Free Essay

Sigmund Freud

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By sharifah88
Words 1306
Pages 6


We live in the world of scarcity. None of us can have all that we want. It is the most fundamental concept in economics. We do not and cannot have enough income or wealth to satisfy our every desire for these develop and expand with every technological advancement. The world is such that no matter how much we produce; we cannot have as much of everything desired without sacrifice. Scarcity occurs for everyone, rich and poor. In economics, this sacrifice is called opportunity cost. (chon, 2011)

Humanity is demanding over greater economic productivity at a time when natural resources, the input that feeds this productivity, are dwindling. To reduce pressure on key assets, such as water, minerals, fuel and land, we must use less of them, and we need to increase the efficiency and productivity of resources that we do use, to achieve more output per input. Put simply, we must do more with less. Developing this society will require large-scale and widespread changes to how the economy functions. However, scientific, economic and social research can play an important role in reaching this goal, by determining current levels of consumption, measuring levels of efficiency, and developing new, more efficient technologies and processes. Furthermore, it can analyse different policy options and help us understand their impact on behavior and perceptions of resource use. (Brown,1995)
This paper will focus on scarcity and the use of PPC to reduce scarcity.

Example of scarcity in Asia. (TRANSPORTATIONS)

Like many economic activities that are intensive in infrastructures, the transport sector is an important component of the economy impacting on development and the welfare of populations. When transport systems are efficient, they provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive multipliers effects such as better accessibility to markets, employment and additional investments. (Brown, 1995) When transport systems are deficient in terms of capacity or reliability, they can have an economic cost such as reduced or missed opportunities. Efficient transportation (Busses) reduces costs, while inefficient (Cars) transportation increases costs. Transport also carries an important social and environmental load, which cannot be neglected. The impacts of transportation are not always intended however one can have unforeseen or unintended consequences such as congestion or time wastage.

Problems with scarcity

Using the example given above, reducing cars cannot solve the issue of scarcity. Unless the price is raised, supply will not rise and demand will not fall so that the demand and supply equal at a given higher price. When scarcity exists and cars are reduced, scarcity will increase as the demand will increase but supply will fall. However opposite and incorrect influenced by problems suffered by the people who cannot afford high prices. (Cohn, 2011)

They will think because the price is high only the rich are able to purchase things and consequently poor people are deprived of the goods they need to buy and but cannot buy because of high prices. They do not think about what happens to demand, supply and mismatch between demand and supply if the prices are reduced.

During the peak morning or evening hours, the issues faced on road are mainly excessive pollution in Asia. Other issues by commuters on road as well as in local trains are delays, stress, and discomfort during journeys, intangible professional costs, accidents and the potential for physical injuries.

Infrastructure has many features of a public good, meaning it's very difficult to keep nonpayers from using them and there's often little reason to do so because there's no opportunity cost for extra users. Infrastructure in transportations includes a whole bunch of capital that often takes years if not decades to produce. (Grigg, 2010)

Below shows an article on how countries resolve scarcity on transportation:

In 1975, Singapore introduced a scheme that levied a charge for the right to enter a 6km2 zone covering the central area during morning peak hours, unless the vehicle had four or more passengers (1€/day or 20€/month). In 1998, this was replaced by an electronic system with smart cards in the vehicles. The pricing is based on a per-trip-system with highest tolls in the peak hours. With the introduction of this scheme in 1975 there was a reduction of car peak traffic by 45% - and in the last 30 years it stayed on this low level without any major increases. The use of public transport by commuters rose from 46% to 65%.
The London scheme, one of the largest of its kind in the world, charges vehicles driving into central London a flat fee of €12 a day between 7:00 am and 6:00 pm. The results are very successful: car traffic in the zone was reduced by 15% and congestion by 30%. Traffic speed increased by 37%. This led to reduced fuel consumption of 10% and reduced CO2 -emissions of 19%. It is planned to double the size of the zone by end 2007.


