Poverty in Small Countries in Africa and the Roll of Corruption

In: Other Topics

Submitted By antokahugan
Words 1554
Pages 7
Name:
College:
Course:
Tutor:
Date:
Poverty in Small countries in Africa and the Roll of Corruption The major cause and reason for poverty around the globe is corruption. Unfortunately corruption occurs at all levels of every society, from national to local governments, judiciary functions, civil society military, small and large businesses and other services and so on (www.globalissues.org). The poorest countries are mostly affected by corruption despite it being in almost all nations. Political development is undermined by corruption since all aspects of society are somewhat affected (www.globalissues.org). It is not fundamentally useful to make collective differences between corruptions in several parts of the globe. In the end it all comes down to the same thing the abuse or use of public office and resources for private gain. However, corruption can be split into grand corruption, petty corruption and looting (unpan1.un.org). Petty corruption is a situation where small gifts and small amounts of money change hands. The parties involved are relatively minor officials within an organization where the transaction took place. An example is paying a policeman a dollar to look the other way after doing a minor infraction (unpan1.un.org). Grand corruption is a situation whereby a businessman and a senior ranking government official, and the figures exchanging hand are significant. A good example is the kickback received after government tenders or contracts are awarded. Looting is the third type of corruption. It has recently been described as large scale economic delinquency by some commentators. Looting differs slightly from grand and petty corruption and it is mostly prevalent in developing countries. The governance in such countries is particularly weak. Such corruption involves scams so huge that when successfully pulled off results in a microeconomic…...

Similar Documents

Poverty in Africa

...Step Closer to the End of Poverty Every day deaths are caused by some type of disaster all over the world. Some disasters can be prevented, like warfare and poverty, whereas other disasters can come without warning, such as natural disasters. When countries are suffering from poverty or are shaken up by something such as an earthquake or hurricane, they look towards American Humanitarians and our government to lend them a hand. Newspapers constantly talk about countries pleading for help: "We have the resources, we have the know-how to end extreme poverty” (Stossel, Patrick McMenamin 42). And it is true. Our government does provide money and resources to these countries that are begging for help, but not enough. Our country provides more money to aid countries in their civil wars than it does to provide foreign aid for countries that desperately need help. Most aid is intended to be spent as investment projects in particular areas of need such as supplying medicine and water to Third World countries, and rebuilding new roads and homes for countries that are destroyed by natural disasters. The main problem, as most experts put it, is that “aid is substitutable and what the money is supposed to be used for is spent on something else” (Rieff 225). Warfare should be the last thing our government should be focusing on with disasters such as Haiti’s earthquake and with so many deaths from diseases caused by poverty. To help reduce poverty in the world, ......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Poverty in Africa

...Poverty: An African Crisis Today, 300 million African people live on less than $1 US per day (World Bank). The incidence of extreme poverty never seems to go down, despite decades of work by African governments and NGOs, outside NGOs, and foreign government aid programs. What causes this entrenched poverty, on a continent rich with natural resources? Unfortunately, poverty in Africa doesn't result from just one or two causes. There are a number of different factors at work, all interacting with one another, and making the problem of entrenched poverty extremely difficult to solve. Some of the major causes of poverty include: war and armed conflict, poor farm policy, lack of access to credit, rampant unemployment, lack of access to education, and disease. One-fifth of all African people live in countries seriously disrupted by armed conflict (World Bank). When war is ranging all around, it's very difficult to grow crops, continue to work in an office, or earn money. Ordinary life becomes impossible, as people are forced to flee their homes. Thus, productivity goes down, and poverty rates shoot up. Countries at war produce an average of 12.5 per cent less food per person than they do during peace time (World Bank). One example is Angola, where a 27-year long civil war killed half a million people and left 3.8 million people displaced (Szczepanski). Virtually all the country's infrastructure was destroyed in the conflict, and more than three-quarters of the population fell......

Words: 802 - Pages: 4

Orphans in Africa: Poverty and School Enrollment

...Orphans in Africa: Poverty and School Enrollment 483 ORPHANS IN AFRICA: PARENTAL DEATH, POVERTY, AND SCHOOL ENROLLMENT* ANNE CASE, CHRISTINA PAXSON, AND JOSEPH ABLEIDINGER We examine the impact of orphanhood on children’s school enrollment in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. Although poorer children in Africa are less likely to attend school, the lower enrollment of orphans is not accounted for solely by their poverty. We find that orphans are less likely to be enrolled than are nonorphans with whom they live. Consistent with Hamilton’s rule, the theory that the closeness of biological ties governs altruistic behavior, outcomes for orphans depend on the relatedness of orphans to their household heads. The lower enrollment of orphans is largely explained by the greater tendency of orphans to live with distant relatives or unrelated caregivers. I n a follow-up to the 2001 noted that nearlyGeneral Assembly Specialare suffering HIV/ United Nations Session on AIDS, UNAIDS researchers 40% of the countries that from a generalized AIDS epidemic lack a national policy to support children “orphaned or made vulnerable by AIDS” (Joint United Nations Programme 2003:12). This is an important issue in sub-Saharan Africa, where the death of prime-aged adults from HIV/AIDS has led to pronounced concentrations of orphans. Recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have indicated that in Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, nearly 15% of all children under age 15 have......

