Free Essay

Politics Student

In: Historical Events

Submitted By amallinson85
Words 2690
Pages 11
Was Germany any closer to being unified by 1849? The period from 1815-1849 is often described as “time period where nothing happened” in terms of unification, this can be seen with Germany remaining divided by 1849. However, throughout this period there was significant steps that both enhanced, and hindered how close Germany was to being unified, these include economic changes with the Prussian customs union, political changes within the congress of Vienna and social changes through the 1848-49 revolutions. There were significant economic changes throughout the period from 1815-1849, most importantly the creation of the Prussian customs union in 1818 that then went on to become the Zollverein in 1834. This was done after the Napoleonic war and the following peace brought fierce competition from British goods and the poor harvest of 186-17, it was intended to develop trade in the post war slump with neighbouring states by linking the German key rivers with the Rhine, Main and Danube. The states were also linked with the building off 2,800km of new road. “Prussia’s policy was deliberately aggressive and designed to enrich itself” this led to a trade war which Prussia soon won, and by 1834 rival trade zones joined with the customs union to create the single Zollverein. It can be argued that this brought Germany close to unification as it gave Prussia, the only nation capable of overcoming Austria’s opposition to unification economic power. The Zollverein also brought Germany closer to unification as it included every German state but Hannover, Oldenburg, Mecklenburg, Hanseatic towns and Austria were not members. Tis isolated Austria and was a factor in their gradual economic decline and eventual loss of power, this brought German closer to unification as it Austria who were the main opponents of unification, if their power was reduced and Prussia’s was increased then Germany was closer to unification. The Zollverein was made up of over 35 states and 25 million German people, this brought Germany closer to unification as the majority of the German states were linked together in an economic union along with measures and currency begging to become the same. The main thing that the Zollverein did to bring Germany closer to Germany is it provided a template for the ‘Klein- Deutschland’ without an Austria and allowed Prussia to appear the natural leader of Germany This was the first time Prussia began to defy Austria ‘it was the first break in German settlement of 1815’ and led to it being described as ‘the mighty lever of German unification” However, it could also be argued that the Zollverein did not bring Germany closer to unification but in fact prevented it as it can be argued that princes of the smaller states accepted this loss of sovereignty as they feared that if the growing industrial middle class were restricted by internal tariffs they would be angered and cause revolution and become a republic therefore by joining the Zollverein they were not encouraging unification, they were preventing it. It also highlighted the difference in political views between the nations as any state member could VETO a proposal at the Zollverein congress as some decisions were either held up or not made at all this evident in the Prussia v Austrian war in 1866, every member of the Zollverein opposed Prussia’s actions. The Zollverein did bring Germany closer to unification in an economic sense and set up the framework for a united Germany however the political differences were still evident and the princes were still desperate to keep hold of as much power as possible. There were also significant developments in the economies of German states concentrated in specific areas. The exploitation of Germany’s vast raw materials brought wealth for an emerging middle class the state which benefitted most was Prussia, which was granted control of industrial land on the River Rhine in 1815. There was also a significant rise in the urbanisation of the working class from the country side into the towns as people moved to work in the new industries, the population rose and people living in such close proximity meant there was potential for uprisings therefore bringing Germany closer to unification. The industrialisation took place throughout Germany, coal production increased from 1.2 million tonnes in 1815 to 6.1 millions of tonnes in 1848 along with woollen textiles went from 12.7 thousands of tonnes to 28.2 in the same amount of time. This industrialisation and economic growth along with the zollverein arguably brought Germany closer to unification as it increased the wealth and power of the middle class and took away power from the individual rulers, it also brought the working class in greater proximity to each other raising the chances of revolution, this view is supported by British economist JM Keynes who stated German unification was achieved through “coal and iron rather than blood and iron”
The economy was not the only factor that brought Germany closer to unification, there was also a significant amount of political changes throughout this period that brought Germany closer to unification such as the rise of nationalism and liberalism however there were also Significant changes that ensured Germany remained divided in particularly the actions of Austrian foreign minister Metternich. After the freedom from French occupation, the allied forces decided to dissolve the Confederation of the Rhine as they wanted to eradicate the memory of French Occupation, the German states now formed the German Confederation at the congress of Vienna, also known as the Bund or the ‘diet. ‘It aimed to protect its members and give them a stronger voice in Europe.

