Prisoner's Dilema: Atomic Weapons

In: Social Issues

Submitted By GucciGuy
Words 2133
Pages 9
Nuclear Weapons: Then and Now Politics, especially on an international level, is a complex and messy subject. One simply has to open up a newspaper or tune into the evening news for evidence. While many problems can be resolved peacefully through negotiations, there are problems in international relations that manage to escalate quickly and result in a war between two or more countries. From revolutionary wars to World Wars, violence has always been part of international relations. However, with recent technological advancements, wars have taken an especially deadly turn. Advanced weaponry has allowed soldiers to become more “efficient” when fighting a battle allowing them to kill many more enemy combatants and innocent bystanders. The most devastating of these newly created weapons are nuclear weapons such as the atomic and hydrogen bombs. These weapons have the capacity to eliminate hundreds of thousands of people, obliterate cities, and possibly end life on earth, as we know it. The most destructive of these weapons was tested by the Soviets in 1961 during the Cold War. The hydrogen bomb that was being tested had a destructive power of approximately 60 megatons. The Soviets formally named the bomb Ivan, but nicknamed it the “King of Bombs.” Originally, Ivan was going to be constructed with a power of 100 megatons, but the Soviets decided it was too risky and dangerous. To put this in perspective, a single megaton can create temperatures that are five times as intense as the center of the sun. These weapons essentially contain enough power to devastate if not completely destroy our planet. Due to the potential dangers and stigma of using nuclear weapons, they have fortunately been used only a handful of times. A bomb as powerful as Ivan has not been built since let alone used in actual warfare. In fact, only two atomic bombs have ever been used in combat.…...

Similar Documents

Atomic Bomb

...Research Paper: The Atomic Bomb Strayer University His 360: Twentieth Century World Research Paper: The Atomic Bomb March, 2011 Micheal McMillin Professor Curran Research Paper: Atomic Bomb: I. Executive Summary. On August Sixth and Ninth in 1945 the Japanese Island’s two cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed with a new type of weapon. The Atomic bomb created to end the Second World War, and to showcase The United States in becoming a Superpower. After the Atomic Bomb use it would affect the cities of Japan for years to come, but also the world leading to a new arms race that still affects us today. II. Essay How can one describe the power of the Atomic Bomb? With the power to bring two cities to its knees and kill thousands of people and affect people for years to come. The Atomic Bomb was used to bring Japan’s unconstitutional surrender. The used of this weapon is still under massive debate, even to this day. Was it ethical to use the Atomic Bomb not once, but twice on one nation? In using the Atomic Bomb on Japan it showed the world the deadly weapon the United States had created it. In the use of the Atomic Bomb we show the world and more importantly Russia what we developed. Now this Atomic age had begun as we enter the time known aa the Cold War. In the late 1930’s European and American physicists discovered how the fission of atoms could create a powerful an explosive weapon. In the year 1939 Albert Einstein would write a letter to......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

Weapons

...The dictionary describes proliferation as a rapid growth or production of new parts or cells. When referring to weapon proliferation, it needs to stop. While reading the article, I continued to notice the author was referring to small arms and light weapons as different entities, and I don’t really understand the difference. When doing further research I found; “Small arms and light weapons are man-portable weapons made or modified to military specifications for use as lethal instruments of war. Small arms are broadly categorized as those weapons intended for use by individual members of armed or security forces. They include revolvers and selfloading pistols; rifles and carbines; sub-machine guns; assault rifles; and light machine guns. Light weapons are broadly categorized as those weapons intended for use by several members of armed or security forces serving as a crew. They include heavy machine guns; hand-held under-barrel and mounted grenade launchers; portable anti-aircraft guns; portable anti-tank guns; recoilless rifles; portable launchers of anti-tank missile and rocket systems; portable launchers of anti-aircraft missile systems; and mortars of calibers less than 100 mm (Small Arms and Light Weapons SA/LW).” Although there is a difference between the two, I can agree that both are detrimental to the safety of the world and innocent bystanders to the “new business of war.” Small arms have become one of the main components in war, and according to Global Issues,...

