Free Essay

Oliver Cromwell: First Lord Protector of the Commonwealth

In: People

Submitted By anrohu
Words 635
Pages 3
Oliver Cromwell: First Lord Protector of the Commonwealth

Oliver Cromwell, a well-educated, strict Puritan, and eventual temporary ruler of Great Britain, was born by his parents Elizabeth and Robert Cromwell in 1599. Born of a growing group of Puritans from Huntingdon, Cromwell was born into a time in which his gentry began to seek and demand large changes from the Church of England. His early education came from that of Doctor Thomas Beard, a family friend and very knowledgeable Puritan clergyman. At age 18, he left Huntington to attend law school in London, at Sydney Sussex College. It was only a year later, his father had passed away and Cromwell had abandoned his studies in London to return home where he had to take responsibility for his family and its’ estate.

By 1620, Oliver married the daughter of a London merchant, Elizabeth Bourchier and eventually led to a family of nine children that still resided in his hometown of Huntington. Eight years later, he was elected as the representative of Huntington to the Parliament, sponsored by the Montagu family. However, just one year later, Parliament was dissolved by King Charles I, who thought the criticisms made by the members of Parliament were a threat his role as king. This resulted in Cromwell Prior to an epiphany induced by illness and depression in the late 1620’s, Oliver had never been particularly been devoted the Puritan way of life. However, after these visions, his faith had forever renewed, changed, and focused.

1631 brought the Cromwell family into financial troubles, resulting in Cromwell needed to sell off much of his estate and worked as a farmer for five years. His mother's brother (his uncle) passed away in 1636, bringing in much needed funds for the family. Cromwell's status improved and helped him return to the now re-established Parliament. In the first week, Cromwell caught several members of the First Long Parliament's attention after making a speech about the government of Church run by bishops.Again, the relationship between the King and the Parliament grew heated. The King had raised taxes without any input from the Parliament. This led to the eventual First English Civil War of 1642.

Returning his favor of Edward Montagu's support earlier in his life, Cromwell joined Montagu in the Parliamentary Army. Not a noted solider or tactician, Cromwell still managed to raise a small battalion of cavalry that consisted of what he considered worthy honest men. In 1648, at the Battle of Preston, Cromwell's soldiers defeated King Charles' Royal Army. This led Cromwell to call for charges of treason to be brought upon Charles, who was convicted guilty the next year and executed. Without a King, Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector four years later. Within a short time, he brought the first English-Dutch war to a conclusion with a treaty. His attempts to bring about a government led by the Church had failed led to his eventual withdrawal from his position of power in 1658, with his son taking his place. After his retirement, his health was in decline and eventually died on September 3, 1658 from malaria.

Works Cited
"Britannia: Monarchs of Britain." - British History Travel. Britannia, n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. .
"Charles the First and Parliament, 1625-29." British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1638-60. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. .
"Oliver Cromwell." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. .
"Oliver Cromwell." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. .
"Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658." British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1638-60. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. .
"SparkNotes: Oliver Cromwell: Summary." SparkNotes: Today's Most Popular Study Guides. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2012.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Oliver Evans

... Chapter 1 OLIVER EVANS, WHERE IT BEGAN The author begins the book with some intriguing statements concerning man’s desire to transport himself by some sort of automaton. Mention of da Vinci and Newton were not surprising but the name of Roger Bacon was, along with the fact that he was a seer. Roger Bacon is called the Father of Experimental Science, and is said to be the inventor of gunpowder, but he actually learned about gunpowder from the Chinese. He is an interesting figure due to the fact that he foretold of the automobile among other things before da Vinci or Newton. The author then turns our attention to Oliver Evans. After a brief background of Mr. Evans the focus is then placed on his determination to build and patent a steam powered “waggon”. Mr. Evans achievements, successes, and defeats, were interesting to me in themselves. However what impressed me the most was that the idea of an automobile was being actively pursued before the Revolutionary war. The date of July 1805 leaped off the page at me, being the date of the first vehicle to move under its own power in the United States. This date will definitely be engraved proudly in my memory. The surprising conclusion of installing a paddle wheel on the invention and having it propel itself through the water, induced thoughts of the Mississippi River boats that were in the not too distant future. There are also other items to take note of in this first chapter: Mr. Evans invention of......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Property Finance and Tax, Cromwell Property Group

