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asdfkjnsdf;jansfjkanwepjfnwejfnsajkdfnsadfnsamdnfjwaenfjsandfkanwejfnwkjefnakejfnkjnkjnjnjnkjnjknjknkjnThe NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.The NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.The NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.The NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.The NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.The NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.The NFL is commonly regarded as America’s favorite sports league, watched by millions around the country. The Superbowl is typically the most watched event on American television every year. However, the NFL has recently come across increased intense scrutiny by former players and the media for their lack of action towards preventing concussions.

The NFL is often compared to a gladiator arena, where players push through serious injuries and perform spectacular feats in front of a roaring and bloodthirsty crowd. Many people look at professional football players and forget that they are still human. They are not invulnerable to pain, and they are not immune to the side effects that come with playing such a violent game. Former players who played in the 1980’s and 1990’s played with rules that allowed dangerous helmet-to-helmet hits, and in a society that expected them to play through injuries, such as concussions. Players at particular positions are at an additional risk for concussions, with 18.2% of defensive backs suffering concussions sometime in their career (Pellman, Viano). Players that suffered repeat concussions were found to have a much greater risk of “increased neuronal vulnerability”, and that there is an increase in the likelihood of “recurrent concussions with each successive previous injury.” (Guskiewicz). Former players are experiencing increased rates of brain injuries such as depression, dementia, early-onset Alzheimer’s, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (Pellman, Viano). Over 2,000 former professional football players are now suing the NFL over allegedly hiding the fact that concussions can cause these effects later in life, and argue that the NFL should be responsible for their health. If they are found guilty in court of hiding this data, the NFL could be liable for huge sums of money. Perhaps as a direct result of this possibility, the NFL has taken drastic steps to show its willingness towards preventing concussions.

Steps taken to reduce concussions

The NFL has taken several unprecedented steps to reduce the amount of concussions suffered by players. First, the NFL is increasing awareness among players of the dangers of concussions. Since 2010, the NFL began distributing a pamphlet warning players, “concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever." However, the NFL didn’t stop at promoting awareness. In addition, the NFL tightened rules regarding helmet-to-helmet hits on defenseless players. A defenseless player is a receiver who is in the act of trying to catch the ball, but has not had time to set his feet or defend himself against an oncoming collision. The quarterback is also considered a defenseless player when he is standing in the pocket. If a defender, leading with his helmet, hits a defenseless player in the helmet, the defender’s team is subject to a 15-yard penalty. Additionally, the NFL will fine the defender for amounts up to $50,000 for his illegal hit. Another change the NFL made was moving the kickoff line from the 30-yard line up to the 35-yard line in 2011. Although these changes may seem modest and insignificant, they have many implications on the game of football.

Impact on Football

These rule changes have had major impacts on the game and the way it’s played. Fining and penalizing players for big hits have caused defenses to be less aggressive in tackling and in coverage, and have lead to offenses being more dominant than ever before. Up until last year, only two quarterbacks had thrown for more than 5,000 yards: Dan Marino in 1984, and Drew Brees in 2008. Last year, three quarterbacks threw for over 5,000 yards: Drew Brees again, Tom Brady, and Matthew Stafford. In addition, Drew Brees shattered Marino’s passing record by nearly 400 yards. In addition, an NFL record 11,356 points were scored last year, and games averaged a record 693.7 total yards per game (Ross). The new rules have helped to usher in an unprecedented age of offensive prowess. Moving the kickoff yard line up has increased the amount of touchbacks, and thus has reduced the amount of kickoff returns. This is great for reducing concussions; as the kickoff return is the play in which concussions occur with the highest frequency. After all, when 22 230-pound men are running full speed at each other from 40 yards away, it’s a disaster waiting to happen. However, this has largely taken away kickoffs returned for touchdowns, what many consider to be the most exciting play in football. After the kickoff line was moved up in 2011, the amount of kickoff returns dropped 32%, and the amount of kickoffs returned for touchdowns dropped from 23 to 9 (Mihoces). With the increased number of touchbacks, this has also reduced the importance of a good special teams unit to tackle kickoff returners. Fringe players who make their living on special teams play are now finding it harder to land a job, as coaches now don’t value special-teamers as highly. These rule changes have made the game safer, but they have changed the game irreversibly.

The NFL’s motive

The NFL has instituted these rule changes based on the premise of increased player safety. But does the NFL really care about the safety of its players, or are they simply trying to avoid getting hit hard in court? Currently, the NFL has teams play on Thursday night, Saturday night, Sunday, and Monday night. This means some teams have to play on Sunday, make a cross-country trip, and play again on Thursday, only four days later. This is simply not enough time for a football player’s body to recover from a previous game, let alone play another one. Up until last year, the NFL was also pushing for an increase from a 16 game season to an 18 game season. This means that players on teams that make the playoffs could play up to 22 games in one season. How can the NFL be pushing for player safety when they want these players to tack on an extra two games every season? Although the trend towards increased concussion awareness is a positive byproduct, the NFL’s main incentive towards finally increasing player safety is to have a defense to lean back on in court.