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

Nuclear Weapon

...A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts when he discovered a new phenomenon which came to be called radioactivity. He,with his fellow scientists began investigating the phenomenon. In the process, they isolated the element radium, which is highly radioactive. They discovered that radioactive materials produce intense, penetrating rays of three distinct sorts, which they labeled alpha, beta, and gamma after the Greek letters. Soon they were declared to be harmful when used in large amounts. All the early researchers received various radiation burns, much like sunburn, and thought little of it. Gradually it was realized that the radiation produced by radioactive decay was ionizing radiation, and that even quantities too small to burn posed a severe long-term hazard. Many of the scientists working on radioactivity died of cancer as a result of their exposure. When discovered on the eve of World War II, this insight led multiple countries to begin programs investigating the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb — a weapon which utilized fission reactions to generate far more energy than could be created with chemical explosives. The Manhattan Project, run by the United States with the help of...

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

The Atomic Bomb a Necessity or a Wish

...The Atomic Bomb: A Necessity or a Desire Tanmay Bhanushali Year 10 Historical Paper “Great power imposes the obligation of exercising restraint” Leo Szilard - Hungarian-born Physicist and main scientist to oppose the atomic Bombings This was spoken in an interview titled “President Truman did not Understand”. This was between a US news reporter and Leo Szilard the key figure among the scientists opposing the use of the bomb. The interview was in August 15, 1960. Why was their so fierce Opposition? In what Way did Truman Not Understand? These answers lie in the depths of the controversy about the Atomic Bomb. Introduction The atomic bomb was a topic of major controversy but the main debate was about the necessity of the atomic bomb. Many say that the atomic bomb was dropped because it would save millions of American lives. However at that period the Japanese were also at the point of surrendering. Huge amounts of incendiary bombs were used in large-scale cities against japan. Many of the scientists in the Manhattan Project were disturbed about it. The incendiary bombs reduced much morale from the Japanese army and crippled the will power. However this small cripple made Japan even angrier because these incendiary bombs were used on innocent civilians and not the Japanese army. Many think that it was necessary to use the Atomic Bombs because Japan attacked America first and not the other way around. It is a fact that when Hitler......

Words: 2649 - Pages: 11

The Atomic Bomb

...The Atomic Bomb Everest College U.S. Constitution and Nevada History 03/05/12 The Atomic Bomb On December 18, 1950, President Truman approved the establishment of a continental test site recognizing the need for a secure, readily accessible, and less costly proving ground than the south pacific. The land was already owned by the federal government and was under military control. The test site possessed favorable conditions for year round testing and mountainous barriers that would prevent close observation. It also had large valleys and dry lake beds for constructing facilities and conducting tests. Truman authorized the use of 680 square miles of the Las Vegas Bombing and Gunnery Range with the first test conducted on January 27, 1951. Since atom bombs were first detonated at the Nevada test site in 1951 the site has grown from 680 to 1375 square miles, an area larger than the state of Rhode Island. Much of this growth resulted from the atomic Energy commissions program to develop nuclear propulsion for space vehicles. Smaller additions included annexing the camp Desert Rock area, where a small airport and the mercury base camp were located and Pahute Mesa for testing high yield nuclear devices deep underground. In view of the nature of its use and importance to the nation, the land was withdrawn from the public domain in perpetuity. The radiological hazards experienced in 1945 with the Trinity test at Alamogordo, New Mexico and the bombing of......

