Path Analysis

In: Business and Management

Submitted By boromiert
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การวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง (Path Analysis)
ความหมายการวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง
การวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง เป็นการวิเคราะห์สาเหตุ โดยนักวิจัยต้องการศึกษาสาเหตุ
ของปรากฏการณ์ต่าง ๆว่ามาจากอิทธิพลของสิ่งใด กล่าวอีกนัยหนึ่งก็คือ นักวิจัยต้องการ
ค้นหาว่าตัวแปรตามที่กำลังศึกษานั้น เกิดจากอิทธิพลของตัวแปรอิสระอะไรบ้าง และตัว
แปรอิสระนั้นมีอิทธิพลต่อตัวแปรตามมากน้อยเพียงใด (สำเริง บุญเรืองรัตน์, หน้า 91)
การอธิบายสาเหตุของปรากฏการณ์ นักวิจัยต้องอาศัยความรู้และทฤษฏีต่าง ๆ มา
วิเคราะห์เพื่อตั้งสมมติฐานด้วยการสร้างแผนภาพ (Diagram) แสดงเหตุต่าง ๆ ที่มีอิทธิพล
ต่อสิ่งที่ตนเองกำลังศึกษาอยู่
เมื่อนักวิจัยสร้างรูปแบบแผนภาพแสดงสาเหตุดังกล่าวแล้ว ก็หาวิธีทดสอบว่า
แผนภาพดังกล่าวเป็นไปตามสมมติฐานที่ตั้งไว้หรือไม่ โดยการวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง (Path
Analysis) เทคนิคนี้ ไรท์ (Wright,1934) เป็นผู้คิดค้นขึ้นมา การทดสอบสมมติฐานอาจใช้
วิธีการคำนวณโดยใช้โปรแกรมลิสเรล (LISREL) (การเขียนแผนภาพเพื่อนำไปเขียนคำสั่ง
วิเคราะห์ในโปรแกรม LISREL จากตัวแปรอิสระไปยังตัวแปรตามใช้สัญลักษณ์เป็น GA
และจากตัวแปรตามหนึ่งไปยังอีกตัวหนึ่งใช้สัญลักษณ์เป็น BE และเขียนตัวเลขกำกับ
เส้นทางเรียงจากปลายลูกศรไปต้นลูกศร) ซึ่งโปรแกรม LISREL จะคำนวณค่าสัมประสิทธิ์
สหสัมพันธ์และระดับนัยสำคัญของแต่ละเส้นทาง พร้อมแนะนำเส้นทางที่เหมาะสมให้ด้วย
ดังตัวอย่างที่จะกล่าวต่อไปในตอนสุดท้าย

ความรู้เบื้องต้นเกี่ยวกับการวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง
การวิเคราะห์เส้นทาง (Path analysis) เป็นการศึกษาความสัมพันธ์ของตัวแปรในเชิงเหตุและผล เป็นวิธีที่มีพื้นฐานทางสถิติมาจากการวิเคราะห์การถดถอย (Regression analysis) โดยอาศัยแผนภาพและสมการโครงสร้างของแผนภาพเป็นหลักในการนำมาวิเคราะห์และอธิบายความสัมพันธ์ของตัวแปรเหตุที่มีต่อตัวแปรผลทั้งในด้านขนาดและทิศทาง อีกทั้งยังสามารถอธิบายความสัมพันธ์ได้ทั้งความสัมพันธ์ทางตรงและทางอ้อม 1. เป็นการศึกษาอิทธิพลระหว่างตัวแปรต่าง ๆ เพื่อดูว่ามีอิทธิพลทางตรงและอิทธิพล
ทางอ้อมของตัวแปรที่สันนิษฐานว่าเป็นสาเหตุต่อตัวแปรที่เป็นผลหรือไม่
2. สัมประสิทธิ์เส้นทาง เป็นค่าที่บ่งบอกถึงอิทธิพลทางตรงของตัวแปรที่เป็นสาเหตุ…...

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