Organizational Psychology

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Ella91
Words 2399
Pages 10
Lecture №1. Introduction, Definition and History

Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes.
Psychologists use systematic scientific methods to understand behavior and human thought processes.
Different branches of psychology have emerged to explore different topics and perspectives.

Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology is the specialty area within psychology that studies human behavior in work settings.
It is concerned with:
- The study of behavior in work settings.
- The application of psychology principles to change work behavior.
Therefore I/O psychology has two objectives:
1. To conduct research in an effort to increase our knowledge and understanding of human work behavior.
To apply that knowledge to improve work behavior, the work environment, and the psychological conditions of the worker.

Roots and History of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

The Beginnings. Around the turn of the 20th century, Frederick Taylor, an engineer, believed that scientific principles could be applied to the study of work behavior.
“One best method”
Time-and-motion studies - work tasks are broken down into simple movements.
Scientific management, a movement started by Taylor, was a method of using scientific principlesto improve the efficiency and productivity of jobs.

Drawbacks of Taylor’s philosophy:
- Complex jobs, demanding sophisticated skills.
- Fewer and fewer people are engaged in physical labor.
- For some jobs there is no “one best method”.

The Great Depression Years and World War II.
Studies at the Western Electric Company in Hawthorne, Illinois:
Elton Mayo and his colleagues examined the effects of the physical environment on worker productivity.
Results of the study found that productivity increased regardless of level of lighting.

The Hawthorne effect refers to changes in behavior occurring as a function of…...

Similar Documents

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology * * PSY/468 * Organizational psychology is still the study of "thought process and behavior", just takes place in and specializes in an organization setting. The textbook definition of organizational psychology is a field that utilizes scientific methodology to better understand the behavior of individuals working in organizational settings. (Jex & Britt, 2008). Organizational psychologists are subject matter experts who apply and are more aware of the psychology principles and theories within organizations. Organizational psychology focuses on the socialization between people in an organizational setting, the motivation of employees, the occupational stresses within the organization and how to alleviate it, its leadership and practices, their group performance as a whole and the tools used for organizational development. There are many elements to organizational psychology that all connect to help achieve the success of an organization, ensuring that progress and maintenance of progress is kept throughout the organization’s lifespan. The role of research and statistics in organizational psychology is very important and key to understanding the behavior of individuals in an organization setting. Before we can know how to fix something we first have to learn as much as we can about it. Research, especially in human interaction, cohesion and conflict allows and gives organizational psychologists the tools and facts they......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Alisa M. Davis Psych 570/Organizational Psychology March 28, 2012 University of Phoenix Organizational Psychology The field of organizational psychology focuses more on group type settings and situations, usually in offices and workplace environments. This field of psychology takes research and theories to intervene and communicate numerous strategies and applies them in group situations in both workplace and non-workplace settings. Psychologists in this field are usually focused on helping individuals better understand his or her interactions with others, so that each individual can better work together to accomplish goals at hand. This paper will define organizational psychology and explain the evolution of the field of organizational psychology. This paper will also compare and contrast organizational psychology with related disciplines and analyze the role of research and statistics in the field of organizational psychology. Definition of Organizational Psychology According to Rutgers On-line Dictionary (2007) the definition of organizational psychology has an in-depth meaning. The definition consists of intervening in a situation that deals with individuals in order to achieve one or numerous objectives. These objectives usually involve raising or improving performance, improving relationships and systems, enhancing equity and fairness and increasing subjective well being......

Words: 1222 - Pages: 5

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Michelle Brito Psych/570 December 23, 2013 Prof. Linda Whinghter Organizational Psychology The behavior that people experience in a workplace can be studied in organizational psychology. Organizational psychology is a sub-category to organizational/industrial psychology better known as I/O psychology. The I/O psychology is divided into two different groups. Each subject focuses on an essential part of the organization. There are two related discipline in organizational psychology, which are organizational behavior and Industrial psychology. Although both are similar to organizational psychology, each side has its differences. Research statistics are an essential part to an organizing development and problem solving. Organizational Psychology The study of organizational psychology understands the dynamics of people in a workplace. Organizational psychology uses scientific methods to understand the conduct of people who work in an organization setting (Jex & Britt, 2008). Rules, structure, and guideline aids employee to work as a group instead of working as individual towards a common goal. The purpose of organizational psychology is to help better employee’s performances, better fairness, and better the relationship between employees. The core of an organization is patterned human conduct (Katz & Kahn, 1978). The rules, structure, and guideline aids the employees to perform the task at hand and can also have a psychological effect.......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Organizational Psychology

