Political Ecology Perspective: Kenya and Tanzania Deforestation/Habitat Loss

In: Other Topics

Submitted By helmetkid
Words 861
Pages 4
James McGarry
Exercise Testing and Prescription
Research review #3
Wycherley T, Noakes M, Clifton P, Cleanthous X, Keogh J, Brinkworth G. (201). A high-protein diet with resistance exercise training improves weight loss and body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 May [Cited 2011 Nov. 8]; 33(5):969-976. Retrieved from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/5/969.full.pdf html.

This article is about a study that was conducted which examined the effects of a high protein: low carbohydrate diet and a low protein: high carbohydrate diet, with or without a resistance exercise training program, on body composition, weight-loss, and cardiovascular disease in overweight/obese men and women suffering from type II diabetes. This correlates with our exercise testing and prescription course, because the study consisted of various testing methods that we have used in class in order to assess BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, etc… This specifically ties into muscular fitness, because in order for the participants to complete the resistance training regimen, they were instructed to complete a one-repetition maximum test in order to set an initial baseline value. The initial purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a caloric restricted high protein diet and a caloric restricted high carbohydrate diet, with or without resistance training, on weight loss, body composition, cardiovascular disease, and the glucose levels of the participants with type II diabetes. It was hypothesized that the high protein: low carbohydrate diet, with a resistance training program, would have the greatest improvements among these variables. There were a total of eight-three participants, overweight/obese men and women with type II diabetes, involved in this study. Participants were dismissed from the study if…...

Similar Documents


...degradation has been one of paramount progressive issues the world is facing in different ways. This tumultuous predicament had been as result of deforestation of forest trees and women and men who are environmentalist and eco-feminist had played many roles in fighting against the patriarchal capitalist from further destruction and advocating protection of the environment and forest reserves. Deforestation is cutting down of trees in the forest areas and within our surroundings which meets human natural needs and provides a dwelling to wild life and other animal species. The study of environmental changes through eco-feminist perspective helps to throw light on the effects of those changes, roles humans played in effecting those changes, gender roles, economic roles in the destruction of our environment through deforestation. According to Catharine Roach article “Love your Mother”, “the eco-feminist book Rape of the wild evokes this latter motif of the fertile but wounded earth by linking the violent treatment of women with violent against animals and the ecosystem (Roach, pg: 26)” this explain the power imbalance that exist in the system where a particular group in position of power sees everything under their control as powerless and an idea of exploitation. This is also the case in the issues of deforestation. Deforestation is deteriorating our environment which in some cases is as a result of increase in human population and it is disturbance as well as encroachment......

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6

The Ectensive Impact of Illicit Plants and Drug Production on Coloumbian Deforestation

...The extensive Impact of Illicit Plant and drug production on Colombian Deforestation Introduction Illegal substances hurt and destroy not only the lives of the users; they devastate the environment they are grown and manufactured in as well. Since the 1970’s the illegal drug industry in Colombia encompassing everything from growing coca plants to the perceived government solutions have been destroying the lush Colombian ecosystem. Colombia is geographically superior to every other country in South America for three reasons. The first reason being that that it is the only country in the continent that shares a border with Latin America. Next reason is they have both pacific and Atlantic coastlines. The third reason is they have huge amount of biodiversity and unbeaten growing conditions. For these reasons along with a global high demand for illegal substances and certain indigenous plants have made illicit plant/drug production flourished in Colombia for over 40 years. The boom in demand for cocaine came in the 1970’s and has continued to today. In the year 2000 it was estimated Colombia is responsible for 75% of the worlds coca. (Energy & Ecology business editors, 2011) Not to mention the large-scale opium poppy and marijuana production occurring in Colombia. This illegal drug industry wreaks havoc on the Colombia’s Environment more specifically their forests. Deforestation has gradually been getting worse and worse in Colombia since the introduction of the illicit......

Words: 1736 - Pages: 7


...UNIT I DEFORESTATION CHAPTER 1 What is deforestation? Deforestation is the removal or damage of vegetation in a forest to the extent that it no longer supports its natural flora and fauna. In other words, deforestation can be defined as the transformation of forest land to non-forest uses where forest land includes lands under agro-forestry and shifting cultivation, and not simply closed canopy primary forests (FAO/UNEP, 1982). However, this definition does not include “logging”. More inclusive was Myers’s 1980 definition, where deforestation refers, “generally to the complete destruction of forest cover through clearing for agriculture … [so] … that not a tree remains, and the land is given over to non-forest purposes … [and where] very heavy and unduly negligent logging … [result in a] … decline of biomass and depletion of ecosystem services … . So severe that the residual forest can no longer qualify as forest in any practical sense of the world.” Alan Graigner (1980, AS quoted in Saxena and Nautiyal, 1997) asserts that selective logging does not “lead to forest clearance and does not constitute deforestation”, whereas Norman Myers (1980, 1993) thinks that logging is crucial because, although it may only affect a small proportion of trees per hectare, it damages wide areas and is the precursor of penetration by the forest farmers. For the purpose of this study, the FAO’s latest definitions (1993) will be used. The FAO defines forests as “ecosystems with a minimum...