Resolving Scarcity

If resources were great enough to produce more than anyone desired, there would also be no scarcity. Scarce resources determine the location of society's production possibilities frontier or curve (PPF). Inefficiencies in the use of resources (less than full employment or inappropriate employment of inputs like land and capital) may limit the amount produced so that the economy operates below its PPF.

Picture above was cited from

Goods (A) represents: Cars
Goods (B) represent: Buses (Public transport)

The PPC shows an increase in developments. From the above, the arrow point outwards shows the development in its infrastructure. When productivity increases, its infrastructure gets more developments. It is therefore an incentive to increase the development of infrastructure. In order to resolve scarcity, development in infrastructure is essential in the economy. With the outward shift of the PPC, the production capacity in the economy could increase when the amount of productivity factors is input. An effective strategy is the used of gathering the demand of an economy by ensuring the increase in the production capability in the economy while increasing their outputs. (Sadler, 2010)

To suggest some ways in reducing scarcity in Asia, be it in India or Thailand etc. Offices can decide on shifts. Perhaps, starts and ends office timing such as 8:30 a.m. till 5:00 p.m., 9:00 a.m. till 5:30 p.m., 9:30 a.m. till 6:00 p.m., 10:00 a.m. till 6:30 p.m., 10:30 a.m. till 7:00 p.m. By doing so, it may reduce congestion on roads during peak hour.


Scarcity is defined as the condition of human wants and needs exceeding production possibilities. In other words, society does not have sufficient productive resources to fulfill those wants and needs. Alternatively, scarcity implies that not all of society's goals can be fully attained at the same time, so that trade-offs are made of one good against others. If somehow people desired nothing, there would be no scarcity. If resources were great enough to produce more than anyone desired, there would also be no scarcity. Scarcity value is the economic factor that increases an item's relative price based more upon its relatively low supply. Whereas the prices of newly-produced manufactured products depends mostly on the cost of production.


Articles * *

Books * Brown, W. (1995). Principle Of Economics. Westgroup * Chon, J. (2008). What Is Scarcity?. Crabtree publishing company * Grigg, N. (2010) Infrastructure Finance. John wiley & sons, Inc * Sadler, P. (2010). Sustainable Growth In Post Scarcity World. Gower publishing limited…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Life and Studies of Sigmund Freud

...The Life and Studies of Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud is one of the most famous people throughout the history of psychology. Even though Freud was not the first person to do research on the conscious and unconscious mind, his work in psychoanalytical research on the subject is considered to be one of the most important theories done on the subject. Besides his theory on the conscious and unconscious mind, Freud came up with important theories on life and death instincts, the defense mechanism, the id, ego, superego, and psychosexual developments. Freud’s researches in these areas were some of the most important theories developed in psychology. Although many psychologists seem to look down at some of Freud’s theories, without him the world of psychology would probably not be the same. Freud’s work with the conscious and unconscious mind is considered to be one of his most famous theories. In his theory the mind basically consist of two parts, the conscious and the unconscious. The conscious part of a person’s mind basically consists of things that the person is aware of. This includes the memory, or “preconscious”, because it is data that can be easily retrieved by a person. The unconscious mind consists of things outside of one’s consciousness, such as feelings, urges, memories, or thoughts. When a person thinks of the unconscious mind he or she will generally think of a Freudian slip. Unfortunately, this is an experience that almost everyone has experienced. A Freudian......

