Software Risks

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By gfrimps100
Words 5776
Pages 24
Software Risk Management: Principles and Practices

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

I) Identzhing and

dealing with risks early in development lessens long-tem costs and helps prevent so@are disasters. It is easy t o begin managing risks in your environment.

their early stages, the software field has had its share of project disasters: the software equivalents of the Beauvais Cathedral, the hWlS Titanic, and the “Galloping Gertie” Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The frequency of these software-project disasters is a serious concern: A recent survey of 600 firms indicated that 35 percent of them had at least one runaway software project.’ Most postmortems of these softwareproject disasters have indicated that their problems would have been avoided or strongly reduced if there had been an explicit early concern with identifylng and resolving their high-risk elements. Frequently, these projects were swept along by a tide of optimistic enthusiasm during their early phases that caused them to miss some clear signals of high-risk issues that proved to be their downfall later.

Enthusiasm for new software capabilities is a good thing. But it must be tempered with a concern for early identification and resolution of a project’s high-risk elements so people can get these resolved early and then focus their enthusiasm and energy on the positive aspects of their product. Current approaches to the software process make it too easy for projects to make high-risk commitments that they will later regret: The sequential, document-driven waterfall process model tempts people to overpromise software capabilities in contractually binding requirements specifications before they understand their risk implications. The code-driven, evolutionary development process model tempts people to say, “Here are some neat ideas I’d like to s put into t h ~ system. I’ll…...

Similar Documents


...Five Models Of Software Engineering Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar1 and A. Govardhan2 1 Ph.D Student of Computer Science & Engineering Jawahrlal Nehru Technological University Kuktapally, Hyderabad- 500 085, Andhra Pradesh, India Professor of Computer Science & Engineering Principal JNTUH of Engineering College, Jagityal, Karimnagar (Dt), A.P., India 2 Abstract This research deals with a vital and important issue in computer world. It is concerned with the software management processes that examine the area of software development through the development models, which are known as software development life cycle. It represents five of the development models namely, waterfall, Iteration, V-shaped, spiral and Extreme programming. These models have advantages and disadvantages as well. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features and defects of each model. Keywords: Software Management Processes, Software Development, Development Models, Software Development Life Cycle, Comparison between five models of Software Engineering. increased recently which results in the difficulty of enumerating such companies. During the previous four decades, software has been developed from a tool used for analyzing information or solving a problem to a product in itself. However, the early programming stages have created a number of problems turning software an obstacle......

Words: 3810 - Pages: 16


... Chinyere repper. Software for Business. MS PROJECT (PROJECT PLANNING) Microsoft Project is a project management software program, developed and sold by Microsoft, which is designed to assist a project manager in developing a plan, assigning resources to tasks, tracking progress, managing the budget, and analyzing workloads. Microsoft Project was the company's third Microsoft Windows-based application, and within a couple of years of its introduction it became the dominant PC-based project management software. While part of the Microsoft Office family, it has never been included in any of the Office suites. It is available currently in two editions, Standard and Professional. Microsoft Project's proprietary file format is mpp. Microsoft Project and Microsoft Project Server are the cornerstones of the Microsoft Office Enterprise Project Management (EPM) product. Microsoft Project 2010 features the Ribbon user interface. Microsoft Project management software is closely integrated with Microsoft Office suite and also includes a Client Access License (CAL) that allows easy connection with Office Project Server. It is a project management software that is mainly used to create plans, monitor progress, analyze workloads, designate resources to tasks and manage budgets. The software also helps in establishing critical path schedules and may also be......

Words: 841 - Pages: 4


...object composition than class that happens,emphasis shifts away from hard-coding a fixed set of behaviors toword defining a smaller set of fundamental behaviours that can be composedinto any no. of more complex onces.thus creating objects with perticular behaviour requires more than simply instantiating a class. Design patterns “Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice.” [Christopher Alexander] Design patterns capture the best practices of experienced object-oriented software developers. Design patterns are solutions to general software development problems. A pattern has four essential elements * Pattern Name * Problem * Solution * Consequences Pattern Name: Is a handle we can use to describe a design problem, it’s solutions & consequences in a word or two. Naming a pattern immediately increases our design vocabulary. It lets us design at a higher level of abstraction. Problem: It describes when to apply the pattern. It explains the problems and it’s context. It might describe specific design problems such as how to represent algorithms as objects. It might describe class or object structures that are symptomatic of an inflexible design. Solution: Describes the elements that make up the......