Resistance to the changes

Many players and fans have reacted negatively towards the new rules instituted by the NFL. Defensive players feel like they are being told to play differently than they have their whole lives. Their performance often suffers, as they have to think about tackling instead of playing instinctually. An even larger outcry has been heard from the fans. Although many fans like to see high scoring games, there are traditionalist football fans that love to see big hits and smash-mouth defense, and they rightly feel that it’s being taken away from them. However, the safety of the players is more important than a fan’s entertainment, no matter how much revenue they bring in for the NFL. The NFL rule changes have been effective, reducing concussions by 12.5% from 2010 to 2011 (Mihoces). The changes in the game have been unfortunate but necessary in preserving the lives of these great athletes.

Looking ahead

Although safety is necessary, there comes a point where rule changes can change the game to where it no longer becomes football. A comment by Robert Kraft, the owner of the New England Patriots, suggests that this could become a reality in the future. Kraft speculated that eliminating the kickoff completely could be a possible rule change in the future. This would completely eliminate kickoffs, and as a result, would completely eliminate all concussions suffered during kickoff returns. But this move would have other consequences as well. Eliminating the kickoff completely would also eliminate the surprise onside-kick, which is a critical strategy in every coach’s handbook. If the kickoff was eliminated, then plays like the surprise onside kick by the Saints to start the second half in Superbowl XLIV would no longer enthrall half the country in surprise, disbelief, anger, and joy. Plays like these are what make football what football is. Eliminating the kickoff completely would be a step too far for the vast majority of fans. Even after experiencing a nearly five month lockout of the players last year, a several month lockout of the referees this year, and the biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression, the NFL has maintained and increased its dominance in American homes. More people than ever are addicted to the drama that comes with NFL Football. Even as fans complain about the rule changes, they continue to watch the game with as much passion as ever. These rule changes have affected the way the NFL has been played for many years, but have successfully increased player safety. Increased concussion awareness is a vital trend that will likely save many players from experiencing brain trauma like so many of their predecessors did.…...

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...SOLUTIONS MANUAL Chapter One Answers to Chapter 1 Questions: 1. a. primary b. primary c. secondary d. secondary e. secondary 2. a. money market b. money market c. capital market d. capital market e. capital market f. money market g. money market h. money market i. capital market j. money market 3. The capital markets are more likely to be characterized by actual physical locations such as the New York Stock Exchange or the American Stock Exchange. Money market transactions are more likely to occur via telephone, wire transfers, and computer trading. 4. According to Figure 1-3, the money market instrument that has had the largest growth is the Federal funds and repurchase agreements which grew from 18.1% of the total value of money market securities outstanding in 1990 to 25.6% in 2010. 5. The major instruments traded in capital markets are corporate stocks, securitized mortgages, corporate bonds, Treasury notes and bonds, state and local government bonds, U.S. government owned and sponsored agencies, and bank and consumer loans. 6. According to Figure 1-4, the capital market instrument that has had the largest growth is the corporate stocks which grew from 23.6% of the total value of money market securities outstanding in 1990 to 43.4% in 2000 and was still at 31/3% in 2010. One reason for the sharp increase in the amount of equities outstanding is the bull......

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...Leslie Road, Royal Docks, E16 2 bedroom flat - £315,000 L/hld Canary Wharf Sales Leslie Road, Royal Docks, E16 £315,000 L/hld 2 bedroom flat Foxtons.co.uk/1367284 Enjoying a pleasant location within easy reach of the stunning Royal Docks, this spacious two bedroom flat, comes with garden and off-street parking. KEY FEATURES • Generous two bedroom flat with private entrance • Set down a quiet residential street • Large reception room and separate kitchen • Two well proportioned bedrooms • White suite bathroom • Lawned front garden and off-street parking • Close to shops and DLR LOCAL AREA Leslie Road is within easy reach of the stunning Royal Docks and Canary Wharf, while also benefiting from a selection of local amenities. Custom House DLR line, Zone 3 Prince Regent DLR line, Zone 3 Royal Victoria DLR line, Zone 3 Representation of current layout, gross internal floor area is approximately 573 Sq Ft (53 Sq M) Foxtons Canary Wharf Unit 2, 20 Canada Square London E14 5NN CanaryWharf@foxtons.co.uk 020 7133 7777 Leslie Road, Royal Docks, E16 £315,000 L/hld 2 bedroom flat Foxtons.co.uk/1367284 Tenure Lease Expires Ground Rent Service Charge Local Authority Council Tax Leasehold Mar 2093 To be confirmed £54 per month (2015) Newham £1,102.7 per year (Band C) We have prepared these property particulars as a general guide to a broad description of the property. They are not intended to constitute part of an offer or......

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