Premium Essay

Phil 201 Study Guide 4

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By XizachX
Words 1412
Pages 6
Study Guide: Lesson 4
A Little Logic

Lesson Overview

Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy. Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task. The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments. In this lesson, you will first be introduced to the laws of logic. These are the first principles for all reasoning. We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic. Finally, we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning: deductive and inductive. We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments. Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic.


Read and take notes from chapter 5 of Philosophy: Critically Thinking about Foundational Beliefs, “A Little Logic.” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions:

* Why are the laws of logic foundational? * The Law of Logic makes discourse possible. If they are not recognized as true, than nothing we claim makes any sense. Therefore, it is important to have a firm grasp of these laws. * List and explain the 3 laws of logic. 1. Noncontradiction – “Something cannot both be and not be at the same time and in the same respect. Expressed symbolically: ~ (P•~P).² It reads, “It is not the case that there can be both P and non-P”. 2. Edcluded Middle – “Something either is or is not, or Pv~P. A thing either exists or it does not; there is no tertian quid (“third what”). 3. Identity – “Something is what it is. Formula, “P = P”. Whatever a particular thing is, it is that particular thing. * Know the symbolic expression of the law of non-contradiction and how it clears up confusions. * ~ (P•~P): The ~ means “not” or…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ch 2 and 4 Study Guide

...QUIZ 2 tips ● General Environment Dimensions in the broader society that influence an industry and the firms within it ● Industry Environment-more direct effect on strategy Set of factors that directly influences a firm and its competitive actions and response ● Competitor Environment Focuses on each company against which a firm directly competes ●The General Environment is grouped into seven environmental segments: page 38 [1] Demographic – population, age, geographic distribution [2] Economic - Inflation and interest rates [3] Political/Legal – org & gov trying to influence each other AntiTrust & Tax laws, deregulation policies [4] Sociocultural – greatest impact, workforce diversity, quality of worklife [5] Technological-Product innovations [6] Global-trading between countries, critical global markets [7] Physical-energy consumption ●To successfully deal with uncertainty in the external environment and achieve strategic competitiveness, firms must be aware of and understand these segments. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS-more important for technology based companies • Firms engage in external environmental analysis to better understand and cope with their environments. • This analysis has four parts: - • Scanning (cookies on websites) –studying all segments in the general enviroment • monitoring, -events and trends • forecasting-projections of future trends • assessing.-determine timing and significance of trends INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phil 201 Week 6 Study Guid

...Study Guide: Lesson 16 Philosophy of Religion: Introduction Read chapter. 1 of Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith, “What is Philosophy of Religion?” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: Explain the distinctions between philosophy of religion and sociology, history, theology, and religious philosophy. philosophy of religion focus on the truth and reasonableness of religious beliefs. While the historian or sociologist may study religious beliefs, but his focus is not specifically on the truth or reasonableness of such belief theologian looks at religous beliefs from within, as an adherent or representative of a religous tradition. philosophy of religon may be engaged in by thinkers who are not religous at all, as well as by committed religous thinkers philosophy of religion not so much religious thinking as it is thinking about religion. Religious Philosophy is Religious thinking Explain the arguments for and problems with fideism. Fideism: human beings are never religously neutral; they are always either in faithful service to or in rebellion against God. Claims that faith is the precondition for any correct thinking about religion Problem: fideist cannot attempt to win over his critics by rational argument as the presupposition of such dialouge means the possibility of common ground (fideists deny common ground) eliminates the possibility of showing the nonbeliever the superiority of a religous worldview where......