Each state sent one delegate to the diet however how many votes the delegate was worth was based on population, this allowed the bigger states such as Austria, Prussia and Bavaria to dominate as together they had 24/69 votes in parliament meaning they could VETO important decisions. At this point German unification did not look likely as Prussia, the only state that could realistically catalyse the unification of Germany, was happy to support Austria as they offered them the best chance of security. The Vienna settlement did not enhance the chance of unification as it failed to recognise the growing nationalist feelings amongst many middle class Germans mainly in universities where ‘political professors’ such as Dahlmann and Grimm could utilise their students into protest groups to stir up nationalist feelings. The growing nationalist feelings made Metternich determined to supress any semblance of nationalism as Austria was vulnerable to unrest from minorities inside its own frontiers. Consequently, the diet was used to suppress nationalism rather than embrace it. This is evident after the ‘Wartburg Festival’ which celebrated Martin Luther’s ‘ninety-five theses’ which was his defiance of the pope’s authority, a life sized model of Metternich was thrown onto a fire to show the hatred of him among nationalists. The result of this was Metternich looking for an excuse to pass legislation to repress nationalism, this came after the assassination on a Russian secret agent at the university of Jena which gave him is chance to pass the ‘karslbad decrees’ which aimed at cutting back political rights in Germany. These decrees did not brig Germany closer to unification as it aimed to stop the growing nationalism and liberalism a source, the decrees included strict press censorship a law commission in Mainz to monitor political activity. As a result of these decrees the foundations of nationalism were crushed. From then up to 1849 a few incidents of rising nationalism stand out. Nationalism did begin to rise however when France tried to retake land on the west bank of the River Rhine in 1840, this raised anger all over Germany and prompted composition of patriotic songs such as Deutschland uber alles (now the national anthem.) This suggested that nationalism did exist among Germans it just took a incident that would create a common goal for all Germans for it to have an impact
This brought Germany closer to unification as it showed there was underlying patriotism within Germany however It just needed a catalyst to stir up these feelings. However, by 1849, the Karlsbad decrees however took away the foundations for the growth of nationalism which did not bring Germany closer to unification as any rise was suppressed by Metternich.

There was also a significant rise in liberalism throughout this period, Liberalism brought Germany closer to unification as it wanted to gain freedom for the whole country and grant political freedom to the German people by removing the elites from power. This can be first seen in the south west where liberalism was at its strongest. In 1832 unrest around Europe spread to Germany and gave further support for a constitutional movement, Duke Karl of Brunswick was deposed and a constitution was granted, the same happened in Hanover, Saxony and Hesse Casse; between 1833-37. The most evident example of growing liberalism can be seen as the Hambach festival in 1832 which took place in the south west of Germany, 25,000 students gathered as speeches praising the constitutional movement, amidst the crowds there was revolutionary flag waving and called for a single united German Republic. This can be further seen in significant cultural changes throughout this period, Germany's different states began to realise that culturally, they were very similar. This led many to believe that the German people should be united politically. German Romanticism begin flourish artists and writers looked to the inner life of individual Others evoked the idea of a national spirit or "volk" was something that had existed in the past but been suppressed under Napoleon's rule. A culture emerged that encouraged people of the subjugated states to consider their identity and their roots this can be seen in paintings such as The wanderer above the sea of Fog, 1818 by Caspar David Friedrich This evidence of growing romanticism, nationalism and liberalism suggests that Germany was gradually moving closer to unification by 1849.

The consequences of this however arguably set the nationalist and liberalist movements in a much worse place than they were before 1830. Metternich passed the ‘6 articles’ via the Frankfurt diet in 1832 which banned all political movements, universities supervised and the wearing a black red and golf scarves was forbidden. This again shows the effect of Metternich and other elites on why Germany was not very close to unification by 1849 as none of them wanted to hand their power over to the people in a unified state. Without the 6 articles and Karlsbad decrees German unification would have been a lot closer by 1849.