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Prisoner's Dilemma

...factoring in the opportunity costs, it allows them to make the best decision to better allocate their resources of all other competitive alternatives. If they don’t, they could be choosing options that could prevent the firm from making more profit. Managers often focus on accounting profit method because they are easy to obtain and are more commonly used to present the company performance to the investors. Question #4 Is the prisoners’ dilemma always a Nash equilibrium? Is Nash equilibrium always a prisoners’ dilemma? Explain. The Nash equilibrium states that NO participant can gain by a change of strategy as long as all the other participants remain unchanged. So the prisoner’s dilemma is always a Nash equilibrium. On the other hand, Nash equilibrium is not always a prisoner’s dilemma because the Nash equilibrium looks at “collective interest” involving all parties. Chapter 12 Question #2 Comment on the following: All of wisdom contained in the five-forces framework is reflected in the economic identity: Profit = (Price – Average Cost) x Quantity In one way or another, everything on the right side of the equation affects profit. Buyer Power can affect Quantity and Price. If the buyer demand is high and there aren’t any subsidies, the price and quantity can be high which results in more profit. If the buyer demand is low or there are many sellers, the price has to be lowered and the business owner may lose customers to its competitors......

Words: 930 - Pages: 4

Describe the Prisoner's Dilemma?

...Prisoner’s Dilema is a game with non-zero sum in game theory. The simplest form of the game have two gamer (called prisoner), each prisoner always wants to get the benefit for himself, no matter what the other benefit is. The result of the game is not optimal. If two prisoners cooperate with each other, the result is the best. But each prisoner naturally has a motivation to escape the prison. So that I is the reason why they call “dilemma”. Prisoner’ Dilemma focuses on researching the instant decision making when the prisoners have no time or do not expect to the cooperation or association in the future. The question is that two prisoners think rationally; this means that each prisoner chooses the most benefit option for himself no matter what the other want to cooperate or not, so they always choose the uncooperative option and this makes them have nothing. If they choose the cooperative option, both of them have benefit. pp.229 We assume the numerical result of China and Mexico when each nation produces or does not produce steel components in the table below: Japan Mexico Producing Not Producing Producing +10 +10 -10 +20 Not Producing +20 -10 -5 -5 From the table we can see that If Mexico chooses producing steel components option and Japan does not produce steel components, Japan (+20) will get more benefit than......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Prisoner's Dilemna

...The Prisoners' Dilemma Cooperation is usually analysed in game theory by means of a non-zero-sum game called the "Prisoner's Dilemma" (Axelrod, 1984). The two players in the game can choose between two moves, either "cooperate" or "defect". The idea is that each player gains when both cooperate, but if only one of them cooperates, the other one, who defects, will gain more. If both defect, both lose (or gain very little) but not as much as the "cheated" cooperator whose cooperation is not returned. The whole game situation and its different outcomes can be summarized by table 1, where hypothetical "points" are given as an example of how the differences in result might be quantified. Action of A\Action of B Cooperate Defect Cooperate Fairly good [+ 5] Bad [ - 10] Defect Good [+ 10] Mediocre [0] Table 1: outcomes for actor A (in words, and in hypothetical "points") depending on the combination of A's action and B's action, in the "prisoner's dilemma" game situation. A similar scheme applies to the outcomes for B. The game got its name from the following hypothetical situation: imagine two criminals arrested under the suspicion of having committed a crime together. However, the police does not have sufficient proof in order to have them convicted. The two prisoners are isolated from each other, and the police visit each of them and offer a deal: the one who offers evidence against the other one will be freed. If none of them accepts the offer, they are in fact......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Weapons

...The right to bear arms. I) History of guns in USA. a) Colonisation. The united states was forged through a war of independance and a civil war which turned into a united nation. The conquest of the whole territory was achieved through wars against indians and spanish. But they had to be protected from the wild animals, they had to hunt … Then they all had to defend themselves and the country against the ennemies of the country. After the revolution war, everybody had a weapon. Militias had the job to protect the community, it was not real army or police, but just citizen that care about security. Prior to the American Revolution there was neither budget nor manpower nor government desire to maintain a full-time army. Therefore, the armed citizen-soldier carried the responsibility. Service in militia, including providing one's own ammunition and weapons, was mandatory for all men. But the real change occured with the civil war. It was the first time that huge military forces were involved in a conflict. Gun manufacturers started taking orders from the union and the confederacy. When the war was over, the soldiers were allowed to take their guns home. b) 2nd amendement. The Second Amendment was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments comprising the Bill of Rights. Many states or cities tried to avoid guns, but it never succeed, and the suprem court always make unconstitutional the bans. The plaintiff in Heller......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Nuclear Weapons