Words: 13527 - Pages: 55

Causes of Poverty in Africa

...CAUSES OF POVERTY IN AFRICA  Africa has the richest natural resources and yet we are poor and stagnant in development. Poverty is defined by the dictionary as “The state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support”. This is an extremely vague definition and covers Poverty as a whole, although this speech will elaborate on the details of the causes of poverty in Africa.  What causes poverty? There are many reasons why this would occur, the most prevalent of these being corruption, and lack of resources in the region. Corruption occurs in Africa when the governments do not use money responsibly and instead use it for themselves. Corruption destroys trust between the government and its people in ensuring that money is used responsibly. Despite all the wealthy resources in its possession, Africa is the world's poorest continent. Poverty in Africa is caused by a number of factors. The leading causes are corruption and poor governance, limited employment opportunities, poor infrastructure, poor resource usage. And because of poor governance, those in authority have failed to apprehend the corrupt. This creates an imbalance in society and leads to more poverty because you end up with a few influential and powerful individuals oppressing the poor In most African countries, people own large chunks of land that are underutilized or sometimes not even used at all. This is partly because they are either not educated on what to do with the land, or......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Technology and Education in the Developing Countries of Africa

...Developing Countries of Africa Both technology and education play a key role in how a country stands out amongst the rest and how developed that country is. Without out them, the country can never advance into the stage of being able to qualify themselves as a developed country, such as those found in Europe, North and South America and some in Asia. These “developed” countries have these benefits of using technology such as the internet, cell phones, and scientific innovations whenever they need too and abundant education opportunities to expand ones knowledge with the hopeful benefit of getting a higher paying/better job. However this is where the developing countries, especially countries in Africa, struggle. The benefit of technology and education isn’t just around the corner for Africa, rather it’s barely within a hands reach for one to use. Because of this, many problems will ensue for these African nations. Without the full use of technology and education, African countries may never know the benefits of having such medical treatments, the expanded international network from the internet and cellular devices, and a more educated population. Medicine has been, literally speaking, a life-saver for millions upon millions of people. It has helped us overcome many different sicknesses and diseases and has also increased the life expectancy of the human race substantially. Without it, life would be rough and not as abundant and thriving as it is in some countries on Earth......

Words: 1090 - Pages: 5

Reducing Poverty in Developing Countries

...Reducing Poverty The countries in which poverty levels are the highest are generally those that have the most rapid increases in population and the highest fertility levels. Countries that have reduced fertility and mortality by investing in universal health care, including reproductive health, as well as education and gender equality, have made economic gains. Bringing the concept of contraception to developing countries can reduce poverty. However, this must be approached with sensitivity due to cultural beliefs. In a lot of these countries it is the men who make all decisions for the women concerning reproduction. If these women, exercised their human rights and made the decision for themselves, it would raise the average per-capita income because the money earned would be supporting fewer people. Women who have fewer children are able to gainfully contribute to the workforce; this it would raise the income of their family unit. Poverty can also be reduced with aid and guidance from a reputable governmental system. The more people that work outside of the home will increase the available funds by payment of income and property taxes. A well-structured government would enact these taxes in such a way that would be affordable to all. Monies received from these taxes would pay for education, job training, food banks, health care resources, and housing. Poverty can also be reduced in creative ways such as international trade of goods native to their particular......

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Discuss the Role of Small Businesses to the Economy of South Africa

...sets out to evaluate the role that small businesses play in the economy of South Africa. It discusses the role of small businesses in creating jobs, developing of new products and new markets, the flexibility of small businesses to changing markets as well as their aggregate taxes. Promoting small businesses makes sense as an economic development strategy, but with some qualifications. Small businesses are potent job creators, but so are large businesses. The attribution of the bulk of net job creation to small businesses arises largely from relatively large job losses in large firms, not to especially robust job creation by small firms. More importantly, data show that large businesses offer better jobs than small businesses, on average, in terms of both compensation and stability. Further, there is little convincing evidence to suggest that small businesses have an edge over larger businesses in innovation. However, research and experience show that pursuing large businesses is likely to be a poor economic development strategy, which suggests that promoting and fostering small businesses may offer a more viable alternative. Small businesses also contribute to the tax returns in the country. Although their contribution is far lesser than those larger companies provide, it still counts. The competition that small businesses stimulate is a driving force in the economy, as well as a challenge to the larger companies.   Background Reading Small, medium and......