The effect of Prussia on liberalism and nationalism remained very little until the death of King Fredrick William IIII in 1840, his son King William IV aspired to a liberal reputation and granted an end to censorship, release of political prisoners and appointed a liberal, united diet. This was a big step towards unification as the most economically powerful state had a liberal constitution, this would have brought Germany even closer to a unified nation, however King Fredrick was mentally unwell and abolished the united diet three weeks after its introduction and was quoted “never will I consent that a written paper should intrude between Lord our God in Heaven and this country. This suggests that the elites were never really serious about forming a united, liberal Germany as it would mean handing over more of their power therefore from a nationalist and liberalist point of view, unification was not very close by 1849.

The revolutions that’s occurred in 1848-9 however was the closest Germany had come to unification and Germany should have become united as a result. The revolutions were ignited from the overthrowing of King Louis in France, it called upon the rest of Europe to question authority. In Vienna, Metternich was forced to flee and the army was withdrawn from the capital. Metternich’s fall had a profound effect upon the rest of Germany, Landlords were attacked, castles and feudal records were destroyed. Rulers across Germany gave in early with very little fight, representative governments were set up, elections were held, liberal ministries were appointed and the old feudal order began to be abolished. In March 1848 at meeting in Heidelberg 51 representatives form 6 states and discussed changes to Germany’s political institutions and agreed to form the ‘Vorparlament’ where a constitution for the unification of Germany would be drawn up.

The national constitution hoped to agree on a new united constitution along with basic rights and demands including freedom of the press and fair taxes. It was at this stage that Germany was at its closest to unification than It had ever been, however by June 1849, the Frankfurt parliament had been moved to Stuggart then dispersed. This was down to a number of factors. The first problem was the people that had been elected into it, it was dominated by liberal minded, middle class professionals who were not used to political power, the parliament as also made up of moderate supporters of the monarchy along with radical republicans, there was also confusion over a Gross Deutschland (with Austria) or a Kleindutschland (without.) These conflicts in the parliament took time, during this time if gave the German princes time to recover and start asserting themselves against the liberals as they had military power behind them, the parliament did not. The ending of the parliament came from the refusal of Fredrick William IV to accept the crown of German emperor, he described it as a “a diadem moulded out of the dirt and dregs of revolution” . This suggests that Germany had not come any closer to unification then it had in 1815 as the elite rulers were still not accepting to unify the country however if the Frankfurt parliament would have been experienced, like minded individuals with popular support Germany would have been extremely close to unification in 1849.

The social structure of Germany throughout this period also effected two close it was to unification. The evidence suggests that the nation was split with the urban middle classes taking a very active political role whereas in the rural areas the mood towards unification was very apathetic, this was highlighted in the 1815 revolutions.

There was a big split between the social groups of Germany, as “once middle class liberals secured election of their own assemblies, most were as afraid as social revolution as the conservatives”
This suggests that because of the split in the social groups the upper classes would never be removed from power therefore unification would be less likely. The split within society was also down to working class apathy as all they wanted better wages and living conditions, unification did not bother them as a whole. This can be further seen in the Rural areas where after reasonably good harvest in the 1847-8 the rural population was not in a desperate economic way therefore had no need to call for revolution. This was crucial into why the revolutions and the attempt at unification failed. The social factors suggest that Germany was not close to being unified by 1849.

In conclusion, by 1849 Germany had certainly missed the opportunity to become unified after the 1848 revolutions however due to the failures of the Frankfurt parliament it allowed a restoration of the German confederation with the elites back in power and it appeared Germany was back to how it was in 1815, “the careful, steady process of the liberal’s constitutional movement was lost in the radicalism that followed” this suggests that the revolutions severely dented the nationalist movement meaning Germany was not any closer to being unified in 1849 than it had been in 1815.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Tim Chapman. The congress of Vienna 1998.
[ 2 ]. WG shreeves, nation making in the 19th century 1984..
[ 3 ]. William The origins of the wars of German unification 1991.
[ 4 ]. William The origins of the wars of German unification 1991.
[ 5 ]. Tim Chapman. Congress of Vienna 1998.
[ 6 ]. Modern history review article sep 2000. Graham Goodlad.
[ 7 ]. The unification of Germany, Farmer and Stiles.
[ 8 ]. Tim Chapman. Congress of Vienna 1998…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Students and Politics