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5


...Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. (The term hardware describes the physical aspects of computers and related devices.) Importance of Software Security Assurance As organizations worldwide increase their reliance on software controls to protect their computing environments and data, the topic of Software Security Assurance grows in importance. The tremendous potential costs associated with security incidents, the emergence of increasingly complex regulations, and the continued operational costs associated with staying up to date with security patches all require that organizations give careful consideration to how they address software security. For more information on Software Security Assurance, see Wikipedia on Software Security Assurance. Oracle Software Security Assurance Encompassing every phase of the product development lifecycle, Oracle Software Security Assurance (OSSA) is Oracle's methodology for building security into the design, build, testing, and maintenance of its products. Oracle's goal is to ensure that Oracle's products, as well as the customer systems that leverage those products, remain as secure as possible. Oracle Software Security Assurance is a set of industry-leading standards, technologies, and practices aimed at: • Fostering security innovations. Oracle has a long tradition of security innovations. Today this legacy continues with Oracle's market leading database......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2


...Ariel M. Vasquez November 24, 2014 CIS331 System Modeling Theory Professor Randy Arvay Software System Architecture For this case the question is asked which system would be best to implement for this case. There are several different types of cases to chose from. They all with their own particular benefits and negatives at the same time The one that fits this needs in particular would be the event driven system. What is an event driven architecture system? An event driven architecture, or EDA for short, is a pattern that focuses on promoting production, detection, and consumption. Most of its works occur during an event. In the medical field, which this case revolves around, have thing change a lot during the course of not only a day even within every hour this change. Whether it's from a patient's medical records, stock of inventory, medicines provided to a patient, and even when a patient enters and exits the hospital. With a system like EDA thing will only occur when things change and this pattern seems to be able to handle those changes better than the others. The following image will show basically how this type of system will work. A system that integrates EDA may also provide a higher level of service to help with the implementation of EDA. Things like security, reliable messaging, content based routing, and mapping and transformation. The security that this provides is message encryption, authentication, and access control. With the messaging this......

Words: 418 - Pages: 2


...HACKING SECRETS REVEALED Information and Instructional Guide HACKING SECRETS REVEALED Production of  S&C Enterprises T able of Contents Disclaimer Introduction i Trojans Joiners ICQ CHAPTER 1 1 Chapter 6 Access Granted CHAPTER 2 1 15 18 18 19 19 19 19 CHAPTER 7 42 43 44 45 49 55 59 Bank Account Information Email Pictures Resume Survellance Via Internet Connection 36 37 39 39 39 40 29 34 34 System Intrusion in 15 Seconds The Trojan Horse The Hack NewsGroups Grapevine Email Un-Safe Websites IRC ChatSites CHAPTER 3 20 20 Acceptable Files Readme & Text Files How To protect Yourself Firewalls Antivirus Software Tips & Tricks Protecting Shared Resources Disabling File and Printer Sharing Oh No My system's Infected Chapter 4 Who are Hackers Anarchist Hackers Hackers Crackers 24 24 25 26 Chapter 8 Every Systems Greatest Flaw Chapter 9 How to Report Hackers 65 60 Chapter 5 Tools of the Trade Portscanners 27 28 Chapter 10 Final Words 74 DISCLAIMER The authors of this manual will like to express our concerns about the misuse of the information contained in this manual. By purchasing this manual you agree to the following stipulations. Any actions and or activities related to the material contained within this manual is solely your responsibility. The misuse of the information in this manual can result in criminal charges brought against the persons in question. The authors will not be held responsible in the event any criminal charges be brought against any......

Words: 11585 - Pages: 47


...Robert P. Ward Software Engineering in the Small Smaller-sized software companies are developing significant products that need effective, tailored software engineering practices. n 1968, the NATO Software Engineering Conference in Garmisch, Germany [6] initiated the concept of software engineering, identifying the problems with producing large, high-quality software applications. In 1975, De Remer [2] introduced the terms, “programming in the small” and “programming in the large” to differentiate the development characteristics of large-scale software development from detailed programming (for example, data structures and algorithms). The principal source of large-scale software at the time was development contracts issued by the U.S. Department of Defense. Since then, virtually all software engineering literature has concentrated explicitly and implicitly on the model of DoD contract software development. Since the late 1970s, the microcomputer revolution has dramatically increased the quantity of software produced, the average I size of programs, and the number of companies involved in software development. Much more software is produced for internal use, commercial applications, and the mass-market than for deep-pocketed government and large industry. Using the number of units sold, mass-market software dwarfs the other forms of software sales. The growth of the software industry has produced many small companies that do not do contract software, but rather......

