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Organization of Espn

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Introduction Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN) is the world’s leading multinational, multimedia sports entertainment company (Hearst Corporation ESPN, 2009). In this paper, I am going to analyze and diagnose different areas within ESPN using the Weisborg Six-Box Model (Weisborg, 1974). The Six-Box Model includes purpose, structure, relationships, rewards, helpful mechanisms and leadership. This article presents a practice theory, Six-Box Model, for diagnosing organizations and how the six different category influence each other. According to the Six-Box Model different aspects of the corporation including the basic background of an organization (Weisborg, 1976). ESPN became the first sports network to televise complete sports coverage; 24 hours/7 days a week. This corporation is the leader in multimedia sports including television and radio with over fifty business assets, televising sixty-five sports in sixteen different languages in more than two-hundred countries (ESPN, 2012). Founded by Bill Rasmussen, ESPN launched their first televised and radio programs in America. Based out of Bristol, Connecticut, ESPN operates their network under ABC Inc. and Hearst Corporation. Currently, George Bodenhiemer, Executive Chairman, and John Skipper, Executives and Other Personal Personnel of EPSN, are the leaders at ESPN Inc. In this case, I want to take in depth perspective of ESPN. In this case study, I collected data through reading written records including speeches, reports, charts, graphs, etc. I did not observe, interview, or survey anyone in the ESPN Corporation. From the collected data, I would define ESPN as a informal organization. The informal organization is the interlocking social structure that governs how people work together in practice. It is the aggregate of , norms, personal and professional connections through which work gets done and relationships are built among people who share a common goals (Murcko, 2012). This diagnosing is based on the interpretation of data I have gained. I believe that ESPN is a informal system because ESPN follows a distinctive cognitive map in which it is in direct relationship with the pattern of authority, communication, and work flow. Cognitive mapping is a technique developed by Axelrod (1976) to analyze how people work together in the structure and policy decisions.
Purpose
One of the concepts in the Six-Box Model is the purpose of an organization. ESPN is defined as a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objective (Greenberg, 2011). The purpose must be look at from an organizational stand point and could be defined as the business are we in (Weisbord, 1974). Purpose can be examined in two different critical factors such as goal clarity and goal agreement (Steers & Porter, 1974). Steers suggests that “priorities” are formed in the organization. In my opinion, the purpose of an organization and the goals are directly correlated. ESPN's purpose is to entertain through medium of sports. This is clearly their interests and in which as stated before ESPN leads in the sports broadcasting world. I would like to direct you towards the mission statement of ESPN states, “"To serve sports fans wherever sports are watched, listened to, discussed, debated, read about or played.” From reading this one gets an insight to the purpose of this organization (ESPN Inc., 2012). In this fashion, ESPN has surpasses their goals as the corporation brings new platforms and ideas to help “serve sports fans,” such as launching a new soccer platform which facilitates different languages for the outreach of soccer fans everywhere (Dwornik, 2012). In order to become a global power, ESPN had to use the concept of globalization; the process of interacting the world’s people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological and environmental aspects of their lives (Greenberg, 2011). Along with globalization comes a multinational enterprise (MNE’s). Greenberg (2011) defines MNE's as a organization that have significant operations spread throughout various nations but are headquarters in a signal nation. The purpose of a company can only go so far as the structure of the organization. The company has expanded to over two hundred different companies with headquarters in different cities around the world including Bangalore, Beijing, Buenos Aires, Delhi, Hong Kong, London, Mexico City, Mumbai, Paris, and São Paulo. Overall, ESPN continues to demonstrate the purpose of the organization of reaching out the sports fanatics everywhere.
