or streamlined type of maintenance for your PC. Some of the new business-class innovations allow great features. This new version of Intel vPro allows IT organizations to extend their reach to protect and manage PC’s beyond the corporate firewall. Also the new Remote Alert feature allows an ailing PC experiencing symptoms outside of preset parameters to call for IT assistance on its own even if it is turned off. Intel also beefed up access security with two new features. The new Access monitor feature logs IT activity on systems more securely and comprehensively further slimming the margin for security breaches. The platform offers the first embedded technology to authenticate PC’s using Microsoft Network Access Protection allowing protected out-of-band maintenance on Intel vPro based systems. The new Remote Scheduled Maintenance feature allows IT administrators to program PC’s for regular tune ups by automatically connecting to an IT management program for maintenance. The new Fast Call for Help feature enables the user to get immediate assistance over......

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Aircraft Maintenance Safety Compliance

...Aircraft Maintenance Safety Compliance I found an article published in Aero Safety world raised serious concerns about safety compliance among aircraft maintenance technicians and their managers. The report is about compliance procedures to ensure aircraft safety. This report is based on a Baines Simmons employee safety culture survey that canvassed 2,000 maintenance professionals in union and non-union aircraft maintenance shops in North and South America over a period of three years (2007-2010). Within this survey the findings were quite alarming, such as, more than eighty percent of the maintenance personnel surveyed said that it is necessary and actually acceptable to sacrifice safety and compliance to complete their jobs on time. Also, sixteen percent of the managers agreed with the statement, “Due to limited time or resources, there have been times when I signed off for work that was not completed.” Lastly, the article stated that fifty three percent of Aircraft Maintenance Technicians disagreed with the statement, “Before I start a job I am always given the necessary information.” These and similar results within the report indicate that it’s not uncommon for technicians and their managers to ignore procedures, and perform maintenance without the proper information as well as signing off on work that was not completed. It is stressed that there is great importance in cultivating/instilling Safety Management System (SMS) into the maintenance process. With...

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Aircraft Systems and Aircraft Maintenance

...Name: Ramiro Rivera Date: 31 August 2013 Module 3 Aircraft Systems and Aircraft Maintenance LOB 8: Explain how an operator can fly an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment within the limits of an approved minimum equipment list (MEL). Web Support link: http://www.nbaa.org/ops/maint/inoperative-equipment/minimum-equipment-list.php Inoperable Equipment and Minimum Equipment List I have chose to use NBAA.org as a good resourceful tool for learning in general when it comes to aviation. This web link will teach you an easy and simple way the definition and use of a MEL. Definition of MEL: A Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is one method aircraft operators may use to obtain relief from Federal Aviation Regulations that generally require that all equipment installed on the aircraft be operative at the time of flight. A MEL is a precise listing of instruments, equipment and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment. It will explain you step by step the procedure and use of an MEL, such as: * Obtaining FAA approval * Conducting operations with an MEL * Correcting MEL inoperative items * Record keeping requirements NBAA.org is an excellent website for any professional in aviation or for anyone interest in aviation. Using this beside you can find information from student material, airport operations, security, maintenance, job search and much more. As a professional......

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Aircraft Propulsion Technology

...Unit 15 Aircraft Propulsion Technology Outcome 1.1 1) T=m(V0 -V1) m= 1000kg/s T=1000(120-100) V0 =120m/s T=20,000N V1 =100 m/s 2) Total thrust =Thrust of core engine + thrust of fan Thrust = Mass airflow x (bypass velocity – aircraft velocity) + Mass airflow x (exhaust velocity – aircraft velocity) Thrust = 300 x (180-120) + 200 x (220-120) = 300 x 60 + 200 x100 = 1800 + 2000 = 38,000N 3) Cross reference to Unit 17 Gas turbine science outcome 2 assignment 2 Q1 4) Cross reference to Unit 17 Gas turbine science outcome 2 assignment 1 Q1 Outcome 3.2 Materials used in gas turbines have gone through many incremental improvements since the first practical turbines were developed in the 1940s. Most recent efforts have led to improved steel alloys for use in turbine vanes, blades, and inlet blocks. material improvements have led to an increase in rotor life and reliability. Progress in gas turbine material development often came in the form of alternative stainless steel or metal alloys that had improved heat characteristics. Different parts of gas turbines use a variety of alloy metals, including varying quantities of cobalt, nickel, and chromium. In turbine compressors, manufacturers vary in their metals and manufacturing methods, but initial blades are often made with stainless steel because it is strong and easy to machine. Materials in other parts of the turbine have been changed more frequently as......

