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Recession

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Project Report

On

Impact of Recession in India

Submitted to: Submitted by:
Mrs. Kawaljeet Kaur Harsimranjeet Kaur Regd: 625241502

In the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the BBA degree course of the Swami Satyanand College of Management & Technology.

INDEX

Introduction to recession

Definition of recession

Attributes of recession

Causes & Effects of recession

Stock Market & Recession

Recession & Politics

History of Recession

Current crisis in the US

Impact of recession in India

Consequences of US Recession

Conclusion

Bibliography

Acknowledgement

If words are considered to be sign of gratitude then let these words convey the very same.

I am highly indebted to lecturer Miss. Shveta, who has provide me with the necessary information and also for the support and her valuable suggestions and comments on bringing out this report in the best way possible.

I feel great pleasure to cordial thanks to all faculty members of management department of SSCMT who sincerely supported me with the valuable insights into the completion of this project and I am thankful to that power that always inspire me to take right step in the journey of success in my life.

Harsimranjeet Kaur

RECESSION

RECESSIONS ARE the result of reduction in the demand of products in the global market. Recession can also be associated with falling prices known as deflation due to lack of demand of products. Again, it could be the result of inflation or a combination of increasing prices and stagnant economic growth in the west.

Recession in the West, especially the United States, is a very bad news for our country. Our companies in India have most outsourcing deals from the US. Even our exports to US have increased over the years. Exports for January have declined by 22 per cent. There is a decline in the employment market due to the recession in the West. There has been a significant drop in the new hiring which is a cause of great concern for us. Some companies have laid off their employees and there have been cut in promotions, compensation and perks of the employees. Companies in the private sector and government sector are hesitant to take up new projects. And they are working on existing projects only. Projections indicate that up to one crore persons could lose their jobs in the correct fiscal ending March. The one crore figure has been compiled by Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO), which says that it has carried out an intensive survey. The textile, garment and handicraft industry are worse affected. Together, they are going to lose four million jobs by April 2009, according to the FIEO survey. There has also been a decline in the tourist inflow lately. The real estate has also a problem of tight liquidity situations, where the developers are finding it hard to raise finances.

IT industries, financial sectors, real estate owners, car industry, investment banking and other industries as well are confronting heavy loss due to the fall down of global economy. Federation of Indian chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) found that faced with the global recession, inventories industries like garment, gems, textiles, chemicals and jewellery had cut production by 10 per cent to 50 per cent.

Definition of recession

Recession is not to be confused with depression. Recession means a slow down or slump or temporary collapse of a business activity. In its early stage it can be controlled in a methodical manner. Experience helps to avert total collapse. Unchecked, it leads to severe depression. Depression is a dead end. It is time to close shop completely. It is a total state of irrevocable economic failure. When a country is doing well all round its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is on the rise.

Overall economy is bullish; it is not only the stock exchanges that tell riches to rags stories but even small businesses. It all adds to the national exchequer. An economist is likely to give a detailed, comprehensive definition of recession. But for the layman who has been affected knows it only one way-when he loses his job and has no money to pay his credit and loans. Recession is when the consumer faces foreclosure and the banker comes knocking for his pound (or dollar) of flesh. Many companies and whole countries go bankrupt for want of liquid funds and cash flow for even daily requirements.

If you look at it from the point of view of a businessman, recession is a transitory phase. The Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research has another definition. It profiles the businesses that have peaked with their activity in one season and it falls naturally in the next season. It regains its original position with new products or sales and continues to expand. This revival makes the recession a mild phase that large companies tolerate. As the fiscal position rises, there is no reason to worry. Recession can last up to a year. When it happens year after year then it is serious.

Are we facing a recession or not? Yes, for the simple reason that not only our neighbors but our friends are unemployed. There is less of business talk and more billing worries. Transitory recessions are good for the economy, as it tends to stabilize the prices. It allows run away bullish companies to slow down and take stock. There is a saying, ‘when it’s tough the tough get going’. The weaker companies will not survive the brief recession also. Stronger companies will pull through its resources. So when is it time to worry? When you are facing a foreclosure, when the chips are down and out and creditors file cases for recovery.

Firms face closures when they go through recession and are not able to recover from losses. If, at this time, they are not able to sustain their prices and stocks then there is more trouble. Even when the recession period gets over, they will not be able to do well. If a business survives a recession period they should be able to survive a depression. But how many recession proof businesses are there? Who will eventually survive the recession?

1. Those that have been able to save their funds.
2. Those who have not invested in fly-by-night companies.
3. Those who remain clam till the storm passes.
4. Those that take stock immediately and decide to reinvest in a recession proof business.