Structure
The second category of the Six-Box Model is structure. Weisborg defines this as how do you divide up the work. Greenberg (2011) states organizational structure is the formal configuration between individuals and groups with respect to allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authorities within organizations. Three different aspects of structure that ESPN exhibits is the allocation of tasks and responsibilities, who has the authority within the organization and configuration of groups that still abide by function, product, or mixture of both (Weisbord, 1974). Following Weisborg theories, I designate ESPN as a functional organization. A functional organization is the classic organizational structure where the employees are grouped hierarchically, managed through clear lines of authority and report ultimately to one top person (Murcko, 2012). ESPN has a distinct division of labor. This is the process of deciding the many tasks of dividing the many tasks performed within an organization into particular jobs (Greenberg, 2011). The division of labor and the hierarchy of authority are corresponded of each other. The hierarchy of authority is the distinction between members of organizations with respect to the degree of authority they have; higher positions in an organization chart reflect higher degrees of formal authority (Greenberg, 2011). Sean Bratches, Executive Vice President of Sales and Marketing, demonstrates the definition through his responsibilities as they differ from other employees; division of labor. As Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Bratches influences over lower level employees; hierarchy of power. In a structural standpoint, centralization is the tendency for just a few powerful individuals or groups to hold most of the decision-making power (Greenberg, 2011). ESPN has the board of trustees has the power of making organizational decisions. With the division of labor, definite roles are seen but in the decision making process. These powered individuals receive advice from leaders from different departments. Greenberg (2011) defines departmentalization which can be defined as the process of breaking up organizations into coherent units, is another aspect of the organizational view. ESPN disperses into departments including Marketing and Sales, Administration, Human Resources, and more. Referring to division of labor,Weisbord (1974) quotes, “No organization could neatly arrange itself this way from top to bottom, (p. 436).” This is be true for the ESPN corporation. Although companies have their problems, ESPN has a very strong structure that allows it to continuously provide goods and services.
Relationships
I believe that one of the most important parts of the Six-Box Model involves relationships. The Six-Box Model, relationships is defined as how do we manage conflict with people? With technologies? (Weisborg, 1974). There is three different types of work relationships according Weisborg (1974) that it the relationship between people, between units doing different tasks, and people and their technologies. With the data that I have collected, I believe ESPN demonstrates categories with specific examples . In the relationship with people, I direct you to the ESPN value statement which states “People are our most valuable resource, and care and respect for employees and each other will always be at the heart of our operations…we are passionately committed to teamwork, quality, creativity, integrity, and the aggressive...” (ESPN Inc., 2012). The values of this corporation shows that through the purpose of broadcasting, the people and relationships that are valued at ESPN Corporation. Clearly, this shows that ESPN takes a consideration of how to manage conflict with each other. This is illustrated by stating that the people are most important. The relationship between units doing different tasks are related to group dynamics. Group dynamics are factors governing a groups formation and development, structure and interrelationships with individuals, other groups and the organizations withing which it exists (Greenberg, 2011). The formation of groups and departments are made with in this organization. I believe that in one of the cases that ESPN's John Skipper (2012) stated that “specific tasks forces were made in order to better solve problems around the corporation,” (About ESPN, 2012). One of the ways to directly solve conflict in the corporation is to look at a consultant to diagnose the quality of relationships and finally for modes for conflict management (Lawarence & Lorsch, 1967). Jenn Kirkwood, of ESPN, feels that ESPN is making a direct attempt to solve this. Kirkwood (2012) quotes “Through participation in programs like the PAR initiative, the good work that ESPN does is being recognized. ESPN has done some tremendous things to make this a better place to work for everyone, as well as meet some specific needs for the women in our company” (About ESPN, 2012). Since ESPN is primarily based of broadcasting, the relationship between people and their technology is absolutely essential. Virtual teams are definitely present withing the ESPN Corporation as the multinational business must be able to communicate with each other in the most effective way as possible. Virtual teams, teams that operate across space, time and organization boundaries, communicating with each other only through electronic technology (Greenberg, 2011). Doreen Balimid (2012) feels strongly on how technology is important in the work force with this quote, “With technology and new innovation moving at the speed of light, we have to embrace change in order to stay competitive and relevant…” (About ESPN, 2012). Technology is used to help manage conflict with people in the case of ESPN Inc. The conflict is solved through technology. Primarily focused of the ideas of an virtual corporation, ESPN provides their goods and through television, radio, or internet.
