Ovicidal and Larvicidal Properties of Crude and Aqueous Guava Extracts Against Aedes Aegypti

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Submitted By ilovethereds
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

I. Background of the Study
Mosquitoes are insects in the order Diptera. They usually breed in transient water sources, such as flooded areas, snowpools, and ditches (Rutgers [date unknown]). A mosquito goes through four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Most eggs hatch into larvae within 48 hours (Biology Notes… 1983).
Mosquitoes are vectors of numerous diseases. Aedes aegypti, a domestic mosquito living in close association with humans, is the primary vector of yellow fever and is also a potential vector of dog heartworm, Murray Valley encephalitis and Ross River viruses (Zettel and Kauffman 2008; Russell 1996). Moreover, it is the principal vector of dengue viruses in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world (Luz and others 2008). The dengue viruses acquired from the said species are known to cause an estimated 50 million human infections annually (Olson and others [date unknown]). Dengue cases in Iloilo province has been reported to reach 4,825 with 27 deaths from January 1 to September 18, 2010 (The News Today 2010).
Humans acquire the diseases carried by Ae. aegypti through mosquito bites. Since there is no effective vaccine for the control of these diseases, prevention of these bites is used as an alternative control (Tawatsin and others 2006). Furthermore, the control of these diseases depends on reduction and elimination of Ae. aegypti (Olson and others [date unknown]). Nowadays, the Philippine government relies on direct applications of aerosol insecticides, fogging, and ovitraps to prevent Aedes aegypti proliferation (Official Gazette [date unknown]; Philippine Daily Inquirer 2010).
Aerosol insecticides are available in handy canister form and are simply sprayed (Olson and others [date unknown]). In most countries in Southeast Asia, mosquito breeding sites are sprayed with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or…...

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