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Org Hrm

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Hva er omgivleser?
Generelt kan vi si at omgivelser er alle forhold utenfor en organisasjon som kan ha en potensiell effekt på organisasjonen. Dette innbefatter for det første aktører som er viktige for Organisasjonen. Men det innefatter også grupper som er eller kan bli potensielle kunder. Dessuten er det en rekke samfunnsmessige forhold som kan påvirke Organisasjonens situasjon, som er vanskelige å identifisere og tolke betydningen av, for eksempel økonomisk og kulturell utvikling og offentlig politikk både lokalt og i form av internasjonale trender.

Figuren viser inndeilig av omgivelser i ulike nivå.

Hvorfor studere omgivelsene?
Avhengighet til andre aktører eller forhold som organisasjonen selv ikke har innflytelse og kontroll over, skaler usikkerthet i organisasjoner. Usikkerhet kan generelt betraktes som manglende evne eller mulighet til å foruti hva som vil hende i fremtiden. Mer presist kan vi si at usikkerhet er forskjellen mellom den informasjonen som trengs for å fatte en beslutning eller utføre en oppgave, og den informasjonen organisasjonen allerede besitter.

Avhengighet som fenomen er intressant i denne sammenhengen, ikke bare fordi den skaper usikkerhet, men fordi den også skaper makt og avmakt i organisasjonens forhold til andre aktører, alt avhengig av hva som kjennetegner avhengigheten.

Klassifisering av omgivelsene i tekniske og institusjonelle omgivelser:
Et viktig teoretisk skille for å forstå hvordan ulike trekk ved omgivelsene kan påvirke organisasjoner, er skillet mellom "tekninske" og "institusjonelle" omgivelser. Med tekniske omgvielser mener vi alle de forhold utenfor en organisasjon som direkte påvirker hvordan organisasjonen løser oppgavene for å realisere sine mål (leverandører, konkurrenter, kunder)

Begrepet institusjonelle omgivelser viser generelt til hva som kjennetegner kulturen i organisasjonens omgivelser. Mer presist viser det til hvordan bestemte oppfatninger, verdier, normer og forventninger som er utbredt i omgivelsene, kan være bestemmende for hvordan organisasjonen oppfattes i omgivelsene, og derfor for organisasjonens legitimitet. Derfor vil institusjonelle omgivelser sette organisasjonen under press for å framstå slik at aktører i omgivelsene tenker positivt omkring organisasjonen.

I figuren nedenfor har vi illustrert hvordan ulike organisasjoner kan være under ulikt press for å tilpasse seg krav fra henholdvis sine tekninske og institusjonelle omgivelser. Denne måten å klassifisere omgivelsene på kan brukes for å beskrive hvordan ulike typer av organisasjonr må forholde seg til ulike typer av omgivelser. For eksempel antyder figuren at offentlige og private organisasjoner må forholde seg til ulike typer omgivelser. Mens private organisasjoner som oftes forholder seg til markeder, er offentlig virksomhet som regel skjermet for markedskonkurranse.

Det teoretiske skille vi gar etablert mellom tekninske og institusjonelle omgivelser er i midlertid ikke alltid like klart. Det kan overlappe hverandre og kreve at organisasjoner skal tilpasse seg flere omgivelser samtidlig.

Organisasjonen og de tekninske omgivelsene:
Tekniske omgivelser er som sagt eksterne forhold som påvirker oppgaveutførelsen i en organisasjon. Slike forhold kan grupperes i to kategorier:
1. Forhold som har betydning for organisasjonens ressurser (for eksempel råvarer, underleveranser, kvalifisert personell, kapital osv.)
2. Forhold som har betydning for organisasjonens resultater (slike forhold kan omfatte etterspørsel etter organisasjonens produkter, eller krav som stilles til produktene eller måten de produseres på)
Endringer i en organisasjons tekningske omgivelser, betyr at organisasjonen må gjøre noe med aktiviteten sin.