Rewards
Rewards in an organization both reinforces the person and organization. This improves when there is a chance for growth, responsibility, and achievement. (Weisbord, 1974). The motivation factor in organizations that can be defined as “do all needed tasks need incentives.” Reward power refers to the individual power based derived from and individuals capacity to administer valued rewards to others (Greenberg, 2011). I believe that one of the most important incentives or rewards is pay based on individual production. ESPN did not have a reward program or standards when it comes as in incentive. The incentive work was based on salary pay. I believe that one of the most important incentives or rewards is money/pay. The Reward system in the ESPN corporation is based on the ideas of motivators and hygiene factors. Motivators in ESPN organization include work itself, may it be televised or radio broadcasting anchor, financial representative, or any particular job within this organization. According to Wiesborg (1976), the reward motivators is about advancement and recognition in the work force. This just comes along with doing the job, and it seems to be universal in most industries. The hygiene factors reward the employee with interpersonal relationships with others and managers. This is a hygiene factor that drives ESPN workers to complete the job. In most cases, the terms as of rewards are loosely defined in the ESPN Inc.
Helpful Mechanisms Wiesborg (2012) quotes, “mechanisms have proven to be a useful way to think about the cement that binds an organization together.” In the Six-Box Model, helpful mechanisms is defined as have we adequate coordination technologies (Weisborg, 1974). As stated before, ESPN is primarily a broadcasting network. Technologies need to be constantly updated in order to prove that ESPN has adequate coordination technologies. Helpful mechanisms are the procedures, policies, meetings, systems, committees, bulletin boards and so on that facilitate concerted efforts . (Weisborg, 1974). Everything single aspect of how something is done can be analyzed. These are the processes that get the job done at the end of the day. In the ESPN Corporation, procedures are strictly defined and coordinated. John Skipper (2012) says that “It is absolutely essential that we maintain focus on the job..” (ESPN, 2012). Helpful mechanisms can be both formal intent and informal intent. Formal intents means that each mechanisms has the potential for helpful outcomes. Informal intents are the exact opposite in which each mechanism is unhelpful. (Weisborg, 1974). Some procedures can be useful and then others can be non-useful. This is seen in the new platform that was just recently announced. ESPN confirms that a procedure booklet was handed out to all employees in ESPN Headquarters. The procedure booklet is an exampful of an formal intent to better the work environment. There are four other processes that require helpful mechanisms; planning, budgeting, control, and measurement of information (Weisborg, 1974). Each single process is guided through with helpful mechanisms. The first procedure, planning, could use different mechanisms such a those bulletin boards, committees in order to come up with efficient ideas. ESPN is passionate about the process of control. Overall, the helpful mechanisms
Leadership
What makes a good leader in an organization? The Six Box Model, defines the leader as someone who keeps the boxes listed earlier in “check”. Greenberg (2011) defines a leader as an individual with a group or an organization who wields the most influence over another. Leadership, in addition to behavioral skills and other such attributes, an understanding of the environment around him/her and will focus on the purpose of the organization (Likert, 1957). Currently, John Skipper is Executives and Other Personal Personnel of EPSN, Inc.; Co-Chairmen, Disney Media Networks. I have come to the conclusion that Skipper is an authentic leader; highly moral individuals who are confident, hopeful, optimistic, and resilient and who are highly aware of the contexts in which they operate (Greenberg, 2011). He sat back and look at some of the problems at ESPN, and solved through different ideas of the Six-Box Model; he kept the other boxes in check. ESPN Insider (2012) states “He [John Skipper] played leadership roles overseeing the company’s television, digital, print and advertising sales initiatives, as well as ESPN’s focus on brand extensions, bringing the company’s “best available screen” philosophy to life...” (ESPN Media Zone, 2012). Clearly, Skipper has the qualifications and the right attitude when it comes to be a leader. ESPN shows that the development is clearly surpassing expectations. John Skipper is not the only leader in the organization that has high degrees and awards just shows that ESPN through the leaders will continue to flourish. Different programs are arising in ESPN in order to better train the leaders.
