Resource Use Efficiency

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sexysonu
Words 376
Pages 2
In agriculture, the term ‘resource use efficiency’ may be broadly defined to include three allied concepts viz. technical efficiency, allocative efficiency and environmental efficiency (Haque, 2006: 64). Analytically, technical efficiency means maximising output for given input (at the level of production possibility frontier). Allocative efficiency implies that the usage of input is minimised. Environmental efficiency, which has nowadays acquired critical relevance, implies that the production process should be sustainable. It is possible that a production process is not sustainable over time. For instance, using more water than that is replenished can reduce the ground water level which can have an adverse impact on the cultivation of crops in the subsequent years. Or, inappropriate use of fertilisers can lead to salinity affecting the soil quality. With climate change, adverse implication could also be because of activities outside the production process.

At any given time, for given prices, the allocative efficiency (AE) is the ratio of ‘marginal value of product per unit input’ to ‘marginal cost per unit input’ (i.e. AE = MVP/MC). AE is optimal at unity. The overall economic efficiency (EE) is a product of technical efficiency and allocative efficiency (EE = TE*AE). If the latter (i.e. AE) is unity, then economic efficiency is the same as technical efficiency, that is, one ensures maximum income at least cost (Fan,1999, Jha et al, 2000).
Factor Combination and Resource Substitution
It is possible for a farmer to produce Y quantity of paddy using X11 units of land and units of labour. Suppose, other things remaining same, it is also possible for the X21 Suppose, other things remaining same, it is also possible for the farmer to produce the same quantity of paddy using a different combination of land, X12, and labour, X22. Assuming that the farmer rents in…...

Similar Documents

Efficiency

...Efficiency: 1. More flexible compensation tools to simplify administration and less effort to adapt to the current rigid system. 2. Clarifying how employees are compensated and linking compensation to job performance should improve organizational performance and efficiency. 3. Formal compensation analyst infrastructure will provide more efficient determination of market-based compensation Flexibility and Responsiveness: 4. Linking employee pay to the marketplace will make the system more responsive to business need. 5. Flexible compensation tools will allow us to more accurately meet the business need. 6. A new system should be flexible enough to adjust as business needs change. Alignment: 7. Flexible compensation tools to support recruitment of needed staff. 8. Compensation linked to employee performance to encourage employee participation and employee development over the employee lifecycle. 9. Compensation that recognizes employees based upon the marketplace for their current competence which should also encourage staff to develop skills to advance their compensation and at the same time benefit the organization. 10. Compensation analyst infrastructure will assist in aligning compensation structure with other universities and/or private sector as applicable for the university to remain competitive for talent. Consistency: 11. The compensation system tools should be available across employee categories. The particular compensation system......

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

‘’a Flexible Firm Model Optimizes the Use of Human Resources’’

...‘’A flexible firm model optimizes the use of human resources’’ Kalleberg, 2001 * Social and economic changes in the past century have underscored the need for organizations to have greater employment flexibility. * Industrial countries and manufacturing sectors emphasize in human resource management that organizations can adapt any changes in technology, in labour markets, price competition, in capital markets internationally and nationally. * A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years to human resources management practices that are designed to provide employees with skills, information, decision-making responsibility and incentives to improve business performance. These new practises are replacing unions and collective groups of people. * Flexibility adapts the size, composition, responsiveness, and the cost of labour in order to achieve organization’s goals. * Explanation of this: 1) Organizations often hire people for shorter period with specific assignments and this is cheaper than employing permanent staff that maybe sometimes are not fully utilised 2)The size of organization and that of labour force varies from organization to organization 3)High supply of workers willing to work casually- High unemployment and more and more people are educated and the working system cannot absorb them into jobs (Bennett, 1994) * David Guest (1987) in advocating de-centralisation emphasised the role it plays in increasing flexibility......

Words: 838 - Pages: 4

Pareto Efficiency

...Markets, Organizations and the Role of Knowledge What is Pareto efficiency? Why do economists use this criterion for comparing alternative economic systems? An allocation of resources is Pareto efficient when there is no alternative that keeps all individuals at least as well off, but makes at least one person better off. One reason that economists use this criterion for comparing economic systems is that it is relatively uncontroverisial. Stronger criteria are likely to be met with more disagreement. What is a property right? What role do property rights play in a market economy? A property right is a socially-enforced right to select the uses of an economic good. A property right is private when it is assigned to a specific person. Property rights are alienable when they can be transferred (sold or given) to other individuals. Since owners bear the wealth effects of their actions, there are strong incentives to rearrange property rights in market transactions to increase efficiency and value. Many economists favor free trade between nations. They argue that free trade will increase total world output and make people of trading nations better off. Discuss how this argument relates to concepts presented in this chapter. Free trade allows countries to concentrate on producing goods and services for which they have a comparative advantage. This specialization increases the total production of goods in the global economy. Thus, each nation can be better off......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Human Resource Practise Efficiency Impact of Implementation Hrms in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Tnb)

...HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTISE EFFICIENCY IMPACT OF IMPLEMENTATION HRMS IN TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD (TNB) -THE CASE STUDY- Abstract Although there is no official link connecting organizational performance and HR practices, there is still that link. It does not matter the lack of a physical connection, so as long as the connection does exist. Firstly, managing people the right way helps any organization achieve improved performance over time. When organizations manage their people well, the organization's performance itself will also improve over time. But if organization wants a more tangible basis for measuring HR performance and efficiency, then here are some commonly used metrics for that purpose. HR management starts with selection and recruitment. When a company has vacant positions, it will look for applicants for that position, in the hopes of finding the best one to suit the job. The measurement dimension to look out for here then is the level of sophistication that the processes of recruitment are at. Are the selection and application processes up to par? Do they come with appropriate psychometric tests? Does the department make use of clear criteria when it comes to selecting qualified people from its pool of applicants? Are the interviews as structured as they should be? The next process to look into is induction and training. Induction is the process of officially introducing newly hired employees into the company or the organization. Metrics here would still......

Words: 7392 - Pages: 30

Personal Use of Company Resources

...Personal Use of Company Resources Karen M. Boozer Baker College Center for Graduate Studies July 12, 2011 Abstract Everyone, at one time or another, has used company resources for personal usage. Considering all the time that people spend at a desk it is almost inevitable that this will happen. The important thing is to make sure that the usage is not abusive nor against company policy. Research suggests that people either very diligent about excessive usage or very abusive of company policies. The line between the two can be a very fine one but determining what constitutes excessive will always seem to be controversial. Personal Use of Company Resources Everyone at some point has used company resources for personal use whether it is office supplies, copiers/printers or computers. In today’s society people spend more time at work then they do at home with their families. There just does not seem to be enough time at home to handle all the things that need to be done at home and that is why employees use company resources for their personal business. How does an employer determine what is excessive and is considered abuse? There are some organizations out there that allow their employees limited use of company resources as long as it does not impact their jobs or the actual network resources. There are other companies out there that have very strict policies to prevent certain types of personal usage to the point that they do not allow any......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5

Eco Efficiency

...Frito Lay’s Company As We know eco efficiency is based on creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste. At Frito Lay’s factory in Casa Grande , more than 400,000 pounds of potatoes arrive every day to be washed, sliced, fried, seasoned and packing them into bags. The process takes enormous amounts of energy, and creates amounts of wastewater and potato wastes. with the creation of Frito-Lay’s new facility in Arizona, the company just took a big step towards being green. The Casa Grande plant was built in 1984 ,considering the plentiful sun light and the availability of having water in Arizona . The company decide to install a water recovery system that recycles almost the 75 percent of all the water used in the plant. Five solar photovoltaic solar systems were also installed on plant, enabling two thirds of its power from renewable energy. The Casa Grande plant is ‘near net zero,’ meaning that it is mostly run on renewable energy sources. The team of Frito lay also focused on waste reduction .less than one percent of the plant’s waste currently ends up in the landfill. Frito brought in a biomass boiler that turns agricultural products to provide mechanical power . They use the wastes of the potatoes and the water that is used to wash the potatoes to create mechanical power and heat . There are benefits besides the potential energy savings. Like many other large corporations, Frito lay is trying to establish......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

The Human Resource Department Use of Social Media

...The Human Resources Department Usage of Social Media Sites as a Recruitment/Selection Tool. In 1997 only about 11 percent of U.S employers were using the web for outside recruiting, figure that has reach 80 percent today and is expected to reach 100 percent in the next few years. Social media, sometimes called social networking, is nothing more than a technology that facilitates human interaction. Different than a website or a resume, which are strictly one-way forms of communication, social media sites allow users to comment, share, or chat with each other, often in real time. Social media has also become an important tool for job seekers due in part to the new ways people are finding out about and getting fired from jobs. As you may already know, most jobs come about through networking, not applying on job boards or aimlessly sending out resumes. Social media tools make networking much easier and much more powerful due to their interactive nature. Thus when a job seeker really learns to use social networking well, his chances for finding opportunities multiply exponentially. Nowadays, social media also plays a part in how hiring managers are conducting their research on candidates. More than 80 percent of recruiters use LinkedIn. Additionally, 50 percent of hiring managers can determine whether a particular candidate’s personality is a good fit for their company just by seeing that person’s social media presence. Recruiters can and will Google you... Regardless of......