...Property Finance and Tax Assignment 1 Cromwell Property Group Table of Contents 2.0 Introduction 3 3.0 Background of company 4 3.1 Cromwell Property Securities limited 4 3.2 Cromwell Property Services Pty Ltd 4 4.0 Current Quantitative Considerations 5 5.0 Cromwell Position Prior to Global Financial Crisis 6 6.0 2007 Overview 7 7.0 2008 Overview 8 8.0 2009 10 9.0 2010 11 10.0 2011 12 10.1 Hedging 12 11.0 Cromwell’s financial position post GFC 13 End of 2010 figures 13 End of 2007 figures 13 12.0 Comparison to Mirvac Group and Stockland Corp 14 13.0 Conclusion 14 14.0 References 15 Introduction Before the 2007 global financial crisis Australia had a strong property market, the decade of 1999 to 2009 produced a 9.4% (national) average increase in median property values, at this rate, properties doubled in value in less than eight years. Once the affects of 2008 had settled in, a 3.8% decline was apparent in median values. However due to stimulus spending and a historically low interest rates there was a quick rebound. The property market was generally flat for the rest of the year. Continuing to a decline in 2011 with undervalued stocks. This was considered a buyers market, this has been taken advantaged of by a listed property company called Cromwell Property Group. The GFC had resulted in listed companies losing substantial amounts of capital, Cromwell Group was affected however not as bad as other......

Words: 4109 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Oliver Stone

...Oliver Stone’s USA Wesley Kostovetsky 3070 Spring The History Behind Oliver Stone’s Success Oliver Stone is called by many a historian. Some call him a cinematic historian. Others call him a type of public historian. Oliver Stone likes to refer to himself strictly as a dramatist and in some cases a docu-dramatist. Whatever title chosen there is no doubt he has a made a huge impact through his films; though some may argue in a negative way. Oliver Stone has written and/or directed films about the Vietnam War, Kennedy’s assassination, Nixon’s presidency, Wall Street, the military dictatorship in El Salvador, and many other subjects. Stone’s expertise in film lay in what most “Hollywood executives prefer to avoid. Historical and political cinema is supposedly deadly at the box office.” Stone’s films are known to make audiences “uncomfortable” and cause “controversy”. Through four essays, including one written by Oliver Stone himself explains the reason why his films have made huge impacts and controversies; as well as, the differences between written history and history on film, and the life experiences leading to the creation of some his films and his connection to them. Since the beginning of his career Stone has been “viciously attacked” by critics about his films. The main argument by critics of history films is that they are too fictional for a number of reasons. Though containing “numerous authentic elements” and details the invention of scenes, dialogue,......

Words: 2032 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Oliver Twist

...Finally identified, the real Oliver Twist workhouse reveals stories more brutal than even Dickens dared tell By Dr Ruth Richardson UPDATED:11:49 GMT, 25 March 2011 Please sir: Oliver Twist brought home the harsh realities of life in the workhouse The young woman at the workhouse gate was desperate. Clutching her belly, she begged to be allowed inside. She had nowhere else to go. The workhouse — for all the stories of cruelty that went on within its walls — was her only hope. She desperately needed shelter, for she was about to give birth. But the gatekeeper was inexorable: he had his orders. Babies were expensive. They required feeding, clothing and supervising and it would be at least six years before they could earn their keep, either in the workhouse or in factories, mills or up chimneys. The workhouse authorities had a duty to care for mothers in such a desperate plight. They were paid by the parish to house and clothe the wretched men, women and children who came to their doors as a last resort. For few would reside in the workhouse by choice. The conditions made prison seem comfortable in comparison. But the Beadle — the supervisor of the workhouse — cared less for the law than for his own pockets. He could make a small profit from able-bodied adults and children by setting them to work outside the workhouse, while he siphoned off some of the money that was supposed to feed them. Babies, on the other hand, were not profitable. The workhouse gate clanged shut...

