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Sturm und Drang
Um 1770 beginnt eine richtige Revolution, eine Gegenbewegung zur Aufklärung, der „Sturm und Drang“ (tempesta e assalto) heißt. Diese Bewegung, im Gegensatz zur rationalistischen Dominanz der Vernunft, hatte im Mittelpunkt Ideale wie die Natur, das Gefühl und die Phantasie. Als Vorbild dieser neuen Dichtung gelten die spontanen und primitiven Schöpfungen aus der Jugendzeit der Völker. Der „Sturm und Drang“ dauerte zirka 20 Jahre (1767 – 1785) und war eine Bewegung von jungen Autoren deren Leitworte: Natur, Gefühl (sentimento), Leidenschaft (passione) und Freiheit waren. Dank der Jugendwerke Goethes und Schillers bekam die Bewegung große Bedeutung in der Geschichte der deutschen Literatur.
Johann Gottfried Herder war der Theoretiker des „Sturm und Drang“. Während die Aufklärer überzeugt waren, dass ein Dichter dauernd über die Regeln und die Aufgabe der Poesie nachdenken sollte, dachte Herder, dass uns die Realität, dass wir nachdenken und überlegen, zu wahrer Kunst unfähig (incapaci) macht. Ursprung wahrer Kunst ist nicht mehr die Vernunft sondern das Gefühl und die Leidenschaft. In diesem Sinne identifizierte er sich mit dem Kulturpessimismus und dem Motto Rousseaus „Zurück zur Natur“. Sein Meisterwerk ist „Stimmen der Völker in Liedern“. In diesem Werk zeigen sich kosmopolitische Elemente: neben deutschen Volksliedern stehen nordische und slawische Texte, schottische Balladen, sizilianische Reime, spanische und französische Romanzen aber auch Volkslieder aus Madagaskar. Dieses Werk wurde als erste universelle Anthologie in der Welt angesehen.
Goethe wurde 1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. Seine war eine wohlhabende Patrizierfamilie. Er bekam eine sehr ernste und pedantische Erziehung von seinem Vater und von der Mutter bekam er die Froheit zum Leben und die…...

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