Words: 1754 - Pages: 8

Operations Efficiency

...Operational efficiency is performing operations tasks well, even better than competitors. Strategy, on the other hand, is a plan for competing in the marketplace. Operational efficiency and strategy must be aligned; otherwise, you may be very efficiently performing the wrong task. The role of operations strategy is to make sure that all the tasks performed by the operations function are the right tasks. These include developing an understanding of what business the company is in (the company’s mission), analyzing and developing an understanding of the market (environmental scanning), and identifying the company’s strengths (core competencies). _Mission A statement defining what business an organization is in, who its customers are, and how its core beliefs shape its business. Environmental scanning Monitoring the external environment for changes and trends to determine business opportunities and threats. What Does Environmental Scanning Tell Us? Environmental scanning allows a company to identify opportunities and threats. For example, through environmental scanning we could see gaps in what customers need and what competitors are doing to meet those needs. forming partnerships with international firms, called strategic alliances _Core competencies The unique strengths of a business. Core Competencies The third factor that helps define a business strategy is an understanding of the company’s strengths. These are called core......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Evaluate Library Databases and Resources for Use in Research

...section and spotted an interesting journal of Asian and American leadership styles (Mills, 2005). I used these keywords to search in the library databases. Surprisingly, it returned over 46,800 entries, and there were a few topics about South-East Asia. I changed the search keywords to South-East Asia Leadership Styles and "AND" Management. Then, I set other the limiters to Scholarly/Peer Reviewed Journals, Academic Journals, and 2005-to-2015. This time, the databases returned only 2,316 entries. Out of these articles, I found three academic journals relevant to my search criteria. Other topics such as Academic Transformational Leadership also appeared in the search results. I feel confident that that the library databases are an excellent resource for searching information for my research although I still need to learn more skills in using them. The one drawback that I experienced was the search for a book. The databases did not return many books relevant to my topic of interest. Even though websites are non-reviewed source, I found them to be quicker and easier ways to search for keywords and phrases in a subject area of interest which can be used as a guide to search in library databases. Also, some of the academic journals can be accessed directly from the websites. Reference Mills, D. Q. (2005). Asian and American Leadership Styles: How Are They Unique? Research & Ideas. Retrieve from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4869.html...

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

With Reference to a Conflict over the Use of a Local Resource That You Have Studied

...Compare and contrast the reactions to death in Thomas Hardy’s poem ‘The Voice’ and an extract from Emily Bronte’s novel ‘Wuthering Heights’ Both Hardy and Bronte portray the different aspects to death through the use of their male protagonist and speaker. The first way the poet and writer does this is through their male protagonist’s reaction to the death of their loved one. In Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Voice’ the speaker feels a sense of loss and longing for his dead lover demanding a response “how you call to me, call to me” suggesting that the death of his lover has somewhat changed him, in the sense that he no longer interacts with the physical world he is within, but instead wishes to be re-joined with her beyond the point of reality. Furthermore, the speaker begins to doubt himself comparing the wind with the voice of his lover. “Wind oozing thin” when “the women calling” infers that this doubt has turned into madness by the forth stanza. The wind can further be compared to a raw, harshness that penetrates right to the core of someone, which can be seen as what his lover did to him when they broke and when she died. The structure of this poem possibly reflects the way in which over time, the loss of the speaker’s lover is slowly driving him insane, and although he was almost speaking about her in admiration at the start of the poem with “Women much missed” but now he is faltered, and changed due to her death. Opposing Hardy’s speaker as a crazed man by the end of his poem,......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Evolution of a Training Program in Use of Electronic Medical Records: Towards Efficiency and Quality Scale-Up “Doing More with Less”

... Evolution of a Training Program in Use of Electronic Medical Records: Towards Efficiency and Quality Scale-Up “Doing more with less” Introduction International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) is a global network that supports the development of a skilled health work force to provide effective prevention, care, and treatment of infectious disease in the developing world I-TECH provides technical assistance to the Kenyan Ministry of Health for implementation of an open-source electronic medical record (EMR) system, called KenyaEMR (hosted on Open MRS platform) within 315 public health facilities in four regions of Kenya. Before implementation, I-TECH carried out a training needs assessment among personnel in 23 facilities. Distinct training needs for health managers and front-line health care workers identified Method I-TECH implemented three different strategies in delivering KenyaEMR trainings to users Trainings were delivered by three different groups (training institutions, centrally located facilitators, county facilitators) Training locations transitioned from off-site (hotel-based) trainings to on-site (facility-based) trainings in a bid to train more health care workers (HCW) Length and content of trainings was adjusted in response to curriculum evaluation and strategy changes to incorporate mentorship sessions Strategy #1 • Five-day off site user training • Delivered by facilitators from training institutions Strategy #2 • Three-day...