Words: 1573 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

To What Extent Do You Agree with the View That the Commonwealth Failed Because of Its Lack of Reforms? (30 Marks)

...To what extent do you agree with the view that the Commonwealth failed because of its lack of reforms? (30 marks) The Commonwealth lasted from the 1649-1653 and was made up of the Rump and the Nominated Assembly. At the time there were many issues that needed reform such as religious, legal, electoral, taxation and the constitution. It is fair to say that the Commonwealth did fail because of their lack of reforms to some extent; however this was not for lack of trying. The Rump did fail to reform, but the Nominated Assembly trued to reform but was dissolved by its own members before it could. However this was not the main reason why eh Commonwealth failed seeing as they were unpopular and seen as illegitimate. The failure of the two branches of the Commonwealth was confirmed in the Rump when Cromwell walked into Parliament in April 1653 and ejected the Rump. The failure of the Nominated Assembly was confirmed when Cromwell accepted the resignation of the moderates and became Lord Protector in 1653. It is fair to say that the Commonwealth failed due to lack of reform as shown by the Rump. Here there was no legal reform as the Hale Commission was ignored and furthermore, 20% of the Rump were lawyers by profession and therefore weren’t willing to offer their services for free. Furthermore, there was no religious toleration as shown by the reintroduction of a form of censorship with the Blasphemy and Adultery Acts; in 1650 this shows the Commonwealth’s preference of tradition...

Words: 796 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The House of Lords

...House of Lords has existed for about six centuries without reform, some alterations have become necessary in order to bring it into conformity with the changed institutions by which it is surrounded.” – Lord Rosebery, 1884.1 Since Lord Rosebery’s well-known speech there has been much debate about changes in the composition of the House of Lords. Major reforms included the Life Peerages Act 1958 and later the House of Lords Act 1999, which reduced the hereditary members to 92.2 Nevertheless, constitutional experts such as Rodney Brazier argue that the House of Lords continues to be “unelected, unrepresentative and unaccountable.”3 The Coalition Government is therefore working on another reform bill to provide for a wholly or largely elected second chamber. This essay will argue that such a drastic change from a largely appointed to an elected system is too unrealistic to be implemented. Instead, the Government should seek to abolish Prime Ministerial patronage as well as the remaining hereditary members and adopt an independent Appointments Commission that appoints all the members of the upper chamber. To arrive at this conclusion, we will need to analyse which selection method best retains the Lords’ expertise, as well as their independence and representativeness. Then, a discussion follows whether the Lords necessarily ought to be democratically elected to provide a legitimate chamber. Lastly, the possibility of a mixed chamber will be considered. The House of Lords is......

Words: 2512 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Jamie Oliver

...------------------------------------------------- Jamie Oliver Wealth has been on almost everybody’s lips the last couple of years. Politicians are trying to safe the people from obesity, but even through the number of overweight people are increasing especially in the United States. Now it is time for other people to take action towards this highly debated phenomenon. Jamie Oliver has taken both England and the United States by storm with his campaigns involving school meals. These campaigns have caused a huge discussion about Jamie Oliver’s methods and intentions in these campaigns. The first text is a short article, which discus Jamie Oliver and his handlings is “Jamie Oliver’s Milk War“ posted by Michael Specter the 16th of June 2011. It was published at the Michael Specter may use a lot of sarcasm especially in his first lines “and there is none more glorious than Jamie Oliver, the British interloper who has decided to save America from its gluttonous self.“P 2 L 6-7.  He is picturing this wonderful image of Jamie Oliver and his intentions, but with words like “Glorious“ he indirectly is trying to create a kind of negative tone towards Jamie Oliver. Anyway he ends up being okay with Jamie Oliver as this celebrity “Oddly, that kind of celebrity is fine with me.“ P 2 L 9. The actions that Jamie Oliver have done seems obvious and in its right place in order to American eating habits. Jamie Oliver is described as a celebrity, and when he puts......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Oliver Cromwell

...Oliver Cromwell was a strict Puritan, and played really important roles, not only in the civil war, but even in the government. He came from a gentry’s family, and when he was young, after having a good education at Cambridge, toke part of the Short and the long parliaments. Even if being a puritan, Cromwell supported the idea of militarism. In fact, during the first Civil War, having a strong commanding voice, and a huge military ability, Cromwell was authorized by the parliament to start his military career by razing a regiment to help the roundheads to fight the royal forces. The Ironsides, Cromwell’s own regiment, actually distinguished at the battle of Marston Moor and in many other minor engagements. In 1644 he was appointed second to Sir Thomas Fairfax, and was also authorized by Parliament to reorganize a new army which became a “New Model Army” in which Cromwell spread his puritan’s ideas. In fact he said to his soldiers: “I think that who prays best will fight best. Anyways, his new army had a great success by defeating the king in the First Civil War and the Scottish and Irish royalists in the second one. After taking over Ireland and Scotland, Cromwell, initiated a policy of systematic dispossession of the conquered lands by giving them to new puritan owners. In 1650 he also invaded Schootland and defeated all the royalist forces at Dunbar. When the second civil war ended, Cromwell realized that he had a lot of power. He was in fact controlling the army that......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Richard Cromwell