...One of the social maladies of India is the participation of the students in political activities. Their interest in politics has a deleterious effect on their academic career. May be, a student who engages himself in politics and is drawn to the charismatic political leaders will grow to be a politician and carve a niche for himself in the political arena. But generally a student’s participation in politics is not advisable, for, politics is a forbidden area to the young, immature student, whose unrestrained enthusiasm may land him in trouble if he follows in the footsteps of a misleading leader, whose policies and programmes may be sectarian and adverse to the nation’s weal. One important reason why a student is cautioned against straying into the political field is that his attention is diverted from his studies which should be his main concern. The purpose of education is defeated once he deviates from pursuing his educational career. He cannot devote his attention to politics and studies in equal measure, and if he does so, his mind is divided between two pursuits, and he is neither here nor there. This pitiable situation should be foreseen by a student before taking the step of taking part in politics whose turbulent current may take him away to unknown depths, may wash him off to some unknown corner, where caught up in a whirlpool, he may meet with his doom. This is the fate sought by him through his immaturity. The youth should again and again be warned that they......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Politics

...Politics from the past The great philosopher Aristotle stated the bare truth when he said centu­ries ago that man is "a political animal". He and his equally famous disciple Plato strongly denounced politics. Plato went so far as to say: "O, men of Ath­ens, if I was engaged in politics, I would have perished long ago and done no good either to you or to myself." Since then, however, politics has pervaded every sphere of life, and the number of politicians has grown beyond measure. There is politics everywhere, in government generally, in the administration, in schools, colleges, universities, art, literature, and even in sports and games. In fact, there is hardly any sphere of life and activity, male or female, which is free from politics and the insidious influences of the fast-growing tribe of politicians of various hues and types’ sincere ones, insin­cere ones and downright hypocrites, and others who fall and share the traits of both the good and the bad. Of course, it would be unfair to paint them all with the same brush. The lament of Aristotle and Plato has become pointless in modern soci­ety, despite the advance of civilization and the remarkable progress of educa­tion and general enlightenment. Politics and politicians have not only grown amazingly, but have also prospered without let. This may indeed be described as the age of politics and politicians are supreme everywhere. The gates of politics are wide open; anyone can join the vast society of......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Student Politics

...Student activism is work by students to cause political, environmental, economic, or social change. Although often focused on schools, curriculum, and educational funding, student groups have influenced greater political events. | There are conflicting views regarding students' participation in politics. It has been a very controversial subject. Two contrasting opinion is have been expressed by the two groups of people. There are people who always want to keep students very far from the politics. There are others who hold opposite view. They think that students ought to be well versed in politics because they are the future leaders of the country. There has been much discussion whether students should join politics or not. Some persons say that they should join and some say that they should not. We should first discuss the subject very reasonably. Then we can decide whether students should join politics or not: Before southern parts of Asia had been free from the bondage of the British rule, some politicians said that school students also should join the struggle for freedom. During the days of Non-co-operation movement, students were advised to give up studies and join the fight for freedom. Their argument was—"Everything is useless without freedom. Education can wait but freedom cannot. Everything will be set right as soon as we get freedom. If school students join the political movement, it will gain additional strength. Now, we have no longer to fight against the......

Words: 3427 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Politics

...There are nearly seven thousand organizations represented in our nation’s capital. Interest groups are organizations that seek to influence decisions in government; they are sometime called lobbyists (Wilson, 2009 p. 142). Lobbyists acquired their name because they used to wait in the lobbies of the policy makers in order to catch them coming in and out of their offices. The rise of interest groups became more apparent due common interests amongst groups of citizens. Interest groups play an important role in today’s politics; the rise was attributed to the need to gain access to government in order to accomplish change. Many groups noticed a need to reach out to government officials in many notable matters in order to undertake the protection of the people. Interest groups, through the means of history have played an important role in the politics of the United States of America. Many interest groups are known to have made their mark in society by both striving and accomplishing change in policy. Interest groups have an interesting time line; I will lead you on the journey. During the first, preindustrial phase from the 1830s to 1870s, charitable organizations assisting the poor represented the dominant form of association. Membership in these organization consisted mostly of middle class citizens. Crossing class line, the second phase is attributed to the economic group such as trade unions and employer’s union in between the 1860’s and the early 1900’s. The third......