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Use of Renewable Resources by Industries Can Help Solve the Problem of Global Warming

...USE OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES BY INDUSTRIES CAN HELP SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF GLOBAL WARMING       FOUN 1008­ RHETORIC II  WRITING FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES              How Renewable Resources Can Solve The Problem Of......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources and Their Use

...and Nonrenewable Resources and Their Use The US is one of the most wasteful countries in the world. We use more resources per person than many other countries do for double or even triple the number of people. Developing countries following in our footsteps implies a rapid disappearance of our non-renewable resources and overall implies the gradual destruction of our planet’s ecosystem, thus we need alternatives to create a sustainable use of the Earth’s resources such as: solar energy, wind energy, and hydro-electric energy. To start, the way we currently use energy is inefficient to be sustained over a long period of time. We have been aware of this for a while now, but continue to use fossil fuels as our main source of energy. We use coal and oil and combust them releasing carbon-dioxide into the air and destroying the ozone. However, this is method of energy cannot efficiently continue. Not only does the United States consistently need more than it needs but if developing countries follow suit then even more people will be using far more than the Earth can sustain. In response we will see projected numbers of how soon we will be out of the fossil fuels raise exponentially. The destruction of our current form of fuel will become imminent and our planet uninhabitable. In responsive measures, we have a few options. We can greatly reduce our current use, which only delays the problem and does not fix it, or we can completely change what resources we are consuming...

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

What Mechanisms Do You Use to Protect Your Limited Attention Resources?

...What mechanisms do you use to protect your limited attention resources? Our mechanisms that we use to control attention are unconscious processes. An example would be a person can ignore many aspects of stimuli that aren’t important (this is selective attention). People also learn to divide (this is divided attention) between tasks that are being done at the same time such as listening to music and talking on the phone. How do you solve problems with limited attention? When a person is trying to solve a problem his or her attention will be given to reaching a solution or a goal. During problem solving a person’s attention will be focused on the representation of the problem at hand (Sternberg, 2003). According to Sternberg, problems are represented in a number of ways that include spatial, mathematical, as well as verbal. If the problem is mathematical, it might me in the form of flowcharts, facts, equations, graphs, number and so on. People will solve problems by selective heuristics (this is mental shortcut) by basing the likelihood of the event being similar to another event. What role do schemas play in attention? A schema is a cognitive framework that helps a person to organize and interpret information (Sternberg, 2003). When there is a mental activity, schema relates to attention that is associated to the way a person perceives, thinks, interprets, and focuses on information. An example of this would be Brown & Dittmar (2005) studied the results of varied...

Words: 370 - Pages: 2

Human Resource Management and Safety: Technical Efficiency and Economic Incentives

...Upjohn Institute Press Book Chapters Upjohn Research home page 2005 Human Resource Management and Safety: Technical Efficiency and Economic Incentives Richard J. Butler Brigham Young University Yong-Seung Park Kyung Hee University Citation Butler, Richard J., and Yong-Seung Park. 2005. "Human Resource Management and Safety: Technical Efficiency and Economic Incentives." In Safety Practices, Firm Culture, and Workplace Injuries. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, pp. 1-12. http://research.upjohn.org/up_bookchapters/33 This title is brought to you by the Upjohn Institute. For more information, please contact ir@upjohn.org. 1 Human Resource Management and Safety Technical Efficiency and Economic Incentives More U.S. workers die each year on the job than were killed in the U.S. military cumulatively from 1998 through November 2004, even after including self-inflicted and accidental military deaths (DIOR 2005). In 2001, there were 8,786 job-related fatal injuries (5,900 not counting the fatalities caused by the terrorist attacks of September 11), or about 3.7 fatal injuries per 100,000 workers. Workers made 2.1 million trips to the emergency room for injuries sustained from accidents at work (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2004). Workers’ compensation insurance, which covers all medical expenses and part of lost wages associated with injuries, cost employers $63.9 billion in 2001 (Williams, Reno, and Burton 2003).......

Words: 4381 - Pages: 18