Identifying

In a 1975 New York Times article, economic statistician Julius Shiskin suggested several rules of thumb to identify a recession; these included the rule of 'two successive quarterly declines in GDP. Over time, the other rules have been largely forgotten, and a recession is now often identified as the reduction of a country's GDP (or negative real economic growth) for at least two quarters. Some economists prefer a more robust definition of a 1.5% rise in unemployment within 12 months.
In the United States the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is generally seen as the authority for dating US recessions. The NBER defines an economic recession as: "a significant decline in [the] economic activity spread across the country, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP growth, real personal income, employment (non-farm payrolls), industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales." Almost universally, academic economists, policy makers, and businesses defer to the determination by the NBER for the precise dating of a recession's onset and end.

Attributes

A recession has many attributes that can occur simultaneously and can include declines in coincident measures of activity such as employment, investment, and corporate profits.
A severe (GDP down by 10%) or prolonged (three or four years) recession is referred to as an economic depression, although some argue that their causes and cures can be different.

Causes of recessions

• Currency crisis • Energy crisis • War • Under consumption • Overproduction • Financial crisis • Price of Fuels

Effects of recessions

• Bankruptcies • Credit crunches • Deflation (or disinflation) • Foreclosures • Unemployment

Stock market and recessions

Some recessions have been anticipated by stock market declines. In Stocks for the Long Run, Siegel mentions that since 1948, ten recessions were preceded by a stock market decline, by a lead time of 0 to 13 months (average 5.7 months), while ten stock market declines of greater than 10% in the DJIA were not followed by a recession.
The real-estate market also usually weakens before a recession. However real-estate declines can last much longer than recessions.
Since the business cycle is very hard to predict, Siegel argues that it is not possible to take advantage of economic cycles for timing investments. Even the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) takes a few months to determine if a peak or trough has occurred in the US.
During an economic decline, high yield stocks such as fast moving consumer goods, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco tend to hold up better. However when the economy starts to recover and the bottom of the market has passed (sometimes identified on charts as a MACD), growth stocks tend to recover faster. There is significant disagreement about how health care and utilities tend to recover. Diversifying one's portfolio into international stocks may provide some safety; however, economies that are closely correlated with that of the U.S. may also be affected by a recession in the U.S.
There is a view termed the halfway rule according to which investors start discounting an economic recovery about halfway through a recession. In the 16 U.S. recessions since 1919, the average length has been 13 months, although the recent recessions have been shorter. Thus if the 2008 recession followed the average, the downturn in the stock market would have bottomed around November 2008.

Recession and politics

Generally an administration gets credit or blame for the state of economy during its time. This has caused disagreements about when a recession actually started. In an economic cycle, a downturn can be considered a consequence of an expansion reaching an unsustainable state, and is corrected by a brief decline. Thus it is not easy to isolate the causes of specific phases of the cycle.
The 1981 recession is thought to have been caused by the tight-money policy adopted by Paul Volcker, chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, before Ronald Reagan took office. Reagan supported that policy. Economist Walter Heller, chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers in the 1960s, said that "I call it a Reagan-Volcker-Carter recession. The resulting taming of inflation did, however, set the stage for a robust growth period during Reagan's administration.
It is generally assumed that government activity has some influence over the presence or degree of a recession. Economists usually teach that to some degree recession is unavoidable, and its causes are not well understood. Consequently, modern government administrations attempt to take steps, also not agreed upon, to soften a recession. They are often unsuccessful, at least at preventing a recession, and it is difficult to establish whether they actually made it less severe or longer lasting.

History of recessions

Global recessions

There is no commonly accepted definition of a global recession, IMF regards periods when global growth is less than 3% to be global recessions. The IMF estimates that global recessions seem to occur over a cycle lasting between 8 and 10 years. During what the IMF terms the past three global recessions of the last three decades, global per capita output growth was zero or negative.
Economists at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) state that a global recession would take a slowdown in global growth to three percent or less. By this measure, three periods since 1985 qualify: 1990-1993, 1998 and 2001-2002.
According to economists, since 1854, the U.S. has encountered 32 cycles of expansions and contractions, with an average of 17 months of contraction and 38 months of expansion. However, since 1980 there have been only eight periods of negative economic growth over one fiscal quarter or more, and four periods considered recessions: • January-July 1980 and July 1981-November 1982: 2 years total • July 1990-March 1991: 8 months • March 2001-November 2001: 8 months • December 2007-current: 15 months as of March 2009
From 1991 to 2000, the U.S. experienced 37 quarters of economic expansion, the longest period of expansion on record.
For the past three recessions, the NBER decision has approximately conformed to the definition involving two consecutive quarters of decline. However the 2001 recession did not involve two consecutive quarters of decline, it was preceded by two quarters of alternating decline and weak growth.