Words: 2787 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Aircraft Maintenance Ratings and Privleges

...AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE RATINGS AND PRIVLEGES John INTRODUCTION TO AERONAUTICAL SCIENCE, AMGT 202 MR. ROGER TAYLOR AUGUST 15, 2009 In order to perform, certify repairs and airworthiness of aircraft in the aviation industry one must possess a license(s) issued by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). With each rating comes privileges issued and authorized by the FAA. The ratings are: Mechanics, Repairman, Parachute Riggers and Aircraft Dispatcher. Certification of these jobs is covered under Part 65 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR’s). Also included under Part 65 is Air Traffic Controllers, but I’ll not address this career in this paper. Aviation maintenance is a demanding career that has many training requirements. An entire sub industry has been created to train aviation professionals. Schools and their training and curriculum requirements are governed by FAR 147. Under this FAR, only Airframe, Powerplant and Airframe and Powerplant (A&P) ratings may be taught. Curriculums have minimum FAA requirements and must be FAA approved. There are many schools throughout the United States that teach aviation maintenance; in fact the FAA’s web site lists over 150 certified schools within the United States alone. Additionally, many airlines and repair stations have in-house and on the job training programs to ensure personnel maintain proficiency, learn the latest techniques and newest technology. Aircraft maintenance ratings are broken......

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

New Technologies

...The world population keeps growing, cities are becoming bigger. Right now we are living in the era of the information age; we are surrounded by thousands of devices, tons of people require more personalized services and devices at lower prices. The only way to catch up with these is through technology. In just a few years, driving a car would become a sport rather than using it as transportation. Companies would be able to provide their customers personalized products, that can really fit their needs at a low cost. These and many other innovations are about to come thank to the M2M communication, big data and the wide range of products that have been creating as a result of these technologies. The new devices offer us an incredible amount of new opportunities and possibilities beyond our imagination. I can imagine a near future being able tell my car by using my voice of where I want to go. By using GPS technology and internet to receive information of the information of the traffic report, analyzing the conditions of possible routes and checking shortcuts, or taking into account the fact that I need to fill the tank; the computer inside the car, after reading and calculating all these variables, it is going to come up with the best solution for you. During this process the system will interact with a lot of sources and it's going to be connected with many sensors and networks. Now we can consider some other factors that can make this technological innovation a little bit......

Words: 1134 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

New Technology

...Electronic Paper Jason C ITT Technical Institute I decided to my research paper of new technology in my field on Electronic Paper. Electronic paper is one of many new technologies that are being developed in today’s new technology world. Everything is getting smaller and lighter weight and more mobile. The concept behind electronic paper is sheets of thin material that are the size of a sheet of paper, which can display a newspaper article, a book, or magazine and then be updated to new material at the click of a button. Although it sounds like a lot of the e-reader device technologies that are already on the market now, the difference in this technology is that the paper will be lightweight, flexible and require a lot less power to operate then today’s modern devices. The main concept of the electronic paper is to have billions of balls, each measuring one-tenth of a millimeter and have them sandwiched between sheets of clear flexible plastic with ultra-thin transistors to direct the balls in to the words or pictures needed. Each of the two companies involved, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center on the West Coast of California, and on the East Coast is eInk found by a professor and two students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Media Lab, have their own different designs on how the balls will actually form the words or an image of what you are reading. As of now the electronic paper designs can only show black and white, although both companies are......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