Words: 1233 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud Theory all people have some sort a personality. Personality tells a story of what to expect from a person. Some theories just as people produce different beliefs. Sigmund Freud approach to personality focus on the unconscious mind. He believes that personality is developing by internal factors. On the other hand B.F. Skinner believes that personality id developed by external environment ("Sigmund Freud Life Work and Theories", 2006). Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician developed psychoanalytic theory in the early 1900s. They believe that ones conscious experience contributes only a small portion to his or her psychological makeup and experience. Sigmund Freud argument is that individual’s behavior is motivated by the unconscious, the unconscious functions from an area of personality that contains memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings urges, drives, and instincts which the individual is not aware ("Sigmund Freud Life Work and Theories", 2006). Freud maintained that to understand personality, it is necessary to expose what is in the unconscious. According to Freud personality is determined by unconsciousness. For example according to the text “some of the unconscious is made up of the preconscious, which contains material that is not threading and is easily brought to mind, such as the knowledge that 2+2=4 ("Sigmund Freud Life Work and Theories", 2006). B.F. Skinner is learning from focus on learning approaches we are what we have learned. Learning approaches to personality......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Comparing Sigmund Freud and Alfred Alder

...Comparing Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler -Similarity and differences- Key Concept and attributes Freud o Freud's psychoanalytic view was deterministic with little room for external influences in future decision making. o Whereas Freud believed sexual tension was one of the basic human drives o Freud believed instinctual forces drove humanity o Freud thought human behavior was determined mostly by the past, and people were not free to make choices, but were compelled to react to internal and unconscious directives (Corey, 2009). o Freud's psychoanalysis, however, was a longer-term therapeutic investment, with a focus on bringing the unconscious into consciousness. Contemporary trends in psychoanalytic therapy aim to provide successful interventions in a shorter period of time. Alder o Adler believed the past continues to influence the choices people make throughout their lives. o Adler believed people are motivated by social relationships. Both men, however, believed fundamental personality characteristics are born within the first six years of life (Fisher, 2001) o Adler believed people can and do make conscious decisions. o He believed the conscious aspect of the human mind was a powerful component in creating goals, and making choices. o Adler's techniques intended a shorter length of therapy with a focus on a strong beneficial relationship with the therapist, definitive goals toward solving the client's contemporary issues,......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...• How does the theorist define his subject? what concept of religion does he develop as he proceeds?  Sigmund Freud bases his theory as Neurosis. He bases his theories on stories made up within ones imagination. This theory is based off many different beliefs that can be suspicious of being a made up story that is passed down to many. Sigmund Freud questions many religions on whether they are worth believing or not. He defines his theory as the way an individual interprets their belief and see what psychoanalysis you can find in a person. Freud's basis of his theory is that religions are human constructions made in the mind. He states that the designs for these constructions are built differently to alleviate anxiety. Freud doesn't really go deep towards one religion, however, he defines religion as an illusion in the brain called Neurosis. T • what type of theory is being offered? Since, as we have seen, theories can be of quite different kinds, what specific form of explanation is offered in each case, and why? You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free; and psychotherapy is a journey toward the truth, for Freud. The type of theory that is being offered is one where the way one's life is going is how you will live. This promotes the mind capability to be able to think freely, according to Freud. The specific form of explanation is that everything is an illusion and an attempt to get control over the sensory world. You build your own religion based on......

Words: 494 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...major student, it is necessary for us to study all the theories related in our course. In our Theories of Personality subject, we studied the theory of Sigmund Freud which is the Psychosexual Development. In this theory, Freud stated that Adult Personality problems were the result of “early experiences in life”. And I agree with Freud on this, because I strongly believe that everything that happened to us in the past will affect us in our present/future life. Freud also mentioned in this theory that we go through 5 stages of Psychosexual Development, and that we experience pleasure in one part of the body than the others. These 5 stages mentioned were Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital. Also Oedipus complex, Levels of Mental Life (Unconscious, Preconscious, and Conscious), The Provinces of Mind (Id, Superego, and Ego) The dynamics of personality, Types of Anxiety and its defense mechanism, The stages of Development and his concept of Humanity were discussed in this theory. Sigmund Freud is undeniably one of the most controversial figures in psychology. He claimed that his work was original and upon research it was proven to be just flawed proclamation. Among the list of criticisms were: his subjective method, his unscientific/ vast concepts, and the exaggeration on sex as the motive for behaviour. Although Freud focused on Sexual Needs or whatever you call it, I still like his theory. If I am to rate it from 1-10 as 10 the highest, I’d rate it 9. Since I can......