Words: 2291 - Pages: 10

Poverty

...Poverty is a global phenomenon affecting every country. According the United Nations, poverty is the inability to seek basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter based on the incapability of not having enough money. However, it is not all about the inability to seek basic needs but beyond that. “It is about the denial of opportunities and choices that are widely regarded as essential to lead a long, healthy, creative life and to enjoy a decent standard of living, freedom, dignity, self-esteem and the respect of others” (United Nations- Global Teaching and Learning Project, 2014, 1). Poverty makes other major problems worse including slave labour, human trafficking and the spread of diseases. However, the root cause of these global issues is the relationship between poverty and the lack of education. The big question is whether increased education will reduce poverty or, is a lack of education a result of poverty? Increased education can lead to the reduction of poverty by providing people with learning skills to get a job and provide a source of income. Education has the most crucial role in eliminating poverty as with education there are many more opportunities. For the eradication of poverty, primary education is essential because with the increase in education, people will not lack cognitive skills- being able to progress better. (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2001; Brown, J., Pollitt, E. Malnutrition, 1996). A counter argument is...

Words: 2826 - Pages: 12

Poverty in Africa

...[Name] [Course Title] [Instructor Name] [Date] Write a research paper on Poverty in Africa. Describe how/in what way it is such a big problem in the world, possible causes and possible solutions in which you think these problems can be solved. Contents Abstract 3 Introduction: 4 Overview of poverty in Africa: 4 Facts about poverty in Africa: 5 Graph: 6 Causes of poverty in Africa: 7 1. Corruption and Poor Governance: 7 a) Unbalanced Economic Systems: 7 2. Environment: 8 3. Poor Utilization of Land: 8 4. Increase in Population: 9 5. Diseases and poor health facilities: 10 Solutions to overcome poverty: 10 1. Overcoming government failure: 10 2. Education: 11 3. Population control 11 4. Focus on agriculture: 12 5. Other possible solutions: 12 References: 13 Abstract This paper will provide a deep insight into the problems of poor people and their causes of poverty. Other than that solutions to their issues regarding the government and basic necessities of live will be focused upon. The deprivation of services for the poor is another noticeable point in the paper. Introduction: Poor people are poor because of many reasons, but they remain poor because market and government does not support them. When capital markets fail, youth is unable to get loans to finance their education, they are not capable of maintaining their health and most importantly the government is unable to provide them with basic services......

Words: 2300 - Pages: 10

Corruption

...Corruption is efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of public power for privat e benefit. Corruption like cockroaches has co- existed with human society for a long time and remains as one of the problems in many of the world’s developing economies with devastating consequences. Corruption as a phenomenon, is a global problem, and exists in varying degrees in different countries (Agbu, 2001). Corruption is not only found in democratic and dictatorial politic s, but also in feudal, capitalist and socialist economies. Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist cultures are equally be deviled by corruption Corruption in India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Political corruption | Concepts | * Bribery * Cronyism * Kleptocracy * Economics of corruption * Electoral fraud * Nepotism * Slush fund * Plutocracy * Political scandal | Corruption by country | | Europe | * Albania * Armenia * Belgium * Bosnia * Denmark * Finland * France * Germany * Croatia * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Georgia * Greece * Iceland * Ireland * Italy * Kosovo * Latvia * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macedonia * Moldova * Montenegro * Netherlands * Poland * Portugal * Romania * Serbia * Slovakia * Slovenia * Spain * Sweden * Switzerland * Ukraine | Asia | * Afghanistan * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Cambodia *......

Words: 8076 - Pages: 33

Poverty in Thrid World Countries

...114 Prof. Maskery Sep 27 2012 Poverty In Third World Countries Poverty is a major issue in our world today where people cannot afford the basic necessities required to survive. Although 1st world countries have more then what is needed, people still suffer from poverty. Poverty is a lack of goods and services necessary to maintain a minimal life style. However, in 3rd world countries poverty is more present then in 1st world countries because of the lack of resources, power,money, and education. The struggle to survive often results in having more children, however, people in poverty usually are not educated about safe sex practices. As a consequence, sexually transmitted diseases run rapidly. When the parents are HIV positive, HIV is passed to their newborns and the cycle of death by AIDS rages. Not only is diseases a problem but the causes it brings to families, children and the country as a whole.The reality is poverty is a silent killer that is ignored by most especially by the 1st world countries. They tend to ignore other countries and not try to put an end to poverty. There is about six billion people in the world as of 2012, and from that half of the population are suffering from poverty (Anup Shah). Which brings us to the question, Is there ever going to be an end to poverty? From research I have made poverty has been present to back to centuries even before BC and is still happening today. We would think that poverty would be decreasing as the years......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Small Essay on Low Economic Countries