Words: 17310 - Pages: 70


...FF FF F or Peor Pe or Peor Pe or Pe ople, Naople, Na ople, Naople, Na ople, Na tt tt t ure, and ure, and ure, and ure, and ure, and tt tt t he Ehe E he Ehe E he E cc cc c oo oo o nn nn n oo oo o mm mm m yy yy y 1. AGRICULTURE TAKES A BIG BITE: THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SYSTEM After air and water, food is the most essential resource people require to sustain themselves. These resources are provided by the layer of interconnected life that covers our planet: the biosphere. Yet the way the food system provides food often severely damages the health of the biosphere through soil and aquifer depletion, deforestation, aggressive use of agrochemicals, fishery collapses, and the loss of biodiversity in crops, livestock, and wild species. The global food system has become such a dominant force shaping the surface of this planet and its ecosystems that we can no longer achieve sustainability without revamping the food system. At the same time sustainable food systems provide great hope for building a sustainable future—a future in which all can lead satisfying lives within the means of the biosphere. In this brief, we use Ecological Footprint analysis to document the current food system’s demand on the biosphere. Ecological Footprint accounts track the area of biologically productive land and water needed to produce the resources consumed by a given population and to absorb its waste. The Ecological......

Words: 8911 - Pages: 36

Deforestation in Indonesia

...role as a fundamental raw material. Back in the last decade, Indonesia as the largest pulp and paper producer in South-East Asia ran this industry based on its 141.4 million hectares tropical rainforest covering. However, serious deforestation has occurred due to the over-development of the paper and pulp industry. More and more rare species of animals and plants are becoming extinct, not to mention global warming, water loss and soil erosion. This report will discuss the said deforestation and its effects on Indonesian environment and its community, and also focus on analyzing the role of various sectors, namely thepaper and pulp product buyers, environmental non-government organizations and the Indonesian government,within the paper and pulp industry. Asia Paper & Pulp Group(APP) and Asia Pacific Resources International Limited (APRIL) are used as examples of the paper and pulp manufacturers. The report will be concluded by providing recommendations regarding the issue. Indonesia overview Indonesia maintains the highest rate of illegal logging among other countries, up to 60% of timber production. Corruption has been a prevalent issue in Indonesia, and was even worse after the end of the Suharto government system. Deforestation rate is excessive from 1.3 to 2 million hectares every year. Indonesia represents about one-quarter of global tropical wood production and exports, and about half of global tropical hardwood plywood exports. Indonesia is one of the......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8


...KENYA GENERAL INFORMATION Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a sovereign state in Africa.  Its capital and largest city is Nairobi.  Kenya lies on the equator with the Indian Ocean to the south-east, Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581,309 km2 (224,445 sq mi) and has a population of about 44 million in July 2012. The country named after Mount Kenya, the second highest mountain in Africa. The country has a warm and humid climate along its Indian Ocean coastline, with wildlife-rich savannah grasslands inland towards the capital. Nairobi has a cool climate that gets colder approaching Mount Kenya, which has three permanently snow-capped peaks. Further inland there is a warm and humid climate around Lake Victoria, and temperate forested and hilly areas in the western region. The northeastern regions along the border with Somalia and Ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes. Lake Victoria, the world's second largest fresh-water lake and the world's largest tropical lake, is situated to the southwest and is shared with Uganda and Tanzania. Kenya is famous for its safaris and diverse wildlife reserves and national parks such as the East and West Tsavo National Park, the Maasai Mara, Lake Nakuru National Park, and Aberdares National Park. There are several world heritage sites such as Lamu, and world renowned beaches such as Kilifi where......