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud Term Paper

...Sigmund Freud the Founder of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Psychology * Born in Freiberg, Moravia May 6, 1856 * Began secondary school in Europe in 1874 * At the age of seventeen, Freud continued his education at the University of Vienna Medical School * At the age of 26, Freud met and fell in love with Martha Bernays, the daughter of the well-known Hamburg family. They were engaged in two months. * Freud and Martha would have six children, one of whom was Anna. She would later become one of his famous followers. * Freud died on September 23, 1939. * Allgemeine Krankenhaus a famous hospital where Freud spent 3 years as a resident physician. Five of those months were spent studying emotional and mental health. At the time behavior was not important, but merely a symptom * Freud then, returned home and established a private practice of neurology, where he devoted his efforts to the treatment of hysterical patients using hypnosis. * At the age of 39, Freud termed the treatment of “psychoanalysis” the way of treating certain mental illnesses by exposing and discussing a patients unconscious thoughts and feelings. * At the same time Freud began his own self-analysis by analyzing his dreams, which would result in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams * Freud is best known for being the founder of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychologies and his general contribution to the study of personality * According to Freud, the mind......

Words: 990 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...Freud was born to Jewish Galician parents in the Moravian town of Příbor (German: Freiberg in Mähren), Austrian Empire, now part of the Czech Republic, the first of their eight children.[10] His father, Jakob Freud (1815–1896), a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel (1833–1914) and Philipp (1836–1911), from his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, and though Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study. He and Freud's mother, Amalia (née Nathansohn), 20 years her husband's junior and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born.[11] He was born with a caul, which his mother saw as a positive omen for the boy's future.[12] In 1859 the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud’s half brothers immigrated to Manchester, England, parting him from the “inseparable” playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel’s son, John.[13] Jacob Freud took his wife and two children (Freud's sister, Anna, was born in 1858; a brother, Julius, had died in infancy) firstly to Leipzig and then in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters (Rosa, Marie, Adolfine and Paula) and a brother (Alexander) were born. In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He proved an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors...

Words: 3826 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Sigmund Freud Reaction Paper

...PSYCHOLOGY-II Freud : Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud is considered to be the father of psychology by his supporters and his adversaries. Many may choose to disagree with his theories but none would deny that it raised interest, controversy, discussions, research and more theories. Many of Freud’s theories are perceived to be appalling in today’s society but especially so for his generation. His theories were enormously influential, but subject to considerable criticism both now and during his own life. Sample of these major theories are The Conscious and Unconscious Mind in which Freud believed that behavior and personality derives from the constant and unique interaction of conflicting psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness which are the preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious. The Id, Ego and Superego which states that personality is composed of three elements which are known to be the id, ego and superego. Psychosexual Development which describes how personality develops during childhood. Defense Mechanisms or ways that we protect ourselves from things that we don't want to think about or deal with. Freudian Slips which is a verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked to the unconscious mind. And the Interpretation of Dreams in which Freud explained that our dreams have manifest content which refers to the surface meaning or the conscious description and the latent content which refers to its unconscious material.......

Words: 2310 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud – Dream Analysis

...Sigmund Freud is known as one of the most influential and recognized names in the field of psychology. Freud was one of the founding fathers of psychology and had many contributions such as the Oedipus complex, Freudian Slips and Dream Analysis to name a few. His study of the psychology on the mind and repressed feelings all attribute to his contributions to psychology. One of Freud’s most interesting was on Dream Analysis which encompasses the symbolism in the mind during the dreaming stage of the sleep cycle. Sigmund Freud was born in Austria in 1856 and studied as a neurologist and psychiatrist at the University of Vienna. While at the university he presented his studies on psychodynamics in Ernest Wilhelm von Brucke’s Lectures of Physiology. Later in 1879, Freud completed his studies and obtained his Dr. Med with his thesis on the spinal cord of lower fish species. Freud opened his own practice in 1886 focusing on Neurology. At his practice, Freud started initially used hypnosis to help his neurotic patients, but then stopped in favor of the psychotherapeutic approach. Patients would relay their feelings through speech, also coined as the “talking cure” by Anna O, one of Freud’s patients. As Freud continued his studies, he believed that sexual interaction hindered ones accomplishments in life and so he ceased sexual relations with his wife. According to Freud’s biographer, Ernest Jones, Freud was absolutely celibate “in order to sublimate the libido for creative......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