Conclusion
All in all, we see that in different aspects of an organization, it is not just one box, in the Six Box Model that is important but all of them. All of them keep each other in check. For example, if the helpful mechanisms category is wrong, this may affect and/or cause conflict the relationship category. In my opinion, when one of them is off, they are all off. There is many different aspects that show how ESPN follows this model through there actions and structure, but not every organization is perfect. For the most part, this analysis focused on the positive sides of the corporation. The purpose of an organization shows why a company does what it does in order to make a profit. In this case, ESPN is a broadcasting company providing for sports fans. The organization diagnosis or analysis is for out systematically what its strengths and weaknesses are or to uncover reasons why either the producers or consumers of a particular output (Weisborg, 1974). One important key that was not mention was the fact that how the environment plays a large role in how the organization functions. These are the properties that can not be affected by the actual organizations such as consumers, government, and other such participants. Overall, the Six-Box Model can be applied to any and every organization that is looking for an analysis or diagnoses of the problems or how to become more efficient in the industry.

Reference Page
(2009). Hearst Corporation ESPN. Hearst Communication Inc. Retrieved from http://www.hearst.com/entertainment/espn.php
(2012). About ESPN. ESPN MediaZone. Retrieved from http://espnmediazone.com/us/about-espn/
(2012). ESPN. ESPN FrontRow. Retrieved from http://frontrow.espn.go.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/book_guidelines- hoh.pdf
(2012). ESPN Inc. ESPN Corporation Information. Retrieved from http://espnmediazone.com/us/
Axelrod, R. (ed.). (1976). Structure of decision. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dwornik, A. (2012) ESPN Launches New Soccer Brand. ESPN Corporate Information. Retrieved from http://espnmediazone3.com/wpmu
Greenberg, J. (2011). Behavior in Organization. New Jersey.
Lawarence, P., & Lorsch, J. Organization and Environment. Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, 1967.
Likert, R. The Human Organizations: Its management and value. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1967
Murcko, T. (2012). Business Dictionary. Web Finance Inc. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/aboutus.php
Steers, R. & Porter, L. The Role of Task Goal Attributions in Employee Performance (Reports No. TH-24), Washington D.C,; Office of Naval Research, April 1974.
Weisbord, M.R Organizational Diagnosis: Six Places To Look For Trouble with or Without a Theory. Organization Research and Development, a division of Vlcok Perella Associates, Inc. Wynnewood, Pa. 1974, 430-447.
Weisbord, M.R. The gap between OD practice and theory& m-dash;and publication. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1974,10(4), 476-484. (a)
Weisbord, M.R. A mixed model for medical centers: Changing structure and behavior. In J. Adams (Ed.), Theory and method in organization development: An evolutionary process. Arlington, Va.: NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science, 1974. (b)

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...ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVOIR AND MANAGEMENT (205KM) CASE STUDY CHAPTER 10 CASE 10.1: ELECTROLUX CLEAN UP STUDENTS NAME : NUR FARAH ‘AIN BINTI ZULKIFLI STUDENTS ID : CVB110711837 SECTION : 2 LETURER’S NAME : MISS ABIDAH BTE SAAD QUESTION 1 How would you describe the conflict between Michael Eisner and the Weinstein brothers, two board members (Disney and Gold), and Steve Jobs? Was it functional or dysfunctional? ANSWER Functional conflict defined as a confrontation between groups that enhances and benefits the organization’s performance’ while dysfunctional conflict defined as any confrontation or interaction between groups that harms the organization or hinders the achievement or organizational goals. From our point of view, this case study’s conflict was mostly dysfunctional, though, with some degree of functional conflict.   They were functional in that even though the conflicts existed between Eisner and the Weinstein brothers and with Steven Jobs, the company was successful despite these widely publicized issues. For example, Eisner did lead the company to 67th in the Fortune 500 ranks and to a value of $40 billion; with his actions in the early ‘80s, he turned the company around with several company acquisitions. Also, even though the conflicts were high profile in the media, Disney was still successful. As a conclusion, it can be said that a company will perform low either there are no or when there is too high conflict......

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