Words: 12708 - Pages: 51


...Anthropology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 The New Ecological Anthropology Older ecologies have been remiss in the narrowness of their spatial and temporal horizons, their functionalist assumptions, and their apolitical character. Suspending functionalist assumptions and an emphasis upon (homeo)stasis, "the new ecological anthropology" is located at the intersection of global, national, regional, and local systems, studying the outcome of the interaction of multiple levels and multiple factors. It blends theoretical and empirical research with applied, policy-directed, and critical work in what Rappaport called an "engaged" anthropology; and it is otherwise attuned to the political aspects and implications of ecological processes. Carefully laying out a critique of previous ecologies by way of announcing newer approaches, the article insists on the need to recognize the importance of culture mediations in ecological processes rather than treating culture as epiphenomenal and as a mere adaptive tool. It closes with a discussion of the methodologies appropriate to the new ecological anthropology. / "the new ecology, " political ecology, applied or engaged anthropology, linkages methodology] cological anthropology was named as such during the 1960s, but it has many ancestors, including Daryll Forde, Alfred Kroeber, and, especially, Julian Steward. Steward's cultural ecology influenced the ecological anthropology of Roy Rappaport and Andrew P. Vayda, but the......

Words: 10525 - Pages: 43

Rain Forest Deforestation

...Michele Graham Biology 102 The Overall Impact of Massive Rainforest Deforestation Tropical rainforests are an invaluable resource to wildlife and humanity. The level of biodiversity is unlike anywhere else in the world. A plethora of unknown species of plants and animals thrive in tropical rainforests, and many of them may offer medicinal benefits to humans; however, with the rapid deforestation of these areas, the Earth is losing some of the most precious resources. Logging, agriculture, and cattle-ranching are the main forces that drive deforestation and heavily contribute to the resulting environmental issues. By developing sustainable methods of forest usage and eliminating excess deforestation efforts, the Earth’s tropical rainforests can continue to hold the treasures of wildlife. Forests make up thirty percent of the Earth’s land surface. Wildlife is abundant and plant life is so diverse that many species are still unknown. With forests areas the size of Panama being wiped away each year, in one hundred years the world’s rainforests could completely vanish (National Geographic). Countless trees are cut down every year by the logging industry, which supplies the world with paper and wood products. Its effects extend beyond the loss of trees. For example, several indigenous tribes of Papua, New Guinea have lost huge portions of their land to government-backed logging operations (Shearman, Phil, and Jane Bryan). For tribal peoples who subsist on the land, it is a......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4


...2-4-2014 | | Amazon Deforestation | | Deforestation is the loss or destruction of naturally occurring forests. It is primarily due to human activities such as cutting trees for fuel, slash-and-burn agriculture, clearing land for livestock grazing, oil extraction, and many others. Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change. It can occur around the world, even though it’s more common in tropical rainforests. Countries with significant deforestation currently or in the recent years include Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, and parts of Eastern Europe. Though deforestation has increased rapidly in the last fifty years, it has been known to be practiced through history. Deforestation is typically done to make more land available for housing and urbanization and cattle ranching. Most of the logging industry that contributes to deforestation is done illegally, as reports from the World Wildlife Fund state. Common methods include burning trees and clear cutting, which is the controversial practice of complete removal of a given area of forest. In Brazil, you will find the Amazon rainforest. It is 5.7 million square kilometers and the largest continuous rainforest in the entire world. Since 1970, one sixth of the Amazon has been cleared mainly for ethanol production and cattle. While techniques like slash-and-burn provide a short term boost in agricultural production, rainforest soil is typically very thin and does not......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4


...Essay Deforestation Leads to Serious Problems In the 21st century, the world is advancing to new heights in the field of technology. Human beings have made every facility for their better life. But human beings did not care about nature. Deforestation is the result of unawareness of human beings about nature. Deforestation has direct relationship with success of human beings. Thousand years ago, more than 80% of total land area was covered with forests. In present days, less than 12% of total land area is covered with forests (Hermy 362). Is cutting of trees beneficial for society? Does it lead to serious problems? Some people argue that deforestation is deforestation is necessary for success of many government projects and humanity. However, I would argue that the environment, wild life and human life are negatively affected by deforestation. It has large number of demerits. It has degraded environment by global warming and acid rain in different areas of world. Moreover, deforestation destroys the natural home of wild animals. Wild animals have no homes for living in most of parts of the world. Deforestation disturbs human life by depletion of ozone layer of the earth, increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in environment and reduction in the number of trees, which are used in the production of many medicines. These problems had not fixed. These are increasing day by day with the rate of cutting trees. To illustrate, deforestation has brought bad......