An Introdcution to Sigmund Freud Ilfe and Work

...of childhood, personality, memory, sexuality and therapy | | By: Jason Reddy # 14326316 | An Introduction to Sigmund Freud Life And Work and Work Tutor: Rachael Hegerthy. Book Title: An introduction to Sigmund Freud life and work. Pages: 687. Author: Sigmund Freud. Genre: Autobioarpghy. Quote: "A man should not strive to eliminate his complexes but to get into accord with them: they are legitimately what directs his conduct in the world." Sigmund Freud. Other Works: Neurology, Psyholcanlyisis Bio: Sigismund Schlomo Freud, was born in Moravia, (now Czech Republic) May 6, 1856. At the age of four his family moved to Austria. Sigismund’s father Jabob and his mother Amailia are from a middle-class setting. Later on in his life they moved again to England, because of the Nazi invasion. Sigismund had two older half-brothers from his father's first marriage and seven younger siblings from his father’s second marriage to his mother. Because of an unusual family situation, between his father and the family nanny, thus maybe and big influenced in some of Freud's psychoanalytic notions, such as the Oedipus Complex. Freud study medicine at the University of Vienna. Firstly, the overview of this book is to give the readers a brief understanding of who Sigimuod Freud is, Secondly it goes in to where he came from his family, the fields of medicine, he studied while he was at university and finally how he......

Words: 251 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud

...Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud Introduction Carl Jung (1875-1961) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) were two individuals whose theories on human personality would completely affect the way that people viewed the human mind. Carl Gustav was a practicing psychotherapist while Sigmund Freud created the discipline of psychoanalysis. The two men had seemingly identical beliefs about human behavior, but also had contrasting beliefs about concepts such as the ego, the psyche, and the state of unconsciousness. Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud’s Theories Sigmund Freud’s beliefs about personality were based on past experiences in an individual’s childhood. Freud stated that all human beings had three personality levels. These were the ego, the id, and the superego. The level of the id is the one that houses a person’s primitive drives and supports the enactment of decisions that are purely based on pleasure. The id’s objective is to avoid pain at all costs and only seek pleasurable sensations. The ego, on the other hand, identifies the significance of reality and makes decisions based on concepts such as judgment, perception recognition, and memory. The last level, the superego, is dedicated to seeking perfection (Reber, 2006). This level houses the individual’s accepted social morals and ideals in the conscience. Jung had different views about the different mental levels in the conscious mind. Instead of the ego, id, and superego, Jung perceived the human thought process as constituting......

Words: 1423 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud - Father of Psychoanalysis

...figures in the subject of Human Development and Psychology, but the most significant would have to be Sigmund Freud. Freud was most famous for his ideas on dreams (interpretations), childhood sexuality (Theory of Sexuality), and the role of the unconscious (The Psychic Apparatus). He saw himself as a scientist who had understood the mysteries of the mind, which he would later call Psychoanalysis or his “New Science”. While Freud was working in psychiatric hospitals and clinics, he became interested in a mental illness called Hysteria. Hysteria is a nervous disorder where patients experience physical symptoms but have no underlying physical disease. Which lead him to use hypnosis, and create the term psychoanalysis. I learned that Freud did not come up with the treatment of Psychoanalysis on his own. His colleague Yoseif Breuer made Freud begin to think about Psychoanalysis after his tries with hypnosis on his Hysteria patients. Although Freud may have gone deeper into the foundation of Psychoanalysis, the first person who should be recognized with the term Psychoanalysis should be, Yosief Breuer. Freud used a metaphor describing the antiquities he had in his office: “These are characteristics of what I do, I am too am an Archaeologist, and I like to dig, and what I dig at or dig into is the human mind.” Which I think this is a perfect reference to his interest in dreams. Freud believed that dreams provided us a deeper understanding of our behavior. He said “the content......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Karl Marx vs. Sigmund Freud