...Applying Organizational Psychology Organizational psychology utilizes scientific methodology to get a better understanding of people behavior who works in organizational settings. Organizational psychology has principles to help employees understand the behavior of the people working in organizational settings (Jex & Britt, 2008). The knowledge obtained from organizational psychology helps organizations to become more effective. Organizations are defined through defining characteristics, behavior patterns, and structures imposed on the perspective applicants. This paper will contain discussion of these principles within the recruitment process from both organizational and applicant perspectives along with how organizational psychology principles is used in the recruitment process, organizational socialization concept, and applying organizational psychology to organizational socialization. This paper gives personal insights of how they relate to work experiences. Organizational and Applicant Perspective of Recruitment Process According to Taylor and Bergmann (2006), organization’s recruitment process is toward green production. Employees and organization receive benefits that attract ideal employees because organizational recruitment has affected the reactions applicants have towards organizations and the job attributes associated with the positions such as salary and organizations locations. Organizational perspective of the recruitment process is that behavior...

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Paper Dana Martinez Organizational Psychology /428 August 9, 2010 Antonio Borrello Abstract Everything we in life has a tremendous impact on the way we behave, from the kind of foods we eat, the cars we drive, to the roof over our heads. Organizational psychology is described as a field that utilizes scientific methodology to better understand individuals working in organizational settings (University of Phoenix 2008). The use of organizational psychologist is designed to help the organization function more effectively. There are several benefits from an effective organization. This paper will not only define organizational psychology, but will also explore the role of research and statistics in organizational psychology and describe how organizational psychology can be used in organizations. Organizational Psychology Organizational psychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings (University of Phoenix 2008).To further this definition, psychology alone focuses on individual behavior. Organizations will fall apart if they would allow its employees to do their own thing and not have structure. Organizational psychology is a must in all organizations. Without organizational psychology, employees will be allowed to do their own thing without being aware of the behavior of their co-workers. Organizational psychology is mostly focused on group-type settings, most commonly in offices and......

Words: 864 - Pages: 4

Organizational Psychology

...What is Organizational Psychology? Beyounka Bonner PSYCH 570 March 2, 2014 Dr. Vicki Koenig What is Organizational Psychology? According to Britt and Jex (2008), organizational psychology is grounded in scientifically studying one’s behavior and interactions that one has within the workplace, as well as other organizations. Organizational psychology has an extreme effect on a company’s success rate; it has an impact on a company’s work performance, gratification, security, healthiness, and overall well-being of a company’s employees. Research on employee’s behaviors and assertiveness, methods on how improvements can be made to the company’s hiring process, training programs, and managerial coordination are all conducted by organizational psychologists. Organizational psychologists assist organizations in transitioning through different times of adjustments, growth, and developments. There are many factors that may influence the way in which one behaves in an organization, such as, the structure of an organization, societal norms, managing styles, and the expectation of different roles. Although the field of organizational psychology is indebted to the study of organizations that are formal, it is not to say that the organization will always be one that is a business or that is one for profit; which is a common misconception about this field (Britt & Jex, 2008). This essay will explore the field of organizational psychology. Evolution of Organizational......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational psychology is just one of the many practice areas of the much larger domain, psychology. Both organizational psychology and its overarching study, psychology are rooted in science and use scientific data to help them find, diagnose and fix problems. Although both organizational psychology and general psychology diagnose and solve problems, their practice areas and methodologies are very different. General psychology focuses on psychological disorders and helping individuals in their personal lives. Organizational psychologists are not trained to diagnose psychological disorders. Organizational psychologists focus their attention on individuals as a larger group, generally found in the workplace. The objective of an organizational psychologist’s work is usually to help an organization become more effective. Just as organizational psychology is a subfield of psychology, it is also a subfield of the broader field of industrial-organizational psychology, or I/O psychology. According to “Industrial and Organizational Psychology” (2014), “Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology is both the study of behavior in organizational work settings and the application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to individuals and groups in organizational and work settings” (para. 1). I/O psychology combines two major divisions: industrial psychology and organizational psychology (Huelsman, 2008). Industrial psychology could be considered psychology for......