Words: 2136 - Pages: 9


...Principle of Software Engineering Table of Contents Abstract 3 Introduction 4 Boehm's First Law 4 Boehm's Second law 5 Conway's law 5 Parnas Law 6 Corbató Law 7 Observation 8 Theory 9 Law 9 Question 3 10 Law 11 References 12 Abstract The purpose of the study is to show the capability to understand the set of laws that are the part of principles of the software engineering. In this paper, it is discussed that there are many laws related to the software engineering but only few of them are to be addressed. Boehm first and second law, Conway’s laws, Parnas laws & Corbato law were discussed with examples. There are two relationship processes that are also discussed, related to the software Engineering. Law method and tools which are depended on each other and they are performing the task with the help of principle and process by following the rules. Same scenario is followed in other relation too, where observation, law and theory are depended on each other. Observation is repeatable to law and law is explained by theory. Theory should be confirmed by the law and it predict by the observation before further proceeding. Introduction Question No 1 Boehm's First Law Errors are more regular in the middle of fundamentals and configuration exercises and are more abundant when they are displaced. In this law, some basic configuration errors do outnumber code blunders. However, cost stays......

Words: 1641 - Pages: 7


...Identify two periodical publications that focus on software architecture (either solely or partly). Submit the following information: publication name, URL, publisher name, & the year it was first published. IEEE Potentials, First Publication Year: 1982 URL : Publisher Name: IEEE Xplore Msdn magazine First Publication Year: 2001 URL: Publisher Name: The Microsoft journal for developers Write a half-page short essay comparing and contrasting software architects and software engineers. Software architect has responsibility for guaranteeing coherence of all aspects of the project as an integrated system. Architect answerable for overall technical quality, developer for lower implementation selections. The architect holds the futuristic views and proactively sees the system before it\'s designed, being the holder of the vision. Software architect focuses on money and also the disposition and drive to guide individuals. a leader who will apply/share their broad framework. Pragmatic handling of the technical solution and act with the business in addition as the techies, marketing the vision to each. A software architect has the vision to own the most effective style ideas. Architects will see each micro and macro (inwards and outward) whereas engineers see small and outwards and want to be carried by the architect to examine macro/outwards. Maintaining...

Words: 892 - Pages: 4


...processor, RISC and CISC instruction set. UNIT II Memory devices; Semiconductor and ferrite core memory, main memory, cache memory, associative memory organization; concept of virtual memory; memory organization and mapping; partitioning, demand paging, segmentation; magnetic disk organization, introduction to magnetic tape and CDROM. UNIT III IO Devices, Programmed IO, interrupt driver IO, DMA IO modules, IO addressing; IO channel, IO Processor, DOT matrix printer, ink jet printer, laser printer. Advanced concepts; Horizontal and vertical instruction format, microprogramming, microinstruction sequencing and control; instruction pipeline; parallel processing; problems in parallel processing; data hazard, control hazard. UNIT IV ILP software approach-complier techniques-static branch protection-VLIW approach-H.W support for more ILP at compile time-H.W verses S.W solutions Multiprocessors and thread level parallelism-symmetric shared memory architectures-distributed shared memory-Synchronization-multi threading. UNIT V Storage System-Types-Buses-RAID-errors and failures-bench marking a storage device designing a I/O system. Inter connection networks and clusters-interconnection network media – practical issues in interconnecting networks-examples-clusters-designing a cluster Text Books: 1. “Computer organization and architecture”, Williams Stallings, PHI of India, 1998. 2. Computer organization, Carl Hamachar, Zvonko Vranesic and Safwat Zaky, McGraw Hill......

Words: 3183 - Pages: 13


...render an xml document as a web page, HTML code was submitted to mirror the sample display which clearly was not right. Some candidates failed to realise that there were two nested for loops rather than two independent for loops as part of the xslt code. A new development seen for the first time regarding this topic was an emergence of a group of candidates who were ill prepared for this question with very low scores. B3 You are acting as a consultant for a financial institution, advising on the development of an online banking service. a) One possible security risk when accessing a banking website from a publicly accessible computer, is a hardware key logger that captures passwords; this is often solved by using on-screen (virtual) keyboards to enter data into a web form. i) What is meant by the term “hardware key logger”? [2 marks] ii) Aside from the use of key loggers, outline four other security risks and, for each risk, detail a method to prevent it. [8 marks] b) The in-house developers have outlined three possible schemes for authenticating their users. You have been asked to comment on these systems both from a security perspective (how safe the scheme will be) as well as from a user’s perspective (how easy the scheme will be to use). Proposed scheme A    Type in your email address Type in your password (6 characters, alphabetic) Select the first and the second digits of your PIN (6 digits) from a drop-down list Proposed scheme B    System-generated......