Current recession in some countries

Official economic data shows that a substantial number of nations are in recession as of early 2009. The US entered a recession at the end of 2007, and 2008 saw many other nations follow suit. United States

The United States housing market correction (a consequence of United States housing bubbles) and sub prime mortgage crisis has significantly contributed to a recession.
The 2008/2009 recession is seeing private consumption fall for the first time in nearly 20 years. This indicates the depth and severity of the current recession. With consumer confidence so low, recovery will take a long time. Consumers in the U.S. have been hard hit by the current recession, with the value of their houses dropping and their pension savings decimated on the stock market. Not only have consumers watched their wealth being eroded – they are now fearing for their jobs as unemployment rises.
U.S. employers shed 63,000 jobs in February 2008, the most in five years. Former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan said on April 6, 2008 that "There is more than a 50 percent chance the United States could go into recession.". On October 1, the Bureau of Economic Analysis reported that an additional 156,000 jobs had been lost in September. On April 29, 2008, nine US states were declared by Moody's to be in a recession. In November 2008 Employers eliminated 533,000 jobs, the largest single month loss in 34 years. For 2008, an estimated 2.6 million U.S. jobs were eliminated.
Although the US Economy grew in the first quarter by 1%, by June 2008 some analysts stated that due to a protracted credit crisis and "rampant inflation in commodities such as oil, food and steel", the country was nonetheless in a recession. The third quarter of 2008 brought on a GDP retraction of 0.5% the biggest decline since 2001. The 6.4% decline in spending during Q3 on non-durable goods, like clothing and food, was the largest since 1950. A Nov 17, 2008 report from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia based on the survey of 51 forecasters suggested that the recession started in April 2008 and will last 14 months. They project real GDP declining at an annual rate of 2.9% in the fourth quarter and 1.1% in the first quarter of 2009. These forecasts represent significant downward revisions from the forecasts of three months ago.
A December 1, 2008, report from the National Bureau of Economic Research stated that the U.S. has been in a recession since December 2007 (when economic activity peaked), based on a number of measures including job losses, declines in personal income, and declines in real GDP.

Other countries

A few other countries have seen the rate of growth of GDP decrease, generally attributed to reduced liquidity, sector price inflation in food and energy, and the U.S. slowdown. These include the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Australia, China, India, New Zealand and the Euro zone. In some, the recession has already been confirmed by experts, while others are still waiting for the fourth quarter GDP growth data to show two consecutive quarters of negative growth. India along with China is experiencing an economic slowdown but not a recession.

Current crisis in the US

The defaults on sub-prime mortgages (home loan defaults) have led to a major crisis in the US. Sub-prime is a high risk debt offered to people with poor credit worthiness or unstable incomes. Major Banks have landed in trouble after people could not pay back loans.

The housing market soared on the back of easy availability of loans. The realty sector boomed but could not sustain the momentum for long, and it collapsed under the gargantuan weight of crippling loan defaults. Foreclosures spread like wildfire putting the US economy on shaky ground. This, coupled with rising oil prices at $100 a barrel, slowed down the growth of the economy.

Past recessions in the US

The US economy has suffered 10 recessions since the end of World War II. The Great Depression in the United was an economic slowdown, from 1930 to 1939. It was a decade of high unemployment, low profits, low prices of goods, and high poverty.

The trade market was brought to a standstill, which consequently affected the world markets in the 1930s. Industries that suffered the most included agriculture, mining, and logging.

In 1937, the American economy unexpectedly fell, lasting through most of 1938. Production declined sharply, as did profits and employment. Unemployment jumped from 14.3 per cent in 1937 to 19.0 per cent in 1938.

The US saw a recession during 1982-83 due to a tight monetary policy to control inflation and sharp correction to overproduction of the previous decade. This was followed by Black Monday in October 1987, when a stock market collapse saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunge by 22.6 per cent affecting the lives of millions of Americans.

The early 1990s saw a collapse of junk bonds and a financial crisis.
The US saw one of its biggest recessions in 2001, ending ten years of growth, the longest expansion on record.

From March to November 2001, employment dropped by almost 1.7 million. In the 1990-91 recessions, the GDP fell 1.5 per cent from its peak in the second quarter of 1990. The 2001 recession saw a 0.6 per cent decline from the peak in the fourth quarter of 2000.

The dot-com burst hit the US economy and many developing countries as well. The economy also suffered after the 9/11 attacks. In 2001, investors' wealth dwindled as technology stock prices crashed.

Impact of an American Recession on India

Indian companies have major outsourcing deals from the US. India's exports to the US have also grown substantially over the years. The India economy is likely to lose between 1 to 2 percentage points in GDP growth in the next fiscal year. Indian companies with big tickets deals in the US would see their profit margins shrinking.

The worries for exporters will grow as rupee strengthens further against the dollar. But experts note that the long-term prospects for India are stable. A weak dollar could bring more foreign money to Indian markets. Oil may get cheaper brining down inflation. A recession could bring down oil prices to $70.

