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Novl

In: Novels

Submitted By amoula18
Words 594
Pages 3
Equity[edit]
The declaration highlighted the inequity between the developed and the developing countries and termed it politically, socially and economically unacceptable.
Health as a socio-economic issue and as a human right[edit]
The third section called for economic and social development as a pre-requisite to the attainment of health for all. It also declared positive effects on economic and social development and on world peace through promotion and protection of health of the people.

Participation of people as a group or individually in planning and implementing their health care was declared as a human right and duty.
Role of the state[edit]
This section emphasized on the role of the state in providing adequate health and social measures. This section enunciated the call for "Health for All" which became a campaign of the WHO in the coming years. It defined Health for All as the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life. The declaration urged governments, international organizations and the whole world community to take this up as a main social target in the spirit of social justice.
Primary health care and components[edit]
This section defined primary health care and urged signatories to incorporate the concept of primary health care in their health systems. Primary health care has since been adopted by many member nations. More recently, Margaret Chan, the Director-General of the WHO has reaffirmed the primary health care approach as the most efficient and cost-effective way to organize a health system. She also pointed out that international evidence overwhelmingly demonstrates that health systems oriented toward primary health care produce better outcomes, at lower costs, and with higher user satisfaction.[3]
The seventh section lists the components of primary health care. The next two sections called on all governments to incorporate primary health care approach in their health systems and urged international cooperation in better use of the world's resources.
Criticisms of and reactions to the Alma-Ata Declaration[edit]

The Alma-Ata Declaration generated numerous criticisms and reactions worldwide. Many argued that the slogan “Health for All by 2000” was not possible and that the declaration did not have clear targets. In his article “The Origins of Primary Health Care and Selective Primary Health Care”, Marcos Cueto claims that the declaration was condemned as being unrealistic, idealistic and too broad. As a result of these criticisms the Rockefeller Foundation sponsored the Health and Population Development Conference held in Italy at the Bellagio Conference Center in 1979 (a year after Alma-Ata). The purpose of this conference was to specify the goals of PHC and to achieve more effective strategies.
As a result, Selective Primary Health Care (PHC) was introduced. As opposed to PHC of the Alma-Ata Declaration, Selective PHC presented the idea of obtaining low-cost solutions to very specific and common causes of death. The targets and effects of Selective PHC were clear, concise, measurable and easy to observe. This is because Selective PHC had explicit areas of focus that were believed to be the most important. They were known as GOBI (growth monitoring, oral rehydration treatment, breast-feeding and immunization) and later GOBI-FFF (adding food supplementation, female literacy and family planning). Unlike the Alma-Ata Declaration these aspects were very specific and concise, making global health as successful and attainable as possible. Nonetheless, there were still many supporters who preferred the comprehensive PHC introduced at Alma-Ata over Selective PHC.…...

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