Teoretiske perspektiv på forholdet mellom tekninske omgivelser og organisasjonen:
De grunnleggende antakelsene i det vi kaller et tekninsk perspektiv på omgivelsene er følgende:
1. organisasjoner er avhengig av sine omgivelser for å overleve
2. For å overleve må organisasjonens mål, stragegier og struktur være tilpasset til omgivelsene.
Det mest sentrale perspektivet er her å klassifisere omgivelsene langs to dimensjoner:
1. Grad av homogenitet (dvs. ensartethet) - organisasjonen må forholde seg til et fåtall aktører i omgivelsene som er forholdsvis like. organisasjonen kan derfor lett skaffe seg oversikt over aktører og hendelser i omgivelsene som er vitkige for virksomheten. Det motsatte kaller vi hetrohene omgivelser
2. Grad av stabilitet - omgivelsene ikke endrer seg særlig over tid, slik at det er relativt enkelt å forutsi endringer. Det motsatte er dynamiske omgivelser. 

Felles for hetrogene og dynamsike omgivelser er at de begge representerer usikkerhet for organisasjonen. Men hetrohene omgivelser krever en helt annen tilpasning enn synamiske omgivelser for å redusere usikkerhet. De sentrale antakelsene er her som følger:
1. Jo mer hetrogene de tekninske omgivelsene er, jo flere funksjonelle enheter må organisasjonen etablere. Det vil si at man anvender et slags spelbildeprinsipp hvor ulike forhold betjenes av hver sine organisasjonsenheter som blir spesialisert på denne typen forhold. Dette reduserer usikkerheten ved at omgivelsene organisasjonsenhetene forholder seg til, består av likeartede fronmener.
2. Jo mer dynamisk de tekninske omgivelsene er, jo mer organisk struktur må organisasjonen utvikle, for å øke kapasiteten til å behandle informasjon som kan redusere usikkerheten og for å fremme fleksibilitet slik at man raskt kan tilpasse seg endringer i omgivelsene.

Strategier for å håndtere tekniske omgivelser:
1. Opprette buffere mot omgivelsene (lagerbeholdning, økonomi osv)
2. Forsøke å glatte ut topper i arbeidsbelastningen. Et offentlig velferdskontor, som skal utbetale goder hver måned kan velge to strategier. Man kan si at alle kan hente godet samtidlig, noe som fører til sterk belastning på enkelte tidspunkt. Men man kan velge å kreve at klienter med etterneavn som begynner på en bokstad fra A til G skal komme å få først osv osv.
3. Forsøke å forutse svigninger i belastningen. Gjennom analyse og prognoser kan en bedrift til en viss grad forutse når på året man har størst etterspørsel. En iskremfabrikk vet at sommeren er høysesong.
4. Fordøke å vokse. Vektst kan være en strategi for å mestre organisatorisk avhengighet. Jo større man er, jo mer makt har man.
5. Integrere vertikalt. Ofte står organisasjoner i et gjensidig avhengighetsforhold til hverandre. Orfte vil en organisasjon forsøke å minste denne usikkerheten ved å innlemme den elelr de organisasjonene den er avhengig av, i strukturen. Statoil pumper opp oljen rafinerer den og selger den.
6. Integrere horisontalt. Organisasjoner kan også være konkurransemessig avhenige av hverandre, dvs. at to organisasjoner opererer på samme marked. Konkurranse fører til usikkerhet; man vet aldri hva konkurrenten finner på. Slå sammen organisasjoner som står i konkurranse med hverandre.
7. Diversifisere. Organisasjoner som er svært avheninge av en eller noen få ytre aktører vil forsøke å minste usikkerheten ved å skaffe seg flere ben å stå på.
8. Konkurranseutsette. Inneværer å sette oppgaver som man tidligere har utført selv ut til andre eksterne aktører, slik at organisasjonen får et sterkere fokus på sin kjernevirksomhet.
9. Samarbeid mellom organisajsoner.
Organiusasjonen og de institusjonelle omgivelsene:
= studier av samspillet mellom organisasjoner og deres omgivelser ved å sette fokus på hvordan klutruelle trekk i omgivelserne kan påvirke organisasjoner.
Grunnleggende antakelser, verdier og normer i omgivelsene som preger hvordan man mener at ulike typer vikrsomhet bør etableres og organiserer og koordineres, og ledes. Ofte forankret i lover og bestemmelser som regulerer virksomheter, og fremmer klare forventinger til hva som blir gjort. organisasjoner som ikke passer til slike forventinger vil lett kunne få et legitimitetsproblem i forhold til omgivelsene, fordi avvik fra forventinger skaper usikkerhet om hva som skjer.