The whole of Asia would be hit by a recession as it depends on the US economy. Even though domestic demand and diversification of trade in the Asian region will partly counter any drop in the US demand, one simply can't escape a downturn in the world's largest economy. The US economy accounts for 30 per cent of the world's GDP.

Says Sudip Bandyopadhyay, director and CEO, Reliance Money: "In the globalised world, complete decoupling is impossible. But India may remain relatively less affected by adverse global events." In fact, many small and medium companies have already started developing trade ties with China and European countries to ward off big losses.

Manish Sonthalia, head, equity, Motilal Oswal Securities, says if the US economy contracts much more than anticipated, the whole world's GDP growth-which is estimated at 3.7 per cent by the IMF-will contract, and India would be no exception.
The only silver lining is that the recession will happen slowly, probably in six months or so. As of now, IT and IT-enabled services, textiles, jewellery, handicrafts and leather segments will suffer losses because of their trade link. Certain sections of commodities could face sharp impact due to the volatile nature of these sectors. C.J. George, managing director, Geojit Financial Services, says profits of lots of re-export firms may be affected. Countries like China import commodities from India do some value-addition and then export them to the US.
The IT sector will be the worst hit as 75 per cent of its revenues come from the US. Low demand for services may force most Indian Fortune 500 companies to slash their IT budgets. Zinnov Consulting, a research and offshore advisory, says that besides companies from ITeS and BPO, automotive components will be affected.
During a full recession, US companies in health care, financial services and all consumers demand driven firms are likely to cut down on their spending. Among other sectors, manufacturing and financial institutions are moderately vulnerable. If the service sector takes a serious hit, India may have to revise its GDP to about 8 to 8.5 per cent or even less.
Lokendra Tomar, senior vice-president, Integreon, a BPO firm, says the US recession is likely to have a dual impact on the outsourcing industry. Appreciating rupee along with poor performance of US companies (law firms, investment banks and media houses) will affect the bottom line of the outsourcing industry. Small BPOs, which are operating at a net margin of 7-8 per cent, will find it difficult to survive.
According to Dharmakirti Joshi, director and principal economist of CRISIL, along and severe recession will seriously affect the portfolio and fixed investment flows. Corporates will also suffer from volatility in foreign exchange rates. The export sector will have to devise new strategies to enhance productivity.

Consequences of US recession on India job market

Worst affected because of US recession will be the service industry of India. Under service industries come BPO, KPO, IT, ITeS etc. Service industry contributes about 52% to India's GDP growth. Now if that is going to get hurt then it will also hurt India's overall growth but very slightly. India is not going to face a major impact due to US recession. People may say that there is going to be a huge job loss due to recession. and will cite the example of TCS firing about 500 employees but these were employees who didn’t perform and for cost cutting one have to reduce Non performing asset and that exactly what has been done. There is no threat to the skilled people. According to NASSCOM India will have a shortage of about 5 million skilled people in IT/ITeS. So there are lots of opportunities.
Apart from this India's travel, tourism and power industry is going to grow at a better rate. This is again a good sign. India has a huge population so a huge consumer base so we don’t have to always depend on US for our growth. India's GDP is expected to grow at the rate of 8.5-8.9 % which is again way above the growth rate of US and only second highest in the world after China.

This recession gives us opportunity to be innovative and to think out of box so that the US directly doesn’t affect our robust growth. Due to increasing Rupee exporters are having a hard time but it has been noted that our exporters are not that efficient and in past they got the benefit of depreciating rupee. So now its time to be innovative and more effective and increase the over all efficiency and go for systematic cost cutting to balance the rupee effect. Infact there are lots of scope for improvement. In West Africa goods at departmental stores are sold at the rate 5 times than Indian price and Indian goods are not exported to several countries in West Africa. It’s an excellent opportunity for our exporters.

10 Indian industries to do well during recession

In the current global economic slowdown, every sector of business is being affected and is witnessing a hard time. But IKON Marketing Consultants reports that in India there are few sectors which will grow in this adverse situation.
AS EVERY business sector is affected by present global crisis and everybody is talking of slow down in business, still in India there are few sectors which will grow in this adverse situation. Let’s have a look.

1. Food
No one can survive without basic food material like milk, vegetables and drinking water. Food processing companies will not be affected much and rather will earn profits by increasing the prices. These are the basic needs which we as a common man can not produce by our self.
According to Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MFPI), the food processing industry in India was seeing growth even as the world was facing economic recession. According to the minister, the industry is presently growing at 14 per cent against six to seven per cent growth in 2003–04.The Indian food market is estimated at over US$ 182 billion and accounts for about two thirds of the total Indian retail market. Further, the retail food sector in India is likely to grow from around US$ 70 billion in 2008 to US$ 150 billion by 2025.