Words: 3199 - Pages: 13


...disadvantages of buying an existing business. 2 List the steps involved in the right way to buy a business. 3 Describe the various methods used in valuing a business. 4 Discuss the process of negotiating the deal. Buying an Existing Business Although our intellect always longs for clarity and certainty, our nature often finds uncertainty fascinating. —Karl von Clausewitz A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity: an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty. —Winston Churchill CHAPTER FIVE Learning Objectives 1-A. Understand the advantages of buying an existing business. 128 SECTION 2 • BUILDING THE BUSINESS PLAN: BEGINNING CONSIDERATIONS The entrepreneurial experience always involves risk. One way to minimize the risk of entrepreneurship is to purchase an existing business rather than to create a new venture. Buying an existing business requires a great deal of analysis and evaluation to ensure that what the entrepreneur is purchasing meets his or her needs and expectations. Exercising patience and taking the necessary time to research a business before buying it are essential to getting a good deal. Research conducted by Stanford’s Center for Entrepreneurial Studies reports that the average business purchase takes 19 months from the start of the search to the closing of the deal.1 In too many cases, the excitement of being able to implement a “fast entry” into the market causes an entrepreneur to rush into a deal and make......

Words: 19342 - Pages: 78


...Software Quality Assurance Software quality assurance Software quality assurance, often referred to in the industry as "software testing" or "QA testing" consists of thoroughly testing every aspect of a software project to ensure that: 1. It functions as intended and does not contain errors 2. It complies with the previously established development guidelines As the interactive software industry grows, software quality assurance has become more and more complicated. Many offshoots have arisen and considerably complicated the software testing jargon: security testing, unit testing, usability testing, load testing, scripted testing, compatibility testing, etc. In the end, what software quality assurance is all about is making sure that your software product works seamlessly for all your users. While we may expand into other areas in the future, we at the Crowdsourced Testing company specialize in one particular type of testing known as functional testing. The sad reality of software quality assurance The unfortunate reality of the software development industry is that testing is often neglected because development companies are under a tremendous amount of pressure to deliver their projects faster and faster. Furthermore, software programming is a complex endeavor and it is very difficult to know ahead of time exactly how much time will be needed to develop a particular project. What usually ends up happening is that programmers work until the very last minute......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Software Project Management - Based on Assumptions, Identify Minimum of Five Important Risks Involved in the Project

...09902787224 SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1. Prepare a business case 2. Draft the feasibility report 3. Identify the stake holders involved in this project with their suitable role and responsibilities 4. Under what circumstances can Ms.Mary outsource this work? 5. Identify few known quality principles/policies that can be implemented while developing this project. 1. Calculate the weighted average development time for each module 2. Standard deviation for each module 3. Calculate the standard deviation for the complete project and the estimated time frame for completion? 4. Assuming Rakesh has to finish this project 20 weeks. What is the team strength he would need to do it? 5. What are the possible issues Rakesh may face while hiring Human Resources from the local country? 1. Based on assumptions, identify minimum of five important risks involved in the project 2. Perform a qualitative risk analysis based on the answer for Q. 1 above 3. Perform a quantitative risk analysis based on Q.1 and Q. 2 above. Assume numerical value ranges for probability and impact (Exposure) of risks 4. Prepare a sample risk register for such a project 5. List out three positive risks in such a project 1. Should a third party vendor be selected to do this software project? If yes, then what are the legal formalities D-Smart Infotech need to complete with New Boston School and the selected vendor? 2. What are the high level risks......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

It Software Risk

...IT Software Risk Management What is Risk? In order to manage risks we have to understand what a risk is. In my view the best definition is that given by Larry Krantz. According to Robert Tusler (1996) Larry basically defines a risk as “a combination of constraint and uncertainty”. Every project will face constraints, and also uncertainty. The solution on over coming any type of obstacles is to minimize the risk in the project either by eliminating constraints or by finding and reducing uncertainty. The Internet Company Software System A few years back my company, The Internet Company, decided to set up a new software that would combine all department software’s into one. The ultimate goal of this project was to make sure that information was flowing correctly between the Human Resources Department, Payroll Department, and our company home office software. Like Larry Krantz stated every project is going to face some type of risks. The first step in risk management is to identify the possible risks and to assess the consequences of the risks. This is an important step, as one must identify the project risk inputs. Risk assessment identifies existing risks, analyzes risks, and then orders them in a priority from highest to lowest. Identifying and Prioritizing Risks The main technique that was used in other to identify risk was looking at historical data from one of our subsidiaries that had just completed a similar project. This helped us get a basic idea of what......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3