...Nuclear Weapons In 1939, scientist Albert Einstein wrote a letter to the United States president of the time, Franklin D. Roosevelt, concerning the research of splitting a uranium atom that could lead to the development of an atomic bomb in Germany. In the letter, Einstein wrote,”It may be possible to set off a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which large amounts of power and new radium like elements would be generated.” He continued,” This new development could lead to the creation of bombs, and as it seems, but less likely, the construction of an even bigger, new type of bomb.” President Roosevelt, although skeptical at first, decided to go through with the research and in 1941 the Manhattan Project was born. Four years later on August 6, the United States Dropped the first nuclear atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima wiping out 90 percent of the city, killing more than 80,000 people, and later tens of thousands more. Then again on August 9, another bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki and killing more than 40,000. 6 days later, the Emperor of Japan announced Japan’s official surrender to the United States in World War II. The effects and after effects of the the two bombs dropped shocked the entire world, even those a part of the Manhattan Project. The Japanese Emperor Hirohito described the bombs as the ”new and most cruel bomb.” This research paper will discuss the pros and cons of the use of nuclear weapons among different......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Weapons

... MEDIEVAL WEAPONS Other Titles in ABC-CLIO’s WEAPONS AND WARFARE SERIES Aircraft Carriers, Paul E. Fontenoy Ancient Weapons, James T. Chambers Artillery, Jeff Kinard Ballistic Missiles, Kev Darling Battleships, Stanley Sandler Cruisers and Battle Cruisers, Eric W. Osborne Destroyers, Eric W. Osborne Helicopters, Stanley S. McGowen Machine Guns, James H. Willbanks Military Aircraft in the Jet Age, Justin D. Murphy Military Aircraft, 1919–1945, Justin D. Murphy Military Aircraft, Origins to 1918, Justin D. Murphy Pistols, Jeff Kinard Rifles, David Westwood Submarines, Paul E. Fontenoy Tanks, Spencer C. Tucker MEDIEVAL WEAPONS AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THEIR IMPACT Kelly DeVries Robert D. Smith Santa Barbara, California • Denver, Colorado • Oxford, England Copyright 2007 by ABC-CLIO, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data DeVries, Kelly, 1956– Medieval weapons : an illustrated history of their impact / Kelly DeVries and Robert D. Smith. p. cm. — (Weapons and warfare series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-10: 1-85109-526-8 (hard copy : alk. paper) ISBN-10:......

Words: 118320 - Pages: 474

The Morality of Dropping the Atomic Bomb

...than two thousand times the blast power of the British "Grand Slam" which is the largest bomb ever yet used in the history of warfare.” This was vocalized by President Harry Truman in his famous speech where he declared the bombing on mainland Japan and, educated the American people of the capabilities their military had. Developed by a group of American scientists, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 10th 1945 respectively. These are the only two times that these bombs have ever been used to inflict damage on other countries but, physicists estimate that both bombs only used about 1/10th of 1% of their total capacity. From a moral standpoint, dropping the atomic bomb was the right thing to do because it ended up preventing millions of people from being killed by military warfare. Politically, it was also the right thing to do because it strategically helped end the war and, reminded the rest of the world of the supremacy of the United States as a Hegemon and militaristic power. If put in the position of President Truman, after careful analysis, I would choose to only drop one atomic bomb on Hiroshima. First, with the Japanese unwillingness to surrender, the United States was ready to commence with a top-secret mission titled Operation Downfall. This alternative to the nuclear bomb was the only other option the United States had to subjugate the Japanese into surrender. Knowing the Japanese were close to falling militaristically, the United......