2. Railway
As the aviation sector has been affect much badly and resulting in sharp rise in the air ticket rates the frequent travelers’ will prefer railways to cut the cost of traveling and this will result in increased traffic in railways and long queues at railway booking counters. The freight traffic of Indian Railways has continued to grow in the last few months, albeit at slow pace, indicating only marginal impact of the global recession on the Indian economy.
The railways registered 13.87 per cent growth in revenue to Rs 57,863.90 crore in the first nine months ended December 31, 2008. While total earnings from freight increased by 14.53 per cent at Rs 39,085.22 crore during the period, passenger revenue earnings were up 11.81 per cent at Rs 16,242.44 crore. The railways have enhanced freight revenue by increasing its axle loading, improving customer services and adopting an innovative pricing strategy.

3. PSU Banks
As seen in the private sector much of the job cuts due to global slowdown, it’s the public sector undertaking (PSU) banks which gained much confidence due to job safety and security. More and more people are likely to turn towards government institutions, particularly banks in the quest for safety and security.
A report "Opportunities in Indian Banking Sector", by market research company, RNCOS, forecasts that the Indian banking sector will grow at a healthy compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 23.3 per cent till 2011.

4. Education
As education is considered as the basic necessity and in India it is seen as a long term investment by parents and with respect to the demand still there is a huge supply gap. The craze to study in foreign university among the Indian youth still alive which will prompt foreign education institute to target India provided vast young population willing to join. We will see more and more foreign educational institutions coming up in India in recent coming years.
Huge government as well as private investment is likely to flow into the Indian educational system. D E Shaw, a US$ 36 billion, global private equity firm is planning to invest around US$ 200 million in the Indian education sector.

5. Telecom
People will not stop to communicate with each other due to global crises rather it has been seen that it will increase much particularly with mobile communication. With cheap cell phones available in the Indian market and cheaper call rates, the sector has become the necessity and primary need of everyday life.
Telecom sector, according to industry estimates, year 2008 started with a subscriber base of 228 million and will likely to end with a subscriber base of 332 million – a full century. The telecom industry expects to add at least another 90 million subscribers in 2009 despite of recession. The Indian telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growing in the world and India is projected to become the second largest telecom market globally by 2010.

6. IT
Recent news shown that Indian IT sector will grow 30 to 40 per cent next year. And on the other side to survive in current slowdown, industries have to decrease the cost and for that they will resort to customised IT solutions which will further boost up the software solution demand.
India is fast becoming a hot destination for outsourced e-publishing work. As per a Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) report, the industry is growing at an annual rate of 35 per cent and India’s outsourcing opportunities in the value-added and core services such as copy editing, project management, indexing, media services and content deployment will help make the publishing BPO industry worth US$ 1.46 billion by 2010.

7. Health care
India in case of health care facilities still lakes the adequate supply. In health care sector also there is huge gap between demand and supply at all the levels of society. Still there are so many urban areas were you could hardly find any multi specialty hospital. And in case of metros the market sentiments itself created a need of psychological consultation.
Healthcare, which is a US$ 35 billion industry in India, is expected to reach over US$ 75 billion by 2012 and US$ 150 billion by 2017. The healthcare industry is interestingly poised as it strives to emerge as a global hub due to the distinct advantages it enjoys in clinical excellence and low costs.

8. Luxury products
The high and affluent class of society will not be affected much by this global crises even if their worth is reduced significantly. They will not change their lifestyle and will not stop spending on luxurious goods. So luxurious product market will not be affected and in fact to maintain the lifestyle those affluent will spend more for it. Luxury car makers are pouring in to woo the nouveau riche (Audi, BMW are the most recent entrants).

9. M&A & Marketing Consultants
As in the current business slow down survival will be the main focus, the marketing and management consultants will be called for to reduce the costs and to show the ways to survive and stay in market. Others may join hands to fight with this situation together will call for the Marketing & M&A consultants. In a booming market there are growth strategies and M&A opportunities to advise on. When businesses are cutting back, consultancies will be right there to help clients decide where to wield the axe.
According to Ministry of Commerce and Industry’s estimation, the current size of consulting industry in India is about Rs 10000 crores including exports and is expected to grow further at a CAGR of aproximately 25 per cent in next few years.

10. Media and Entertainment
In current bad times, where people are losing jobs and getting enough time to watch TV, they will seek entertainment at home and hence advertising revenues will increase for the commercial channels. Also businesses like production of religious texts and religious materials, religious channels will do well. The TRP of religious channels will increase compare to the other entertaining/commercial channels.

According to a report published by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the Indian M&E industry is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18 per cent to reach US$ 23.81 billion by 2012. According to the PWC report, the television industry was worth US$ 5. 48 billion in 2007, recording a growth of 18 per cent over 2006. It is further likely to grow by 22 per cent over the next five years and be worth US$ 12. 34 billion by 2012.