Words: 3902 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Phil Study Guide

...Phil 4 Midterm Study Guide Introduction: - Ontology is the study of being, kinds of things that exists, the different kinds of being. What is ultimately real? - Material: spatial/public/mechanical - Immaterial: nonspatial/private/teleological - Materialism: Matter is truly real and immaterial things are not - Idealism: Ideas are ultimately real - Dualism: Reality is both material and immaterial - Monism: There’s one single reality Lau Tzu (Laozi): - Taos analogy to water: water takes all shape, water doesn’t compete, it does nothing yet there’s nothing it can do, takes no form, all forms can be taken. - Taos analogy to uncarved block: un-carved block is preconceived, preconceived thoughts/values makes it harder to respond to present situations. - Taos analogy to valley spirit and the female: nonbeing “spirit of value with divine female”. Value -> space-> spirit -> life. Life fills empty space. Always allows for nonbeing. - The Tao that can be told of not the eternal Tao because the name that can be named is not the eternal name. - The Tao is the source of all reality because “The nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth and The Named is the mother of all things.” - The saying there is a doing that comes from not doing is when the action emerges from you instead of it being something that you think about. Plato: - Form is immaterial reality - The divided line represents B as the highest point in the scale of reality, A being the lowest......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Response Paper Phil 201

...A Response to the Article: "On Being An Atheist" by H. J. McCloskey Joshua Cottrell PHIL 201-D32 Professor Pensgard August 12, 2013 The belief in a Creator and a literal God has been a subject of many arguments down through the centuries. Despite a written record and a large contingency of believers, there has arose a strong group of people who believe there is no God and that man just happens to exist and that there is nothing beyond this life. In 1968 H.J. McCloskey published an article entitled "On Being an Atheist". He argued that theories such as the Cosmological or Teleological arguments did nothing to prove in his mind the presence of God. He strongly believed that evil further cemented the idea that a righteous God did not exist. With his writing he attempted to empower the atheist and once and for all prove that God did not exist. I. "Proofs" McCloskey indentified theistic arguments for God as "proofs", and in so doing opened himself up to much scrutiny. He quotes a colleague as saying "...most theists do not come to believe in God by reflecting on the proofs, but to come to religion as a result of other reasons and factors." I do not believe that his colleague was referring necessarily to Cosmological or Teleological arguments as "proofs", as McCloskey ends of doing. I believe his associate was merely stating that most people do not come to religion because they see the sky and think there must be a Creator. There are a number of......

Words: 2242 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Phil 201 Week 6

...Study Guide: Lesson 18 Arguments for the Existence of God Lesson Overview: In this lesson, we arrive at 1 of the most important questions of the course for Christians: Do we have good reasons to believe that God exists? Today, many are claiming that there is no evidence for God’s existence and those who believe in God are just deluding themselves. However, this lesson will show that some very interesting arguments have been developed throughout the history of philosophy that demonstrate that the theist is within his epistemic rights in believing in God. While the case is not 100% certain (few things are in philosophy), it is certainly reasonable in the absence of any contrary evidence to hold that God exists as the best explanation for certain effects we observe in creation. Tasks: View and take notes of the presentation: “Arguments for God’s Existence.” Read “The Absurdity of Life without God” by William Lane Craig. This reading by Christian philosopher William Lane Craig is titled the “The Absurdity of Life without God.” In this powerful argument, Craig seriously considers the ramifications for us if in fact there really is no God. I assign it to my students on campus and they always tell me it is their favorite reading of the semester. I think you will really enjoy it. It is not a difficult reading and is very powerful on a personal level. While it does not prove God's existence, it does add positive epistemic evidence for the cumulative case for God......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Phil 201

...Stacy Mottola PHIL 201-D05 25NOV2013 Essay 1 Many question whether or not what we are seeing and are experiencing is real or just part of our imagination. This question is one that has been proposed for hundreds of years by philosophers like Descartes and Plato. How is it possible that a Greek philosopher, a philosopher from the seventeenth century and the movie The Matrix can be so similar? It is the intent of this paper to compare and contrast these questions in relation to the movie The Matrix. The main thing that stands out for each one of these is the question of the reality of the world in which we live. Our sense of being is called into question in each of these examples. Are our senses correct or are we simply living in a dream world that is made up? The Matrix is a computer system that has taken control of peoples everyday lives. Each individual is hooked up to this computer that generates a dream world where everyone believes that they are actually living a realistic life. In the Matrix Morpheus a leader of a group of people who have rebelled against this system come to the knowledge that they are not living real lives. In his recruitment Morpheus meets with Neo and attempts to show him the truth. Learning this Neo sees that what you can see, touch and feel are not exactly real, their senses have betrayed them. In the excerpt from Descartes he makes several statements which also question the reality in which our perceptions believe we are......