Words: 1977 - Pages: 8

Nuclear Weapons

...Have nuclear weapons reduced the number of worldwide conflicts? The correlation between nuclear weapons and world stability has been a controversial topic and the subject of heated discussions in recent years – there is a growing widespread belief that nuclear weapons create a more secure world by preventing hostilities from escalating. However, while nuclear weapons certainly do bring positive aspects, there is a good amount of evidence to suggest that they might not discourage but actually increase armed conflicts. This report will go over the benefits and downsides of nuclear weapons, and will examine specific examples in order to determine whether they have had a positive or negative effect in the number of worldwide-armed conflicts. Nuclear weapons were first created in the form of a bomb, during World War 2. They were the product of extensive research, known as the Manhattan Project, funded by the United States government and under the direction of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the military supervision of General Leslie Groves. Created by means of atomic fusion and fission, they were intended to give the US the upper hand in the war and mark the beginning of American hegemony in the world. The atomic bomb was tested on July 16, 1945 at Trinity site, in New Mexico. After a successful explosion, the bomb was ready to use against Japan and end the war in the Pacific. Officials agreed the attack had to be powerful and shocking so the world would see the United States was in......

Words: 2148 - Pages: 9

Prisoner’s Dilemma

...Arisra Chaiprasert - 215110029 Psychology101 Section1 Dr.Sunyaratana Rajtawan 4th August 2015 Prisoner’s Dilemma Situations | ( B ) Stays silent | ( B ) Accuse | ( A ) Stays silent | I. Each serves 1 year | II. ( A ) = 3 years ( B ) = goes free | ( A ) Accuse | III. ( A ) = goes free ( B ) = 3 years | IV. Each serves 2 years | In my perspective, I would choose to accuse my peer and I think my peer should accuse me too. Therefore my chosen situation is situation 4 where each of us accuses to one another and would get imprisonment each for 2 years. Although situations 1 where both of just keep silent has least imprisonment. Whereas, if my peer betrays on me; as I keep silent I would get more punishment. Accusing other doesn’t seem to have much punishment. It either I can go free if my peer keeps silent or each of us serves same period of imprisonment if my friend is also accusing me. Keep in silent doesn’t seem work well, I should face most imprisonment period if my friend betrays on me. It is very less possible for us to keep silent as a silent person has more risky of being punished. To sum up, accusing peer gives most benefit to me. I believe that there is honor among thieves. I don’t think by peer would care me as well therefore I wouldn’t care him/her too. I wouldn’t wish to get free while my peer needs to serve punishment. Situation 4 gives me the most liking among others....

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Medieval Weapons Medieval Weapons

...Outline I. Introduction II. Knights Weapons A. Topic sentence B. Used Swords C. Used heavy artery D. Conclusion III. Castle (Defense and Offense) A. Topic sentence B. Trebuchet C. Catapult D. Cross-bow E. Conclusion IV. Coat and Arms Weapons A. Long-bow B. Flail C. Mace D. War hammer E. Conclusion V. Final Conclusion Medieval Weapons C. Wilburn 2 Have you ever wanted to know about the weapons knights used? Well the knights used different things including battle axes, bow-and-arrows, and catapults. Some were used by different people though. Some spent years of training, while others spent just a year. Some knights had armor while others didn’t. But the kind of weapons in use was the types of weaponry of the Medieval Ages. All in all, the knights had some good weapons. Medieval knights used some cool weapons. Usually when knighted, the knights would get spurs which are sharp spikes behind the heels of the knight’s shoe, to guide the horse, a shield to protect themselves in battle, and a sword to fight with. Some swords could be the slashing swords that were flat and wide sharp-edged swords to make a very destructive blow. Later in the Medieval Ages, sword makers would make thrusting swords which were longer and more pointed than slashing swords. The point of the sword can fit between armor of the......

Words: 729 - Pages: 3