Conclusion

Over the past couple of months, fears of a slowdown in the United States of America have increased. The impact of the sub prime crisis along with a slowdown in mortgages has led to a significant lowering of growth estimates. Since the United States dominates the global economy, any slowdown there would have an impact on most of the global economic variables.

For India, it could mean a further appreciation in the rupee Vis--Vis the US dollar and a darkening of business outlook for sectors dependent on US companies. The overall impact of a US slowdown on India would, however, be minimal as the factors driving growth here are more local in nature. Unlike the rest of Asia, India is a strong domestic demand story, so any slowing in the US is likely to have a more muted impact on India. Strong growth in domestic consumption and significant spending on infrastructure are the two pillars of India’s growth story. No sector has a dominant influence on earnings growth and risks to our estimate are limited. Corporate India is also learning to master the art of efficient capital management, reduction in costs and delivery of value-added services to sustain profit margins. Further, interest rates are expected to be stable primarily due to control over inflation and proactive measures undertaken by the RBI.

Bibliography

1. www.google.com

2. www.harvard.org

3. Wikipedia…...

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...The Great Recession and the Great Depression John Maynard Keynes wrote in the depths of the Great Depression that, “Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.”1 This acute observation is applicable to our current Great Recession as well. In fact, the newly discredited ideas are not too different from the old, suggesting that Keynes may have overestimated the ability of people to learn from their mistakes. I discuss the parallels between these two watersheds in recent economic history in three steps. The first and most important step is the causes of the crises and their relation to economic theory. The second step is the spread of the crises as they affected the whole world. I close with the final step, recovery—at least as far as we can see it at this point. Marx said famously that history repeats itself, “the first time as tragedy, the second as farce.”2 I argue that this observation also fits our current condition. Both of these dramatic and costly economic crises came from the interaction of economic imbalances in the world economy and the ruling ideology of financial decision makers who confronted these imbalances. The first imbalance came from the First World War. This paroxysm of violence brought the long economic expansion of the nineteenth century to a sudden end. Britain, the workshop of the prewar world, was exhausted by the struggle. America, the......

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The Great Recession

... THE GREAT RECESSION Anthony Pellegrino March, 2014 The Great Recession and Economic Policy Abstract The most recent Great Recession (GR), including the events which led to it, the policies which followed it and the slow recovery after it have been a topic of debate and inquiry since it began in 2008 and ended in 2009. The purpose of this thesis is to portray those events from the perspective of a 21-year-old economics student in 2014. I, that student, will recount the events which are portrayed as the official cause(s) of the GR, accounting for alternative theories. Then I will examine the policy responses by the Federal Reserve (Fed) and the US Federal government and analyze some historical talking points regarding the GR from multiple sources. Following that, I will explain the effects of policy responses, confront the possibility that responses only served to mask the symptoms instead of removing the cause, and try to explain the atypical slow recovery that we’re currently experiencing. I will list the sectors which were affected by the GR chronologically, beginning with the housing market, and include those presently experiencing the effects and those likely to suffer in the future. I will include, where relevant, common misconceptions about the GR. Finally, I will conclude by offering alternative explanations for the GR and alternative potential policy responses. This item will synchronize with my final judgment of whether we’re on the right track or if the worst has......

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Recession

...Bryant and Stratton College ECON220: The History of Recessions in the U.S. Instructor: P, Created by: Brandon April 8, 2014 Throughout history the United States has gone through many economic ups and downs and has tried to create new procedures to ensure that the same problem does not occur again. In this presentation we are going to look at some of the recessions that the country has endured, how these recessions happened, when, and how the government attempted to correct the problem. While there are many different opinions on how to correct and prevent these recessions from happening we are going to look at the facts that lead to these crisis’ in the U.S. economy. The financial press often states the definition of a recession as two consecutive quarters of decline in real GDP. NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) states that a recession is a period between a peak and a trough, which does not necessarily always consist of two consecutive quarters of decline in real GDP but a significant decline in economic activity that spreads across the economy and can last from a few months to more than a year. [1] The first recession we are going to explore is The Great Depression which many say started as a recession. Although the economy began to decline in the middle of 1929 and continued to fall until the first few months of 1933, Black Tuesday, (October 29, 1929) was the day the stock market crashed and what many people affiliate to the beginning......

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Free Essay

Recession

...Recession In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction. It is a general slowdown in economic activity.[1][2] Macroeconomic indicators such as GDP (gross domestic product), investment spending, capacity utilization, household income, business profits, and inflation fall, while bankruptcies and the unemployment rate rise. Recessions generally occur when there is a widespread drop in spending (an adverse demand shock). This may be triggered by various events, such as a financial crisis, an external trade shock, an adverse supply shock or the bursting of an economic bubble. Governments usually respond to recessions by adopting expansionary macroeconomic policies, such as increasing money supply, increasing government spending and decreasing taxation. Definition In a 1975 New York Times article, economic statistician Julius Shiskin suggested several rules of thumb for defining a recession, one of which was two down consecutive quarters of GDP.[3] In time, the other rules of thumb were forgotten. Some economists prefer a definition of a 1.5% rise in unemployment within 12 months.[4] In the United States, the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is generally seen as the authority for dating US recessions. The NBER defines an economic recession as: "a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income,......