New Technology

...New Technology in my field ITT Technical Institute TB133P Strategies For The Technical Professional Unit 2 Assignment 2 Cloud Storage Security The need to reduce costs and enable IT respon¬siveness to business change is driving more and more applications, including critical ones, to various types of cloud platforms. While cloud providers can implement many of the same security measures required of an internal IT group, many companies are still wary. This is especially true for less expensive, multitenant public cloud environments that are inherently less secure than in-house IT environments, assuming that the onsite, internal IT environments follow proper security procedures and have the right technology and standards in place. This means building security and trust architec¬tures that ensure each company’s applications and data are isolated and secure from those of other customers in a multitenant environment. By adhering to emerging security standards and leveraging encryption service providers can provide security services that meet security expectations. Whether adopted in public, private or hybrid form, the cloud imposes unique and stringent security demands. But with appropriate levels of security, trust and governance, service providers can provide a secure environment for data and appli¬cations. The information researched was informative and helped reinforce some preexisting ideas I had about Cloud storage security. Information......

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

New Technology

...New Technology (Smart Watches) GS1145: Strategies for the Technical Professional By the end of this you would have learned about one of the newest technologies that will be available in 2014. I will give a description in detail about the new smart watches, their capabilities and the different manufacturers. The Smart watch was originally created by a San Francisco based company named Pebble which created the first prototype and released it in 2012. The original prototype was not very popular because of the glitches it had and the fact that it was not very durable at the time. Also because of the fact that most banks would not buy into the watch, the company had to raise money just to make the prototype. Small no name companies stepped in and started to give money until Pebbles was able to raise its first $100,000 and since then have now raised 5 million dollars to market the first 300,000 watches that are now in circulation. Companies like Martian, Fitbit and now Casio, Nike and Samsung have got involved in trying to perfect the watch. The Smart Watch currently needs to have a smartphone close by so that it can connect to Bluetooth and operate properly. Once connected to your cellphone, it will allow you to read text messages, alarms and alerts, connect to the weather and also be able to connect to GPS, so that you do not have to look at our cellphone while driving. The watches cost very from $14.99 and can reach as much as $400.00 depending on the maker, size, style......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

New Technologies

...internal culture, or beginning a new research effort. For example, Boeing’s strat- egy to regain industry leadership with its proposed 787 Dreamliner meant that the company had to increase its manufacturing efficiency in order to keep the price low. To significantly cut costs, management decided to implement a series of programs: Outsource approximately 70% of manufacturing. Reduce final assembly time to three days (compared to 20 for its 737 plane) by having suppliers build completed plane sections. Use new, lightweight composite materials in place of aluminum to reduce inspection time. Resolve poor relations with labor unions caused by downsizing and outsourcing. Another example is a set of programs used by automaker BMW to achieve its objective of increasing production efficiency by 5% each year: (a) shorten new model development time from 60 to 30 months, (b) reduce preproduction time from a year to no more than five months, 22 PART 1 Introduction to Strategic Management and Business Policy and (c) build at least two vehicles in each plant so that production can shift among models de- pending upon demand. Budgets A budget is a statement of a corporation’s programs in terms of dollars. Used in planning and control, a budget lists the detailed cost of each program. Many corporations demand a certain percentage return on investment, often called a “hurdle rate,” before management will approve a new program. This ensures that the new program will significantly......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

New Technology

...Bluetooth Technology Description of Technology Bluetooth technology was invented in 1994 by a group of engineers at Ericsson, a Swedish owned company. The technology was actually named later on after a 10th century Danish King, King Harald Blatand. The name Blatand means blue tooth in English. Bluetooth technology was designed to eliminate the cables and cords. Bluetooth technology operates via radio transmissions in the ISM band at 2.4 to 2.485GHZ. Bluetooth uses a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full duplex signal at 1600 hops per second. This 2.4 GHZ band is unlicensed and available in most countries. Impacts of Bluetooth Technology 1. Bluetooth has made a tremendous impact on home security. Peep is a new Bluetooth peephole. This peephole will take a picture when someone knocks on the door and then sends it to your smartphone. BeOn Home is a smart lightbulb made to deter burglars but also will come on in the event of power outage or smoke alarm. This bulb also employs a Bluetooth mesh network to extend the range throughout the house. There is a smart deadbolt called, Danalock Smart Lock. This deadbolt can be operated from your smartphone and has a variety of design and control scheme options. 2. Probably one of the better and most important impacts of Bluetooth is in the automotive industry. With Bluetooth you can pair your phone to your car and go hands free on answering calls. Some of your autos allow you to sync your contacts and even text via speech.......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Influence of Time Pressure on Aircraft Maintenance Errors