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7

Tanzania Uganda Kenya

...to open a production facility outside of the United States to produce a variety of consumer products, in Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. We plan to: * Pointedly expand into the Tanzanian, Ugandan and Kenyan markets to improve profit margins and increase local market share. * Construct a factory in a high potential region * Expand global reach and decrease costs of production in a new facility in these markets. Introduction: Lewis Globalworks Co. Inc. is a producer of a variety of consumer products. Such products include textiles, computers, and auto parts. The company has successfully operated in the United States for the past ten years. With the business boom that is occurring domestically and the desire to improve overall profit margins, the company is planning to build a production facility somewhere outside the U.S. in an attempt to produce at a lower cost. This plan will lay out our goals and tasks to make this potential transition successful and create a profitable outfit. In this write up five major areas of concern will be addressed. These areas are Economic, Cultural, Political, Technological and Legal. All five areas will have significant impact on a decision to build a facility in one of three areas. Our goal is to provide you with an overview of the current environment related to the five areas of concern, in the countries of Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. All three countries are located on the eastern coast of Africa and exhibit similar characteristics,......

Words: 2409 - Pages: 10

The Political Perspective on Leadership Emergence

...A Political Perspective on Leadership Emergence, Stability, and Change in Organizational Networks Author(s): John Bryson and George Kelley Source: The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Oct., 1978), pp. 713-723 Published by: Academy of Management Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/257927 Accessed: 04-07-2015 06:28 UTC Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Academy of Management is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Academy of Management Review. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from on Sat, 04 Jul 2015 06:28:43 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions A Political Perspective on Leadership Emergence, Stability, and in Organizational Networks Change JOHN BRYSON University of Minnesota GEORGEKELLEY University of Wisconsin A political approach to leadership in organizational networks is presented. From a review primarilyof the political science and public administrationliteratures, a theoretical...

Words: 6797 - Pages: 28


...but every year areas the sizes of Panama are being decimated (Deforestation).  The clearing of large tracks of forests, which is thereafter converted to a non-forest use, is known as deforestation.  Deforestation has a multitude of devastating effects in the world we live in.  However with the cooperation of people worldwide this process can be drastically slowed down and even stopped. Forests are cut down for various reasons, but are almost always related to money in some way or another.  The most common reasons are Urbanization, logging, large-scale agriculture, mining and urbanization.  Deforestation can occur naturally and is caused by lighting, which then triggers forest fires.  On average in U.S. 4 million to 5 million acres are lost due to forest fires, but in recent years more than 9 million acres have burn.  Scientist believe the reason for the drastic increase is because global warming making summer season longer and dryer which is inductive to forest fires (Wildfires). Healthy forests help absorb greenhouse gasses and carbon emissions that are caused by human civilization and contribute to global warming. Without trees, more carbon and greenhouse gasses enter the atmosphere. To make matters worse, trees actually become carbon sources when they are cut, burned, or otherwise removed.   According to the World Wild Life organization 15 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions are the result of deforestation.  This number might be hard to wrap your head around, but......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6


...Rusmigo Erasmus Student MUP 12/7/2015 Kenya Abstract Throughout time, we have seen countries evolve from many different circumstances, most of which circumstances were from colonial exploitation. European colonialism dates back to the age of exploration and the discoveries that were found overseas from the mainland of Europe. The colonists were brutal to the natives called savages, ruthless to the innocent, and exploiters of the native people and their native lands. In Africa, the Europeans had penetrated it in the 1600-1700’s. In the 1800’s the entire continent did not have a single free independent nation state, all of Africa belonged to the Europeans. Kenya was significantly impact by the imperialists. The historical evidence of Kenya’s economy, culture, and social standards comes from the British rule from 1888-1963. The main purpose of this document is to understand the fundamentals of British colonialism and the British conquest in Kenya. Through examining important points in the history of Kenya, we will found out what are the legacies of the colonial period for Kenya and if they are still relevant to the country today. Republic of Kenya Kenya is a country in East Africa with its territory lying on the equator and overlies the East African Rift covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana and further south-east to the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west,......

Words: 4755 - Pages: 20


...Deforestation Deforest is defined as the cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested area. (Dictionary.com) The action of deforestation damages the quality of the land. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. (Wikipedia) Deforestation affects the environment greatly and is one of the primary contributors to climate change. When deforestation occurs, carbon dioxide is released and remains in the atmosphere. As the carbon dioxide accumulates it catches radiation, which leads to heat. Oxygen doesn’t hold radiation like greenhouse gasses do. The heat that is produced is considered global warming. Trees store carbon and when it is cut down that carbon is released into the air. According to the World Carfree Network (WCN), cars and trucks account for about 14 percent of global carbon emissions, while most analysts attribute upwards of 15 percent to deforestation. (Scientificamerican.com) Another aspect of the environment that deforestation affects is the water cycle. Trees help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts. (Society) Water vapor is a greenhouse gas. The flow of water vapor and carbon dioxide is disrupted directly by cutting down trees. The water that the trees draw from the ground is eventually emitted into the air. When the land is......

Words: 3589 - Pages: 15