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Teresa Rochevot University of Phoenix Organizational Psychology/PSY/428 July 1, 2010 Organizational Psychology Psychology is the study of human behavior, and organizational psychology is basically psychology at work. Most adults work for a living as well as spend numerous hours each year in a workplace setting. Human behavior at work can influence many areas in our lives; therefore, understanding and predicting individual behavior in the world of work can prove to be beneficial for any organization to increase productivity and maintain higher quality services. When study of the human element is considered in the areas of business, industry, government agencies, and non-profit organizations, a wealth of knowledge is available through exploration and application improve organizational effectiveness and achieve success. The purpose of this paper is to define organizational psychology, explain the role of research and statistics in organizational psychology as well as describe how organizational psychology can be used in organizations. Define Organizational Psychology Organizational psychology is a legitimate component of the much larger field industrial psychology (Jex & Britt, 2008). The science of industrial/organizational psychology is concerned with applying a scientific approach to study processes that occur in organizations and solving problems in the workplace. Both industrial/organizational psychology are intertwined in many......

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Paper Gerald D. Sash University of Phoenix Organizational Psychology PSY/428 Denisha White April 19, 2010 Organizational Psychology Paper To understand the full concept of organizational psychology, he or she should be able to define organizational psychology. Simply put, organizational psychology is the structure of a company and the ways people react within that particular company (Rego, 2010). Several organizations use some form of organizational psychology to improve desired results of his or her employees. More than a few believe that companies utilize organizational psychology to understand why people act in a certain way, or perhaps to determine ones outcome prior to the end. Research and Statistics is at the foundation of I/O psychology in the scientist-practitioner perspective (Rego, 2010). I/O psychology informs the company about one’s behavior. The use of evidence-based information depends on the integrity of using correct collected data, and analyzing them in a meaningful way (Rego, 2010). Some of the methods used by psychologist are as follows: surveys, experiments, quasi-experiments, and observational studies (Webster, 2010). Other forms of statistics include human judgments, historical databases, and other measures of one’s work performance. Leadership, job performance, and employee stress, all selection techniques that depend on the validity of data received. Simply put, the company’s ability to learn new methods and......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Scott Ebalo University of Phoenix PSY 428 December 13, 2010 Organizational psychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings according to Jex & Britt (2008). In a working environment, it is one of the best places to practice organizational psychology, due to the nature of circumstances and emotional behavior derived from authority. Authority figures often seem fearful to employees as if they are always doing something wrong. In actually these figures are there for guidance and nurture the workforce into coexistence amongst coworkers. In fact, if employees see managers or authority figures as one of them, maybe their work relationship would not be hectic as it seems whenever they come around. Defining organizational psychology, it is using research in order to find behavioral patterns concerning people in a working environment. When doing these researches, it is a common mean of helping researchers to establish in sequence about employees in a social or business setting. “Research and statistics play a key role in organizational psychology and they must be used correctly to present valid results and information.......