Words: 755 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Phil 201

...COURSE SCHEDULE PHIL 201 Textbooks: Dew & Foreman, How Do You Know? A Short Introduction to the Issues of Knowledge (unpubl.) Evans, Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith (2009). Foreman, Prelude to Philosophy: Critically Thinking about Foundational Beliefs Hasker, Metaphysics: Constructing a World View (1983). Holmes, Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions (2008). Wood, Epistemology: Becoming Intellectually Virtuous (1998). WEEK/ MODULE READING & STUDY ASSIGNMENTS POINTS DUE DATE 1 3/17-3/24 Foreman: chs. 1-3 3 presentations 3 study guides Course Requirements Checklist Class Introductions Quiz 1 0 0 60 Wed,3/19 Mon,3/24 Mon, 3/24 2 3/25-3/31 Foreman: chs. 5-7 2 presentations 3 study guides Quiz 2 60 Mon, 3/31 3 4/1-4/7 Hasker: chs. 1-3 1 Word document 4 presentations 3 study guides Group DB Forum 1 Quiz 3 100 60 IP Fri, 4/4 R Mon, 4/7 Mon 4/7 4 4/8-4/14 Dew & Foreman: ch. 3 Wood: chs. 1-2 3 presentations 3 study guides Quiz 4 60 Mon, 4/14 5 4/15-4/21 Dew & Foreman: chs. 7, 10 Wood: ch. 4 1 Word document 2 excerpts 3 presentations 3 study guides Essay Quiz 5 120 60 Mon, 4/21 Mon, 4/21 6 4/22-4/28 Evans: chs. 1-3 1 book excerpt 2 presentations 3 study guides Quiz 6 60 Mon, 4/28 7 4/29-5/5 Evans: ch. 7 Holmes: chs. 1-3 1 article 2 presentations 3 study guides Response Paper Quiz 7 200 60 Mon, 5/5 Mon, 5/5 8 5/6-5/12 Holmes: chs. 4-7, 14 1 presentation 3 study guides Group DB Forum 2 Quiz......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Phil 201

...Reflection Paper 2 [Introduction: Prayer and Hope in the modern world.] Christians strive and struggle to remain strong in their faith while navigating today’s secular world. Faced with a constant bombardment of negative messages, portrayals, and media by popular culture Christians have to deal with outside influences as well as their own personal struggles. Prayer and Hope are two of the most powerful tools God has given Christians to renew their faith and receive Gods blessings. Prayer is the very act of a Christian reaching out to God for wisdom, help, renewal, forgiveness, and blessings. God requires prayer (1 Timothy 2:8 ESV), God rewards prayer (Luke 11:9 ESV), and God guides us in prayer (Matthew 6:9-13 ESV). The hope God provides is in the reward of everlasting life in heaven. (Core Christianity by Elmer Towns) God wants Christians to be hopeful and at peace with the future. (Jeremiah 29:11 ESV) Prayer and Hope can change the very way a Christian presents themselves in public and allow themselves the ability to stand firm in their faith knowing Gods promise. [Part One: Prayer] a. Theological Definition As stated in the introduction Prayer is the very act of a Christian reaching out to God for wisdom, help, renewal, forgiveness, and blessings. It is through prayer that Christians build their relationship with God to seek His presence and guidance in their lives. Prayer is considered to be the intimate relationship between God and the individual. Beyond......