Words: 2177 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Politics

...for an election, "voter turnout" would be 50%. 02: Using your own knowledge as well as the extract, consider why some commentators have spoken of a 'participation crisis' in recent years. Whilst voting numbers are severely decreasing, levels of non-electoral political participation are at an all-time high because people feel more engaged with politics that way. People believe they possess the skills to participate in politics and express interest in politics but less people can identify that with a certain political party. A lot of people struggle to see the difference between the two main parties running for election, so don’t understand the point of voting. Whilst a lot of decline in political interest from the public has started as late back as the 1990’s, it may be too late to reverse the decline due to young people’s attitudes towards politics. On the other hand, young people still have an idealist opinion of politics in most cases so their interest in politics could spike. Voting numbers and public protest would suggest people have more apathy to politics than an active interest. Although people are taking part in politics more it is still only a minority of the population taking part in things like protests. Whilst this would suggest people are protesting instead of voting, people that participate in these ways are actually more likely to vote than those who don’t....

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Politics

...What Is Meant by "Pork Barrel Politics", and What Is Its Significance in Congress? Pork barrel politics refers to the mechanism by which Congressmen can add amendments to a Bill that directly benefits their state or district. For example, in 2008 the Gravina Island Bridge in Alaska was pushed for by Republican Senator Ted Stevens. The project cost $398 million yet only benefited around 50 people living on the island. The objective of doing such a thing would be to improve re-election prospects and show to their constituents that they can deliver things such as economic or employment opportunities in their state or district. This can be seen to be significant to Congress as it enhances incumbent advantage. Incumbent advantage is the advantage existing candidates have in elections against challengers and means that it is difficult for anyone to contest an existing congressman. Pork barrel politics will make this worse as it will increase the incumbent’s record of getting things done for their constituents such as Ben Nelson who was able to get “pork” into the Obamacare bill for his state and was re-elected in 2012. This may not be such a bad thing in of itself but it has a direct effect on Congress as it means that the same people will be elected over and over again and this can hinder change and could prevent other, potentially better, candidates from winning the seat. However, it can be argued that despite this, each incumbent still has to stand in elections and it is......

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Politics

...misunderstandings due to grammatical use and the multiple parts of the language. 10. In Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” he argues that English is changing due to the fact that language is an instrument used for expressing yourself, understand that political chaos is interconnected with the corruption of the English language, in doing so you will become freed from the social norm of society. 11. In Orwell’s “politics and the English Language” he explains the initial faltering of language and the consequences, and the continuing falter due to building from the existing consequences. 12. In George Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” he discusses the slovenly acceptance of stale and indirect words and speech, and the remedy for this dilemma. 13. The author is trying to distinguish that “modern English” is the course of English declination. 14. Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” demonstrates his frustration with the lack of honesty and originality in the verbal and written speech of politicians. 15. George Orwell tells us in “Politics and the English Language,” that writers today are clouding their main ideas with excessive phrases and language in order to impress their audience, but unfortunately the result is only confusion. 16. In George Orwell’s, “Politics of the English Language,” Orwell illustrates examples of bad English and offers rules of repair. 17. In “Politics and the English Language” George Orwell argues that the English......

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Politics

...Author(s): Timur Kuran Source: World Politics, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Oct., 1991), pp. 7-48 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2010422 . Accessed: 26/02/2011 05:24 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=cup. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Cambridge University Press and Trustees of Princeton University are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to World......