Words: 903 - Pages: 4

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Government agencies, corporations, for-profit, and not-for-profit organizations are all composed of individuals making a larger, whole organization. Several factors can influence an individual, and the organization. Stress, working conditions, and external factors such as work-life balance influence an organization. Organizational Psychologists offer organizations ideas in the area of work environment conditions, work-life balance, and production improvements by using available methods of analysis and research. Organizational Psychology is "a field that utilizes scientific methodology to better understands the behavior of individuals working in organizational settings” (Jex & Britt, 2008 p.1). Organizational psychology concentrates on the human aspect of the working environment. Using research, surveys and interviewing, organization psychology will allow the psychologist to suggest process improvements and other ways to improve workplace conditions. Similar concentration of study will affect and can also improve production efficiencies. Organizational psychologists study and report on employee behaviors. Organizational psychologist will offer suggestions for improvements with the goal of influencing positive production, employee morale, and increase in profits. Research and Statistics Psychologist will use research and statistical exploration to develop theories, suggestions, and then offer recommendations to organizations regarding......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology is the science of psychology applied to work and organizations. It is a field of enquiry that spans more than a century and covers and increasingly diverse range of topics as the nature of work continues to evolve. The Field of Organizational Psychology focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well being of employees. Organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying organizational culture, employee attitudes and behaviour, organization effectiveness, individual performance management, employee well-being and conducting leadership and Team Development programme. The overall goal of this field is to study and understand human behaviour in the workplace. industrial-organizational-psychology-88 There are two elements to Organizational Psychology. The first element is often referred to as personnel psychology, which involves looking at how to best match individuals to specific job roles. Work in this area might include assessing employee characteristics and then matching these individuals to jobs in which they are likely to perform well. Other work would include training employees, developing job performance standards, and measuring job performance. The second element of Organizational Psychology is the organizational and is more focused on understanding how organizations affect individual behaviour. Organizational structures, social norms, management......

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology PSY 423 December 13, 2010 Organizational Psychology According to Rutgers University, they are preparing their students to become professionals in the field of organizational psychology by teaching them to intervene with organizations to achieve particular goals. An organizational psychologist should provide three services for the company. They should be able to increase performance, “enhance fairness and equity, and increase subjective well-being” (Rutgers, 2007, para 1). Definition of Organizational Psychology Jex and Britt (2008) define “organizational psychology as a field that utilizes scientific methodology to better understand the behavior of individuals working in organizational settings” (p. 1). Organizational settings can take different forms however. They can be formal, such as in a company or place of employment. They exist for a stated purpose such as selling or serving. The structure comes from the way the purpose is imposed on the behavior of the people in the organization. Rules and regulations are essential in keeping a company functioning. Organizations also can be informal. Any group that meets regularly for a regular reason can be called an organization. They may not have anything written explicitly about their meetings or what will transpire even though there may be specific rules and traditions. This distinction must be made to define organizational psychology as the study in which, in the “context of......

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Chasity Roush PSYCH/570 August 11, 2014 Instructor: Michelle Seyfarth Organizational Psychology The field of psychology was established over one hundred years and is concerned with human behavior. Psychology, over the course of time, has developed into many different fields that are growing and presenting in depth focuses on certain aspects of human behaviors in the workplace known as organizational psychology. Organizational psychology is the application of existing scientific knowledge and psychological principles to organizations (Van Knippenberg, 2011) and has significant growth over the last one hundred years. The health of the organization, the interests and concerns of the employees within an organization, and how organizations succeed as a whole are motivating factors behind organizational psychology. Through scientific application, studying employee attitudes and behaviors, evaluating company standpoints, and teaching leadership skills, organizations can increase organizational success and focus on increasing workplace productivity. Assessments of psychical and mental behaviors of employees within organizations provide useful information for organizational psychologists to evaluate the health of the workplace. Organizational psychologists can facilitate responses to issues and problems involving employees by serving as advisors and middle men for different areas of the......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5

Organizational Psychology

...ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Organizational psychology also known as industrial psychology is “the scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations. Industrial–organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people”. Industrial/organization(I/O) psychology both work together to help the success of an organization, however; industrial psychology focuses on recruitment, performance, and training, organizational part focuses on group performance, leadership, and motivation. Research is important for organizational psychology. Evidence based practice be used along with collecting data to provide real life examples of how real life works. Theories and research are used in work and non work groups, this helps one another interact better so that later both can also work well together. Organizational psychologist also practice scientific-practitioner model to help create a foundation of research and techniques to help solve problems within an organization. Organizational psychology is not a science to many although it may involve research and theory and evidence. “How organizational psychology can be used; organizational psychology can be applied in a multitude of ways, for example, to analyze individual personality variables and career interests. Evaluate prospective employees as well as train, develop and evaluate the job performance of current employees. Study how work conditions affect......

Words: 605 - Pages: 3