... 2012 Richard Cromwell Have you ever wished that you came from a royal family? Well lucky for Richard Cromwell, his father was a very wealthy man. He was Lord Protector from 25 December 1653 to 3 September 1658 (“Collins, Jacquelin” Dictionary 380). After his father passed away, Richard took his role of Protector. He took office in 1658 immediately after the death of his father, and lasted in office all the way to 25 May 1659 (“Cromwell Richard”Encyclopaedia Britannica). This shows what type of leader he was. Richard had mostly ineffective qualities such as being unable to protect the parliament, lack of experience, and inability to use money wisely. Oliver Cromwell for the most part, was a good leader. He did not like having the Parliament in charge of England. He knew the Parliament was treating the Army poorly, so when he took office, the first thing he did was take the Army’s side. He really pushed the execution of Charles I (“Collins, Jacquelin” Dictionary 380). For a while everyone loved Oliver but by the end of his term, he became a much hated man. The citizens became tired of having such strict rules. Why did he feel he needed to be so strict on the citizens? After his death, his body was exhumed and his head was placed on a pole above the West Minister Hall (“Collins, Jacquelin” Dictionary 381). Richard Cromwell took his father’s place as Lord Protector of the Common Wealth. Richard was born on 4 October, 1626. His parents were Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth......

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Thomas Cromwell

...Thomas Cromwell was born in southwest London 1485. He had a modest upbringing and left the capital for Europe when he was a teenager. Initially fighting as a soldier in the French army he somehow acquired a broad education including some knowledge of business and law. Cromwell was the second of the great ministers to Henry VIII. He became legal secretary for Cardinal Wolsey who was in service to Henry VIII. Wolsey fell out but Cromwell survived, becoming a member of parliament. In 1523, Cromwell became a member of parliament, where he greatly extended the power of the house. During this time, he also started to dissolve monasteries to help build a college and school for Wolsey. Cromwell is thought to have been responsible for drafting the Supplication of the Commons against the Ordinaries in 1532. This parliamentary petition resurrected the protests against church courts originally made in 1529 in the attack on Wolsey; it was used to secure the submission of the clergy, which finally subjected canon law to secular review. Cromwell took charge of the drafting of the Act in Restraint of Appeals to Rome (1533) and the Act of Supremacy (1534). Cromwell persuaded Henry to agree to marry Anne of Cleves, a German princess, in hope to secure support against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor, and strengthen the bonds of Protestantism. The marriage failed Unlike Wolsey and his predecessors, Cromwell was never Lord Chancellor; he can be regarded as the first chief minister of a new type,......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Oliver Twist

...Oliver Twist is one of Charles Dickens’ most famous novels and a classic poor-to-rich story about an orphan who was born into a workhouse and must navigate his way around the criminal underworld to avoid being corrupted. Literature incorporates the history of the workhouse and reflects the concerns of both paupers and ratepayers, and it also challenges the dehumanizing effects of the Law’s administration. The time period of Oliver Twist was still under the time of the Old Poor Law, but it was mainly seen as criticizing of the New Poor Law. Felix Driver writes, “The account of the starving child who asked for more was almost certainly based on the earlier system, although the extent to which the old survived in the new does not entirely invalidate the criticism”. Scholars tend to focus on the scene where Oliver asks for more food as indicative of the meagre portions that the inmates received. These scholars identify hunger as the main threat of the workhouse, but that approach neglects the larger threat of death, which shapes Oliver’s character. When the opening chapters of the novel are considered more broadly, the workhouse is actually a site where the poor carry an obligation to one another. High death rates within the workhouse encourage solidarity as seen by the behaviours of the orphans. While providing charity carries the risk of supporting idlers, and Dickens is consistently critical of charity, he also writes the poor as recognizing common risks and finding their......