...Influence of time pressure on aircraft maintenance errors TAKAHIRO SUZUKI, TERRY L. VON THADEN, WILLIAM D. GEIBEL University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Introduction Even though proper maintenance is crucial for aviation safety, tracing the effect that human error in maintenance operations has on accidents and incidents remains a difficult task. According to a UK Civil Aviation Authority study (2003), maintenance and inspection deficiencies ranked fourth (12%) as a factor in aviation accidents overall. Other studies have described that as technology has improved, aviation accidents attributed to mechanical failures alone have decreased, yet those attributed to human error have not shown the same reduction (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2003). Aircraft maintenance requires high reliability and is an important concern in the human factors realm for several reasons. On the one hand, automation, which has reduced flight crew workload, does not apply in maintenance operations (Reason & Hobbs, 2003). On the other hand, maintenance tasks generally access critical areas where human errors lead to serious consequences (Reason, 1997). From a human factors perspective, in the current competitive environment of commercial aviation, occupational opportunities relating to aircraft maintenance technicians (AMTs) are declining. While oil prices soar, fares remain low due to competition (Bond, 2008). Employing fewer technicians and making turnaround at the airport gate shorter......

Words: 5116 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

New It Technologies

...New IT Technologies Technological advances have benefited human beings in many different in aspects of human life including personal, social, and organizational life. It is important to remember that organization is essentially groups of people working together towards achieving some common tasks. Thus, it is not possible to separate what is good of organizations from what is good for people and societies in general. In fact, development of need for organizations has arisen out of the technological developments. Organizations are needed primarily because of the practice of the concept of division of labor which is a very important principle used in all technological developments. Technology has also helped organizations to improve their internal management, further improving their effectiveness and profitability. Technology is perhaps the greatest agent of change in the modern world. Although never without risk, technological breakthroughs promise solutions to the most pressing global challenges of our time. Let us look at a few new emerging technologies. Cloud Computing Relatively new IT technologies include those that pertain to cloud computing. While the technology of cloud computing in and of itself is not necessarily a recent development, cloud users have been frequent since the greater part of the last decade; recent developments include the access to and usage of private clouds. One of the chief concerns with cloud computing was always that which pertained to...

Words: 1641 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Aircraft Maintenance

...Module 5 – Aircraft Maintenance Website: http://www.pama.org/ 1. The purpose of this association is to promote a high degree of professionalism among aviation maintenance personnel; to foster and improve methods, skills, learning, and achievement in the field of Aviation Maintenance; to conduct national, state, and local meetings and seminars; to recognize achievement in the field of Aviation Maintenance; to publish, distribute, and disseminate news, technical bulletins, journals, and other appropriate publications dealing with the trade of Aviation Maintenance; to collaborate with other organizations in aviation in the queries of governmental agencies pertaining to maintenance rules and guidelines. 2. The Professional Aviation Maintenance Association is the premier association for the Aviation Maintenance Technician. PAMA promotes professionalism and recognition for the Aviation Maintenance Technician. PAMA does this by fostering continuous improvement in aviation safety and community through communication, education, representation, and support. PAMA's goals are: • Professionalism: Promote a high degree of professionalism among aviation maintenance personnel • Advancement: Foster and improve methods, skills, learning, and achievement in the field of Aviation Maintenance • Assembly: Conduct national, state, and local meetings and seminars • Recognition: Recognize achievement in our field • Publication: Publish, distribute, and disseminate news, technical bulletins,...

Words: 364 - Pages: 2