Words: 15671 - Pages: 63

Free Essay

Politics

...What Is Politics On hearing the word politics, what usually springs to mind are images of government, politicians and their policies or more negatively the idea of corruption and dirty tricks. The actual definition seems to have been obscured and almost lost by such representations and clichés that tend not to pinpoint the true essence, which defines this thing, called politics. In order to make an attempt at a definition of politics a systematic approach is required. To begin with, a brief historical overview will be considered, to understand the origins of politics. Following this, different core concepts, which are imperative to a definition of politics, will be discussed, in the hope to discover a true and fair interpretation of the word politics. The word politics comes from the Greek word "polis", meaning the state or community as a whole. The concept of the "polis" was an ideal state and came from the writings of great political thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle. In his novel "The Republic", Plato describes the ideal state and the means to achieve it. Hence, the word politics originally has connotations in the ways in which to create the ideal society. An ideal society is in practice a rather difficult aim and even an impossible aim to achieve. Politics implies measures which could and should, in the views of their devisor, be implemented in the hope to create a better society, than that which is already present. The......

Words: 1895 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Politics

...the Qur’an and the teachings of the Sunnah, “they said that crimes would be reduced if they criminals have their hands cut off, and they claimed that this is God’s promise,” However, many people think it was too extreme? Therefore, in both of the cases of church protest and hudud law, it was obvious that race-based politics will cause religious extremism. Another downside of race based political parties is that such parties tend to result in racial tension. For example in 1987, when UMNO leaders provoked racial tension by the transfer of non-qualified administrators to Chinese primary schools. UMNO Youth organized a rally in Kuala Lumpur at which racist and seditious slogans were carried in banners which read: “MAY 13 HAS BEGUN”, “SOAK THE KERIS IN CHINESE BLOOD”. (10) UMNO leaders who were on stage to fan the flames of communalism included top Government leaders today. When people in power or influence play the racial and religious cards, their followers would naturally follow suit. For example, in the recent incident that happened at the Low Yat Plaza shopping mall. According to Gan Ping Sieu, who was a vice president of MCA, Malaysia’s racially-charged politics is the cause of the incident. From these photos, we can see how serious had the racial tension evolved. As long as race is used as a divisive platform, problems of racial discrimination will arise. Now that we’ve seen the pros and cons of race based political parties, how about the parties that are non-race based?......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Politics

...It all starts in politics. It all starts in governing one’s self to govern from other person to a whole lot. Politics is just a simple noun. But it would not be simple if we turn it into a verb. Power, on the other hand, is the ability in order to influence, coerce or control. It is also a simple noun but not in verb. At this point in time, let us put those two words together. Political Power. The ability to govern by means of influencing or controlling. Political power can affect the lives of the people that are under that government. There are a lot of ways political power can improve the quality of life of the Filipino citizens. It may take a lot in us. Someone said that no great things happen without sacrifice. Choosing the right ruler may have the ability to treasure our resources. But how do we know if we chose the right leader? We may never know. But I believe that having political power has the ability to influence the nation to strive to be better. It has the ability to influence the nation to be a good model to them self. It has the ability to rule, to organize, and to make us as one. Having political power cannot fix the nation by itself but it needs the nation to cooperate. We too, the citizens need the power to control---it might not be the nation but---ourselves. Along the lines of what Pope Francis said, politics is the highest form of charity. In spite of the fact that we, the citizens, are the main source of the budget that the government has, they are......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Politics

...The modern relationship between politics and religion can be described as “closer than ever”. Pope Francis recently spoke to congress in a joined House and Senate meeting while on his mission trip from the Vatican. This was Pope Francis first trip to The United States as Pope. The Pope spoke of issues that both the Republican political party and the Democratic political party have made their parties’ main issues and causes. However, hot topics of the republican base such as; abortion and same-sex marriage received scant mentions in the Pope's short address (Burke, 2015). Instead Pope Francis focused on immigration, the death penalty, racial injustice, the weapons trade, and poverty all items that the Democratic Party has stated as their cause or issue. With Pope Francis’s speech to lawmakers, he became the first pope to address a joint meeting of Congress which is a milestone in the journey of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. “Not long ago, the prospect of the head of the Catholic Church addressing Congress would have been unthinkable. Catholics in politics were a source of suspicion and a subject of slander for generations. Today, the pendulum has swung. Nearly one in three members of the Congress that Francis addressed are Catholic” (Baker & Yardly, 2015). Another example of politics and religion that have joined forces is Kim Davis, the clerk of Rowan County, Kentucky. As the website, CNN.com states; “She stands at the crossroads of a controversy......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Politics