Words: 2866 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Commonwealth Act

...Commonwealth Act No. 141 of 1936 AND AN ACT TO AMEND COMPILE THE LAWS RELATIVE TO LANDS OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN TITLE I TITLE AND APPLICATION OF THE ACT, LANDS TO WHICH IT REFERS, AND CLASSIFICATION, DELIMITATION, AND SURVEY — THEREOF FOR CONCESSION CHAPTER I Short Title of the Act, Lands to Which it Applies, and Officers Charged With Its Execution SECTION 1. The short title of this Act shall be "The Public Land Act. SECTION 2. The provisions of this Act shall apply to the lands of the public domain; but timber and mineral lands shall be governed by special laws and nothing in this Act provided shall be understood or construed to change or modify the administration and disposition of the lands commonly called "friar lands'' and those which, being privately owned, have reverted to or become the property of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, which administration and disposition shall be governed by the laws at present in force or which may hereafter be enacted. SECTION 3. The Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce shall be the executive officer charged with carrying out the provisions of this Act through the Director of Lands, who shall act under his immediate control. SECTION 4. Subject to said control, the Director of Lands shall have direct executive control of the survey, classification, lease, sale or any other form of concession or disposition and management of the lands of the public domain, and his decisions as to questions of fact shall be......

Words: 16833 - Pages: 68

Free Essay


...significant competitive 1 U.S. Department of Justice/FTC Joint Horizontal Merger Guidelines (April 2, 1992, revised April 8, 1997) (“Merger Guidelines”). 2 15 U.S.C. § 18 (emphasis added). Note that unlike the standard applicable to review by the Federal Communications Commission, the antitrust laws do not require that the parties demonstrate that the transaction is in the public interest, but rather that it does not substantially lessen competition in any relevant market. harm that will result from this merger. For these reasons, the DOJ should move to block XM and Sirius from combining to form a monopoly provider of satellite DARS in the United States. II. Market Definition Under the Merger Guidelines approach, the first step in an antitrust analysis of the proposed transaction is to define the relevant product and geographic market(s) involved. This includes identification of the existing and potential participants in that market, and an assessment of the proposed transaction’s impact on concentration within the relevant market. A. Market to Provide Satellite DARS The logical starting place for defining the relevant market is satellite DARS, as provided by both XM and Sirius. The question then is whether the relevant market, as properly defined by the antitrust laws, is broader. The parties argue that the relevant market is much broader, and also includes alternative, not-in-kind audio delivery services such as terrestrial radio,......

Words: 4876 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

What Happened to Oliver Cromwell’s Body?

...What Happened to Oliver Cromwell’s Body? Bernice D. Abrams World Civ. 102 Fall I 2008 What Happened to Oliver Cromwell’s Body? Oliver Cromwell was born on April 25, 1599, in Huntingdon, near Cambridge. His father Robert was the younger son of a Knight, which in those days meant that he had very little property. Cromwell grew up in genteel poverty; not quite a member of the nobility, yet not a commoner either. In 1620 he married Elizabeth Boucher. For the early part of his adult life, he scraped along, barely making ends meet on the scraps he had inherited from his father. Then in 1630 the failure of his business caused him to move to St. Ives and begin again as a yeoman farmer. However in 1637 he inherited a modest income and property when his mother’s brother died without heirs. Despite his impoverished circumstances, he had many opportunities to interact with powerful figures at court. His grandfather lived in state at his house outside Huntingdon, where he frequently entertained royalty and court officials. Through his wife’s father, Sir James Bourchier, he was brought into contact with London merchants and leading Puritan figures. In 1630, he suffered what we would today term a mental breakdown. At the same time he under went a powerful religious conversion to the Puritan cause. He afterwards said that he felt as though he was waiting for God to give him a mission. In the meantime, he was elected as a Member of Parliament for......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Define the Commonwealth CHAPTER II page 11 Equality CHAPTER III page18 Autonomy CHAPTER IV page 26 Autochthony CHAPTER V page 37 Membership CHAPTER VI page 42 Co-operation CHAPTER VII page 48 Symbols CHAPTER VIII page 56 Members of the Commonwealth REFERENCES page 61 FOREWORD The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and previously as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of fifty-four independent member states. All but two of these countries were formerly part of the British Empire. The member states co-operate within a framework of common values and goals as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace. The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organization through which countries with diverse social, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status. Its activities are carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by the Secretary-General, and biennial Meetings between Commonwealth Heads of Government. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, which is a ceremonial position currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is also monarch, separately and independently, of sixteen Commonwealth......

Words: 22380 - Pages: 90