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Global Recession

...By Prof. Dipika Lecturer in P.G. Dept. of Commerce K.L.S.D. College Ludhiana Global Recession and Impact on Various Sectors of Indian Economy ABSTRACT The word 'Recession' denotes a temporary period of economic decline during which trade and Individual activities are reduced. Till date, the world has witnessed a number of economic recessions that brought the trade market to a standstill and left the economists and analysts with valuable lessons to be learnt for future. Globalization and liberalization have contributed a lot in making the entire world a close knit economic unit. In an interconnected global economy recession and economic turbulence in one part of the world has the potential to disrupt the economies of other countries in a major way. The economic slowdown in US economy in 2008 caused by the burst of housing bubble engulfed the entire world in its grip. This research paper aims to give a detailed account of US Recession-2008 and its impact on Indian Economy. The financial crisis has not only affected United States of America, but also European Union, U.K and Asia. The Indian Economy too has felt the impact of the crisis to some extent. Though it is difficult to quantify the impact of the crisis on India, it is felt that certain sectors of the economy would be affected by the spill over effects of the financial crisis. INTRODUCTION The current global financial crisis is rooted in the subprime crisis which surfaced over a year ago in the......

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The Great Recession

...Introduction The U.S. economy is currently experiencing its worst crisis since the Great Depression. The crisis started in the home mortgage market, especially the market for so-called “subprime” mortgages, and is now spreading beyond subprime to prime mortgages, commercial real estate, corporate junk bonds, and other forms of debt. Total losses of U.S. banks could reach as high as one-third of the total bank capital. The crisis has led to a sharp reduction in bank lending, which in turn is causing a severe recession in the U.S. economy. This article analyzes the underlying causes of the current crisis, estimates how bad the crisis is likely to be, and discusses the government economic policies pursued so far (by both the Fed and Congress) to deal with the crisis. Housing Bubble Homeownership, (realtors) argue, is a way to achieve the American dream, save on taxes, and earn a solid investment return all at the same time. It's now clear that people who chose renting over buying in the last two years made the right move. In much of the country, recent homebuyers have faced higher monthly costs than renters, and have lost money on their investment in the meantime. Today, many homeowners are in up side down mortgages, meaning the purchasers owe more on their homes than what it is actually worth. In countless cases, it can be said that money has been thrown away, an insult once reserved for renters. Throughout the bubble period there was little if any......

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Great Recession

...This assignment´s main objective is to clarify the Great Recession, it´s causes and consequences. Then, it will be highlighted the possible relation between the actual crisis and one(s) of the “killer apps” listed by Neil Fergunson, a British Historian known by his provocative and controversial views. Many economics acknowledge the Great Recession to be the most devastating global economic crisis since the Great Depression in the 30´s. This crisis is based on some factors, worth to be emphasized, such as easy credit conditions that encouraged high risk lending and borrowing practices; international trade imbalances; the housing bubbles; the fiscal policy choices by the governments, related to their revenues and expenses or the position taken by some federal reserve banks, especially on the bailing out process of financial institutions. The first cause we can appoint it’s related to the risk or actual bankruptcy of the major financial institutions globally, starting with the collapse of the “Lehman Brothers” (September 2008), a global financial services firm. Some of these kinds of institutions highly invested in risky securities, which depreciate almost their entire value, when United States and European housing bubbles began to deflate during the 2007-2009 period. Consequently, as share and housing prices decreased, a major panic was installed on the inter-bank loan market, resulting on the failure of many others large and well established investment and......

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Communication and Recession

...Communication and Recession Air Guangzhou is a nationwide well-known airline in China. A multi-level management structure is being implemented within the large-scale business organization. The board of directors is the top management, under which are the middle-level and front-line managerial teams. Its middle management is departmentalized, which consists of marketing, accounting, human resource departments and so on. Formal and informal communications are both used depending on the actual situation. The business’ current profit is much lower than before, even made an economic loss several months ago. In today’s globally economic recession, many fresh graduates have not undertaken an employment for a long time since they leave school, and some persons who used to have a job are also suffering from unemployment at the moment. There is a largest population in China, besides. Due to the extremely competitive employment circumstance existing in the country, the staffs at AG (Air Guangzhou) cannot but be aware of the possible recession, they often talk about it in the spare time. It is easy to find out the reduced purchasing power according to the fallen sales reported monthly by the marketing department. As a respond to the customers’ smaller buying power, the board of directors of AG holds a formal meeting to develop SMART goals to attract more travelers, and then action plans like promotions will be created. However, accounting department’s reports predict that it is......