...Zimbabwe is a country which suffers from mismanaged resources, hyperinflation and an extremely high unemployment rate, 94% in 2008 (Mangena, 2014). In the early 2000’s a land reform was initiated to redistribute land from the conventionally wealthy white nationals of Zimbabwe to the poorer black farmers who farmed for their own subsistence. However, a corrupt government repatriated that land towards its own members. This land became idle as the new owners became disinterested in maintaining their farms and export production fell, spiralling the country into poverty. During this time, Zimbabwe was also taking part in the Second Congo War which drained the country of its resources. By the end in 2003 Zimbabwe began to feel the pressures of hyperinflation. The government has been printing money in order to fuel its efforts in the war, allocating high salaries for army and government officials, which would not be unexpected as Zimbabwe is ranked 156/175 by Transparency International for its corruption (Transparency International, 2015). This tied in with “self-dealing” led to hyperinflation, its peak month of inflation in mid-November 2008 estimated at 79,600,000,000% (Hanke & Kwok, 2009). This would lead to Zimbabwe ditching its national currency in 2009 and adopting other countries’ currencies, and leaving its citizens poorer than ever. The country of Haiti was once a very prosperous French colony, which over the years has suffered from corruption, national disasters, and......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Poverty in Africa, Causes and Solutions

...Topic: Poverty in Africa; Causes, Solutions and the Future Maxwell Adjei adjeimax89@gmail.com 1 Table of Content Page Number Introduction; Background of Poverty in Africa............................................................................3 What are the causes of Poverty in Africa......................................................................................4-5 a. Corruption- Bad Leadership and Weak Institutions...........................................,,.....5-6 b. Conflicts.....................................................................................................................6-7 c. Unfavourable Trade Policies- Weak Economies.......................................................7-8 Are there any possible solutions.................................................................................................8-9 a. Tackling Corruption- Strong Institutions and Good Governance..........................9-11 b. Building Infrastructure, Sound Economic Policies and Regional Integration.....11-15 c. Effective Management of Intractable Conflicts...................................................15-16 Conclusion....................................................................................................................................16 References.....................................................................................................................................17 2 Introduction Africa as a......

Words: 5120 - Pages: 21

Corruption in My Country

...Corruption in my Country To start my answer first let’s learn the type of government my country i.e. India has. India is a democratic country and it is governed by the people. People elect their representative of parliament. It has been 69 years India got independence. Today after almost seven decades one of the prime issues the whole nation faces is ‘corruption’. India is a diverse country with variance in religion, language, areas. These factors make difficult to handle various issues. Indian population considers it as a plague to the nation. This plague has spread so wide that individuals had to transfer the black money into Swiss bank to secure the black money. India is considered to be a developing question or third world nation according to United Nations. The technological advancement has been very slow, System is not transparent and which makes things unfair and most of the time person in power has authority to take advantage of his credentials which leads to corruption. Government services are one of the major areas of concern. Government services like Police station, DMV offices, Passport offices and almost all of them practice some kind of corruption. But due to privatization the corruption has been reduced during recent times. Globalization of data has also helped reducing corruption up to large intent. Government is acting proactively against corruption. Different schemes are implemented to make systems transparent. If someone is held accountable to corruption......

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

History of Nigeria and South Africa

...groups. Looking at each nation’s history there was colonization by the Europeans, suffering of their people, assassinations of leaders and corruption in their governments. Today both nations are attempting overcome past wrong doings and improve the standard of life for their people. The earliest inhabitants of South Africa were the San and Khoekhoe peoples, known individually as the Bushmen and Hottentots or Khoikhoi; collectively called the Khoisan. Both were resident in the southern tip of the continent for thousands of years before the arrival of the European immigrants (Southafrica.info). In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and ninety men landed at the Cape of Good Hope, under orders by the Dutch East India Company to erect a fort and build a vegetable garden for the benefit of ships on the Eastern trade route. The white colonists in South Africa, the Khoisan, and slaves from elsewhere in Africa and the East, formed the basis of the mixed-race group now known as coloured. The slaves from the East brought a powerful new element to South Africa's racial and cultural mix, especially with their religion of Islam. By the end of the 18th century the colonies population reached about 15,000. Known as Boers or Afrikaners, and speaking a Dutch dialect known as Afrikaans, the settlers as early as 1795 tried to establish an independent republic. South Africa was colonized under different European nations through its history. As a result of developments in Europe, the British took......

Words: 1398 - Pages: 6