...Karl Marx Vs. Sigmund Freud: Were They Really That Different? It is safe to say that Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud can be classified as some the most highly intellectual men of not only their time, but possibly ever. These were men that viewed the world from a different lens then most people and through their views can be seen as revolutionary. This poses the question: Were these many really that different? Were they in fact similar? The answer to both is yes to a certain extent. Through the reading and in class lectures I formulate the opinion that both Freud and Marx saw some kind of conflict in society as well as man, they just approached it differently perhaps due to life experience as well as their schooling. Sigmund Freud, a superbly intelligent neurologist, believed that mans constant struggle could be directly related perhaps to a psychological conflict within their psyche. Marx on the other hand, a brilliant thinker and revolutionist, believed that society’s as well as mans pitfall could be attributed to economic struggles. As you can see Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud had very deep intellectual views on society and now I will go more in depth and pick apart both the beliefs. Karl Marx, An educated German thinker viewed society as well as human nature harshly. Marx, through writing the Communist Manifesto can be seen as a man who believed in equality and harmony, which he believed, could be achieved through government. Marx believed that through sharing we could......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Approach PROs Sigmund Freud, (1856-1939) Psychoanalytical Psychology refers to the root of our thoughts, emotions, actions and behavior and how they pertain to our early/childhood development and experiences. Freud’s theory became so popular because his approach was unprecedented, and his statements bold. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was based on his belief that our personalities are shaped by experiences of our earliest childhood memories (usually in the unconscious mind), and how well we are nurtured during this time. The time in which Freud developed his psychoanalytic theory is perhaps the greatest factor that contributed to his reputation and subsequent success as a theorist or psychologist. A great deal of Freud’s original psychoanalytic theory was based on his own early childhood experiences, and much of what he learned from research and experiments were never recorded or in many cases, weren’t recorded until hours and even days later. Without credible sources and physical data to support his findings, his theory was improved upon by some of his students and colleagues. CONs Although Freud’s theory was seen as incomplete in certain circles, as his psychoanalytic theory only focused on one or two factors in psychology; psychoanalysis is one among many disciplines that fit under the psychological umbrella. Because of the way psychology has unfolded as both a general discipline and a science, Freud should be credited for......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sigmund Freud

...Sigmund Schlomo Freud BRIEF OVERVIEW Although Sigmund Freud was not the first person to formally study psychology, many consider him the most pivotal figure in the development of the field as we know it today. Freud changed the way society has come to think about and treat mental illness. Before Freud, mental illness was thought to result from deterioration or disease of the brain. Freud changed all of this by explicitly rejecting the purely organic or physical explanations of his predecessors. Instead he believed that unconscious motives and drives controlled most behavior. During a career that spanned 58 years, beginning with an earned medical degree in 1881 and continuing to his death in 1939, he developed and repeatedly revised his theory of psychoanalysis. Most of Freud’s theory was developed from contact he had with patients seen in his private practice in Vienna. This type of “clinical” work was a radical departure from the laboratory research that was practiced by most leading psychologists of the day. When Freud first presented his ideas in the 1890s, many of his contemporaries reacted with hostility. In fact, throughout his career, Freud faced enormous opposition to many of his ideas. Those especially controversial included notions about the role of the unconscious in behavior, childhood sexuality, and how the mind was governed (id, ego, and superego). But despite the opposition, Freud eventually attracted a group of followers that included well-known......

Words: 21427 - Pages: 86