Words: 1139 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Nt1110 Unit 4 Study Guide

...Chapter 4 Motherboards and Buses 1. What types of ports and slots are found on a motherboard? CPU,s Graphic slots , ram slots 2. List the signals carried by the system bus. Data, power, control, and address 3. How are memory locations identified and accessed? By an address scheme, and numbering the bits 4. What is another name for the MCH? What is its function? The Northbridge, its where the RAM goes 5. What is another name for the ICH? What is its function? The Southbridge, its where the input and output slots go. 6. List the 4 most common motherboard form factors. ATX, Micro ATX, BTX, and NLX 7. When was the ATX introduced? What was its predecessor? 1990’s, and AT, BabyAT 8. What was a major problem with the ATX design? How was this corrected? The cooling System, by doing the BTX design 9. Which of the ATX and BTX layouts are the smallest? picoBTX and the FlexATX 10. What is an integrated I/O port form included on all motherboards? Rear port clusters 11. How many memory slots do modern motherboards have? How many memory modules are required to boot a PC? 2 or more slots, and 1 memory module 12. List the most common expansion slots types on modern computers. PCI, PCIe, and AGP 13. What is the speed and bit size of the PCI bus? 33Mhz 32 bit 14. Which port type was developed for 3D graphics? The AGP 15. Which expansion slot types were replaced by PCIe? PCI and AGP slots 16. ......

Words: 418 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Phil 201

...Tiffany Tyree Phil 201 Individual Project 2 Thursday, April 16, 2015 Metaphysics Study of Existence What's out there? Epistemology Study of Knowledge How do I know about it? Ethics Study of Action What should I do? Politics Study of Force What actions are permissible? Esthetics Study of Art What can life be like? Metaphysics: ◦What is real? What is real in life is what you make your life out to be yourself. Real is hugging your children and having the person that you love telling you that they love you for life? Real is the pain that you feel when you lose your brother and greave. You do not know if you will ever see this person again because you don’t know if there is a spirit world. ◦Is the physical world more or less real than the spiritual or psychological world? It’s hard to explain if the spiritual world or the psychological world are real or if it is just something that we have been lead to believe so we have spent years rolling over and over in our minds and made ourselves believe that it is real. From the time we are babies we are lead to believe that there is a heaven and angels and such. We are lead to believe in Santa and the tooth fairy and the Easter bunny, but who is to say that any of that is real except what we believe in our own minds and hearts. ◦Is there such a thing as a soul? If so, how does it survive outside of a physical body? I want to believe that there is such a thing as when we are buried that we have a soul that lives on in a......

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Phil 201 Study Guide 1

...Study Guide: Lesson 1 What is Philosophy? Lesson Overview Welcome to this introductory course in philosophy. For our first lesson, we are going to examine the question: What is philosophy? There are 4 ways you can get to know what a discipline is: define it, describe it, contrast and compare it with other disciplines, and finally experience it. In this first lesson, we will aim to accomplish the first 3 of these activities. The rest of the course will be an exercise in experiencing philosophy. Tasks View and take notes of the presentation, “Misconceptions about Philosophy”. Read and take notes from chapter 1 of Prelude to Philosophy: An Introduction for Christians, “What is Philosophy?” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: • List 4 reasons students often presuppose a low view of philosophy. o They think you have to be super intelligent to do philosophy o Most students study it late in their academic development o Most people do not think philosophy is practical o They do not know what it is or how it can benefit them • Know Socrates’ quote: What is the unexamined life? What did he mean when he said it wasn’t worth living? o Socrates was saying that the unexamined life is when people go through the motions of life without making the effort to reflect and think about what life is about. When Socrates says the unexamined life is not worth living, he is saying that we......

Words: 944 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phil 201 Essay

...Phil 201 6/14/15 Comparisons of The Allegory, Descartes and The Matrix While in the reality of his world, the main character of The Matrix, Neo finds himself doubting what really is and really isn’t. The writers of The Matrix did an excellent job of drawing similarities to that of Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” and Descartes’s Philosophical ideas. There are many similarities between the Allegory as well as to the Philosophical differences to The Matrix. The first major similarity that I noticed between the Allegory and The Matrix is the fact that both Neo and the character in Plato’s work had a feeling that something was not right. The both seemed to want to gain a deeper knowledge of the world around them and believed the world was not all it seemed but that it was more than what it seemed. They believed there was a deeper meaning to what was around them. They both accepted this and began the search for deeper meaning. This allowed both Neo and the slave to understand that they are not really in control of their world. At any moment something could change. In Neo’s case the computer programmer could change a code and have a building fall on him or possibly make someone disappear from his life. In the slaves case his life, since he was born, was ran by the farmers that he worked for within the cave. Their lives are very similar. Neo, even though he did not realize it was in the same position as the slave. He was a slave himself. The differences between The Allegory and...