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Uk Recession

...UK ECONOMY GROWTH FROM DEEP RECESSION: In UK, while considering the level of the decline is found by 2 factors, * After the big fall of international banking system there is more weakness in credit zone. * Failure in spending and producing the products by lack of confidence Recuperating the Economic level is not possible in short period. In 2009, UK GDP falls to 6%. It initially shows the negative GDP in 3rd and 4th quarters in 2008 and the government project there is no growth in country’s GDP till 2010. The analysis reported that the decline will be smaller in continental Europe. The organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) analysed and reported that retardation has been more “distinct than projected”. As a result, in 2010 the growth forecast for the leading economies reduces to 1.5% from 1.75%. Due to recession the consumer is less in purchasing of apparels. The retailer already imported huge amount of apparel goods. The inventory level is increased with most of the retailers in UK. As the supplies of apparel is more and demand in the market is less because of recession. The price of apparel is reduced. The less demand in market made the retailers to reduce the garment sales price by giving more discounts is directly reducing their profit margins. IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL PRICE INCREASE: considering the crude oil production down in 2008 which increases the price of the crude oil from $40 barrel to $92 per barrel. The increase in crude......

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Free Essay

Recession and Perception

...“It’s a recession when your neighbour loses his job; it's a depression when you lose yours.” These wise words from a former U.S. president made me question how true this really is in reality. It is obvious that our minds and what we think play an enormous role in what goes on around us. Our thoughts seem to take over, causing us to act or react in a certain way. These reactions in reality are caused by our immediate perceptions of the given subject, issue or concern. What if recessions are caused by our reactions to things around us such as the media and so called “experts”? The recession had to start somewhere. How many times have you turned on the news hearing “we are in a recession, we have to save our money and stop spending”? The majority of people will hear this and follow along because of the constant charts and graphs supposed experts bombard the public with. Contrary to popular belief, people’s perspective of a recession, can in actuality, cause and fuel it even further. The famous Greek philosopher Plato, in his work Allegory of the Cave provides insight into how a recession can be perpetuated due to the public’s perspective. In his allegory, humans are depicted as prisoners chained in a cave only seeing shadows from the light and creatures that walk behind them. One of the prisoners was released and was exposed to the reality outside the cave. Allegory of the Cave can be interpreted in many ways. The way I see it, people accept reality from the......

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Recession 2016

...A recap of the events building up to The Real Estate Bubble, the causing factors of The Financial Crisis of 2008 and the likelihood and implications of an Economic Recession in 2016 Karan Sharat Nath Pace University, Lubin School of Business Kn31474n@pace.edu ------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. The Real Estate Bubble and Great Recession 4. Signs that point towards a Global Economic Downturn 5. Conclusion: Consequences of a recession in 2016 6. Work Citied ------------------------------------------------- Abstract This research paper aims to briefly recap the events that led to the real estate bubble and global financial crisis of 2008, collect data that could indicate a financial downturn that could lead to a recession that is sparked in 2016 and understand the implications that a recession in 2016 would have upon the Global Financial System. The recession that ensued in 2008/2009 was the worst widespread downturn witnessed since the Great Depression of the 1920’s and 1930’s. Since the peak of the downturn the S&P has almost doubled and unemployment has dropped by nearly half. But at present many vital indicators that monitor US growth and economic activity are displaying so very troubling signs. With the majority of this growth over the last decade being enabled by central bank support and cheap money, expansion is not sustainable. Eventually......

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Greece Recession

...A Time Bomb-Greece recession In ancient Greece mythology, bringing in a normal trophy leads Tory fall to enemy’s occupation. Now, similarly, the European countries that had promoted Greece to enter the Euro area, is swallow heavily their bad decision. Who had expect, a country accounted for only 2.5% of the overall southern European countries of the Eurozone would drag others into mud. Greece debt crisis began in December 2009. Three major international rating agencies continuously lowered Greece's credit rating, caused Greece stock market crash and the sharp rise in risk aversion in the international market. Under the pressure of insolvency, Greece government asked for assistance from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in April 2010. A year ago, relying on the European Union and 110 billion euros of aid pledged at the International Monetary Fund, Greece barely survived the bankruptcy crisis. However, the first bill out did not solve the Greece’s finance tsunami because taking new debt based one older one could only accelerate debt level. It is estimated that if Greece can’t borrow at least 30 billion euros this year, the national bankruptcy will not be able to avoid. Therefore, in order to push the second round billing, the Greece Government intends to tighten its belt and launched austerity program. But in front of the selection of survival or dignity, Greece better to die with honor than to survive in disgrace. Then it is hardly surprising that the...

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