...Critique of Nonviolent Politics From Mahatma Gandhi to the Anti-Nuclear Movement by Howard Ryan (howard@netwood.net) Preface 2 Part I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Problems of Nonviolent Theory Nonviolent Philosophy 6 Moral View: Violence Itself Is Wrong 9 Practical View: Violence Begets Violence 13 Nonviolent Theory of Power 21 Voluntary Suffering 24 Common Nonviolent Arguments 34 A Class Perspective 49 Part II 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Gandhi: A Critical History Father of Nonviolence 56 Satyagraha in South Africa 59 Textile Strike 66 Noncooperation Movement 1919-22 70 Religious Conflicts 80 Salt Satyagraha 87 Congress Ministries 97 The War Years 101 Independence and Bloodshed 111 Part III 17 18 19 20 Nonviolence in the Anti-Nuclear Movement Nonviolent Direct Action 120 Consensus Decision Making 123 Open, Friendly, and Respectful 136 Civil Disobedience 142 Epilogue 151 Notes 154 ©2002 by Howard Ryan. All rights reserved. Readers have my permission to use and distribute for non-profit and educational purposes. Critique of Nonviolent Politics 2 Preface (2002) Critique of Nonviolent Politics may be the only comprehensive critique of nonviolent theory that has been written. I wrote it between 1980 and 1984, while living in Berkeley, California. Since 1977, I had been active in the movement against nuclear power and weapons which, in California, focused its protests at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant near San Luis Obispo, and at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore......

Words: 74845 - Pages: 300

Free Essay

Politics

...GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS AS LEVEL UNIT TWO GOVERNING THE UK “Never, never, never give up” Winston S Churchill 1874-1965 1 GOVERNING THE UK 50% of AS [25% of A2] UNIT TWO SAMPLE QUESTION Answer one question from Section A and one question from Section B in 80 minutes. Spend 40 minutes on Section A and 40 minutes on Section B SECTION A QUESTION ONE PRIME MINISTERIAL POWER “For too long the big political decisions in this country have been made in the wrong place. They are not made around the Cabinet table where they should be, but they are taken on the sofa in Tony Blair’s office. No notes are kept and no one takes the blame when things go wrong. That arrogant style of government must come to an end. I will restore the proper process of government. I want to be Prime Minister of this country not a President (Source: David Cameron, The Times, 5th October 2006) “The Cabinet is the committee at the centre of the British political system. Every Thursday during Parliament, Secretaries of State from all departments as well as other ministers meet in the Cabinet Room in Downing Street to discuss the big issues of the day. The Prime Minister chairs the meeting, selects its members and also recommends their appointment as ministers to the monarch. The present Cabinet has 23 members (21 MPs and two peers). The secretary of the Cabinet is responsible for preparing records of its discussions and decisions”. (Source: From a modern textbook) (a)......

Words: 68254 - Pages: 274

Free Essay

Politics

...IT MSY NOT WORK IN POLITICS Cynthia Jones Timothy G. Smith US Government Pol 110 March 10, 2016 IT MAY NOT WORK IN POLITICS Member of Congress who has been charged with ethics violations. State ethics investigators have charged Lt. Gov. Ken Ard with 69 counts of spending campaign money for his personal use and 23 counts of failing to disclose campaign expenses. Ard, who took office in November, has been under scrutiny since taking office for thousands of dollars of purchases, including meals and hotel rooms – particularly those made post-election – listed on his campaign finance reports. In a news release, the State Ethics Commission said it found probable cause for the charges and likely will send out a hearing notice. As lieutenant governor, Ard fills a part-time position with little real power, presiding over the state Senate and overseeing the state’s Office on Aging. The lieutenant governor also becomes governor should the governor die or resign from office. ethics investigators have charged Lt. Gov. Ken Ard with 69 counts of spending campaign money for his......

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5