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Phil 201

...PHIL 201Response Paper Response to “On Being An Atheist” by H.J. McCloskey H.J. McCloskey attempted to contradict the arguments proving Gods existence used by theists in the article “On Being an Atheist”. Although there is no sufficient proof in the cosmological argument of their being a perfect creator, it does however provide evidence of a singular being. The evidence of an almighty creator is provided by the simple element of complex design. However, though this almighty creator allows the existence of evil in the world, He was not the one to create it, and, as such, has a purpose behind its existence. The existence of God can be logically concluded, contrary to McCloskey’s beliefs, using the philosophical inquiry. McCloskey refers to the cosmological, teleological, and design arguments throughout his article, and discuss how theists use them to prove the existence of God. McCloskey may, perhaps, believe that these arguments are unsuccessful because his different beliefs allow his approach to be different. Contrary to proof, these aspects of cosmological, teleological, and design are more accurately represented when used as evidence or as simply arguments. Dr. Mark Foreman describes proof, in his presentation of “Approaching the Questions of God’s Existence”, as something that involves a characteristic of complete certainty. As McCloskey refers to the many arguments as “proof” he implies that the arguments are thought to be facts of absolute truth. If this were......

Words: 1717 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Pol 201 Final Exam – Study Guide

...POL 201 Final Exam – Study Guide POL 201 Final Exam – Study Guide Question 1 The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that there would be a world population crisis because the: Question 2 In the United States, school children are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning experience is referred to as: Question 3 When leaders imprison or even execute political dissidents, they are applying: Question 4 According to which sociological perspective did the media begin expressing concern about downsizing only when it began to impact managers and white-collar workers? Question 5 In a public high school, certain teachers are assigned to work with college preparatory students, while others work with students who plan to go directly into the business world. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of: Question 6 Which of the following groups currently has the highest infant mortality rate in the United States? Question 7 In comparison with men, women have lower rates of: Question 8 According to Dalton Conley, Ph.D. of New York University, __________ is one way social inequality is exemplified in health. Question 9 Medicine serves as an agent of social control. It has even attempted to guard its jurisdiction by placing health care professionals such as chiropractors and nurse-midwives outside the......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Study Guide Computer Chapter 1,2 3 & 4

... CSC-105 NE Spring 2016 Study Guide – Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4 &Videos Chapter 1: Introduction to Information Technology: The Future Now 1. Robots – automatics devices that perform functions ordinarily performed by human beings 2. Online learning (Distance learning) - is designed to provide students with additional learning opportunities & instructors with additional teaching tools (e-learning) 3. Telemedicine, Campus Cruiser (portals) – medical care via telecommunications - 4. Computer / IT uses 5. Cyberspace – encompasses not only the online world & the Internet in particular but also the whole wired & wireless world of communications in general 6. Internet – is a worldwide computer network that connects hundreds of thousands of smaller networks/ World wide web – often called the web – an interconnected system of internet computers (servers) that support specially formatted documents in multimedia form 7. Multimedia files – technology that presents information in more than one medium, such as texts, still images, moving images & sound. 8. Networks A. Client – are linked by a wired or wireless network. The entire network is called client server network / Server Networks – is a central computer that holds collections of data (databases) & programs for connecting or supplying services to PC’s workstations & other devices which are called clients B. Peer to Peer Network 9. Hardware - consists of all the machinery & equipment in a computer system (Keyboard, screen)/ Software –...

Words: 1784 - Pages: 8