Hovedpoenget med å fokusere på institusjonelle omgivelser kan presiseres i tre punkter:
1. Alle organisasjoner vil være under press for å møte forventinger til reasjonalitetsnormer og verdier i omgivelsene som har relevans for deres egen virksomhet.
2. Organisasjoner vil derfor forsøke å ta hensyn til slike eksterne normer og verdier i målformuleringer og måten å organisere virksomheten på. Derved unngår man at det settes spørsmålstegn ved virksomheten.
3. For å påvirke omgivelsenes oppfatning av organisasjonens mål og virksomhet og sikre nødvendig legitimitet og støtte kan organisasjoner bruke mål og formell struktur utelukkende som symboler. Det vil si at man formulerer mål og lager opplegg for styring, koordinering og kontroll som ikke har noen praktisk betydning for arbeidet som blir gjort. Det eneste formålet er å signalisere til omgivelsene at man tar hensyn til hvordan man mener at ting bør gjøres.
Teoretisk perspektiv på forholdet mellom institusjonelle omgivelser og organisasjonen:
Innenfor det som vi kan kalle for "et institusjonelt perspektiv på omgivelsene" kan vi beskrive en organisasjons omgivelser som sammensatt av tre ulike typer av institusjonelle elementer, som organisasjonen må tilasse seg for å bli oppfattet som legitim:

Hver av de tre søylene representerer en institusjonell forklaring på hvordan kulturelle forhold i omgivelsene påvirker organisasjoner, ved å sette dem under press for å gjøre noe bestemt for å sikre seg legitimitet i omgivelsene.

Innenfor den regulative søylen betraktes lovgivning som et kulturelt fenomen som ved tvang for en organisasjon til å gjøre noen på en spesifisert måte, eller avstå fra å gjøre noe.

Den normative søylen presiserer hvordan en form for sosial forpliktelse i organisasjonen er grunnlaget for at organisasjonen tilpasser seg verider og forventinger i omgivelsene.

Kjernen i den kognitive søylen er en erkjennelse som går på at en organisasjons legitimitet er bestemt av i hvilken grad andre oppfatter at den samsvarer med hva som er allment aksepterte oppfatninger om hvordan den bør se ut.

Strategier for å håndtere institusjonelle omgivelser:
1. Strukturell konformitet - en organisasjonsform som framstår som rasjonell og moderne, og som oppfattes som effektiv og "god" for omgivelsene
2. Prosedyrekonformitet - adopterer visse arbeidsformer som oppfattes som "riktig". Målstyring, kvalitetssikring osv.
3. Personellkonformitet - ansette personer som i følge omgivelsene har den "riktige" kunnskapen for å utføre en oppgave.
Strategier for å mestre krysspress fra de tekniske og insitusjonelle omgivelsene:
1. Man kan skulle den faktiske aktiviteten i organisasjonen fra den formelle strukturen.
2. Man kan innlede forhandlinger med sentrale aktører i de institusjonelle omgivelsene.
3. Man kan yte motstand og protestere
4. Man kan forsøke å påvirke oppfatningene om hva som gjør organisasjonen legitim. I mange tilfeller driver organisasjoner bevisst med å fremme en spesiell "image".…...

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