Free Essay


In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mathildakwong
Words 1482
Pages 6
Space is the final frontier

1. space: -outer space = region beyond earth
2. final: -last, ultimate, no more frontier beyond this
3. frontier: -an outer limit, especially one in which the opportunities for research and development have not been exploited
4. History of space exploration: simple overview of western countries – includes China’s endeavors –
5. Can space be considered an unexplored region if…
a. man has been observing the sky since before recorded history?
b. man has been thinking of exploring it since the 17th century?啟動螢幕閱讀器
• yuanshangkwong

c. the first man-made vehicle flew 100 km outside earth in 1942?
d. the first human space flight in 1961?
e. the Voyager I and II space craft were launched?
f. man put a space station into orbit?
g. even ordinary people like singer Sarah Brightman can pay to fly into space?
h. we can be buried in space?
6. Consider:
-What do we know about space?
-What don’t we know about it?
-Is it our next or our final frontier?
-Is Antarctica the final frontier? Are the oceans our final frontier? Is the earth’s core our final frontier? Is time our final frontier? Is death our final frontier?
I don’t think the opposition needs to say what is the final frontier, only that space isn’t.

Negative side arguments

1st speaker
1) Definition on final, frontier, tangible or intangible frontier
2) Rebutt on opposite side definition, like Frontier IS NOT outer boundaries a : a region that forms the margin of settled or developed territory b : the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject --this will be our focus c : a line of division between different or opposed things d : a new field for exploitative or developmental activity
3)is = must be? other possibilties
4)if opposite side implies final = only, one of the final--? rebutt on definitions of final
4)No need to discuss what WILL BE the final frontier

2nd speaker
1)State other possibilites of FINAL FRONTIER eg earth crust, ocean
2) Bring out other possibilities for intangible frontiers like imagination, mind, thoughts, time, death, afterlife, parallel universe
3) new field for exploitative or developmental activity? the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject --this will be our focus?
4) mind--kots of philosophiser try to explore how mind works--> no conclusion can we further explore beyond mind? think out of box--> are we bounded by our mind ourselves? are there thoughts beyond mind? parallel universe-- beyond space, existence of another universe ie go beyond space, another space time-- einstein-- go beyond time to future? to the past? not yet DEVELOPED a WAY, NOT YET EXPLORED
5) REBUTTALS: AFFIRMATIVE: strong countries like usa, china, USSR in the past put lots of resources to explore--> no more frontiers more important than space OPPOSITE: only proves mankind are capable to start exploring out of earth--> no one yet has ability and capability to find a way to prove how imagination, mind, parallel universe works ie. new field MAY BE farthermost limit of knowledge thats why SPACE is NOT final becuase there can be lots othere possibilities to be final

3rd speaker
1) rebuttals

no one proves the existence of parallel universe, mind etc
→ no one proves not equal to not existing in the past no one can prove the existence of other planets only now human beings are able to explore space → proves existence hence parallel universe etc can be final frontier

people have already explored part of space--> able to go beyond space--> X final grontier while death X timeX breakthrough--> boundaries still new to be discovered and developed new knowledge compare--> how can we say space is the furthermost knowledge? then how can we say it is final frontier>

if affirmative said space is intangible space surrounding everyone
→ focus on parallel universe space / a. The expanse in which the solar system, stars, and galaxies exist; the universe.
b. The region of this expanse beyond Earth's atmosphere.
c. the unlimited three-dimensional expanse in which all material objects are located Related

REBUT on 3-dimensional cause 4D concept =time as proved by general relativity of einstein time is measured within space? → since abstract thought-->describe as time even when mankind are capable to go beyond space that includes matter--> is there null, empty, void/devoid?

*****include this phrase
As human beings have greater technology to explore space, it is foreseeable that we are able to break through the limit. Meanwhile, we still have no knowledge to explore how to cross the limit of time, of death, of parallel universe etc. Compare the tangibility for mankind to cross, space is definitely not the furthermost or ultimate frontier.

If affirmative uses the definition of space as the unlimited 3-dimensional space....
Repeat the theory of Einstein and emphasizes that time is 4dimensional unlimted continuum that never stops. beyond material objects

1st speaker script Kwong Yuan Shang, Mathilda

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. Today’s motion is space is the final frontier. We will prove to you that this is entirely not true. Human beings have been trying to go beyond our physical limits, including space. What is space then? It can be the expanse in which the solar system, stars, and galaxies exist; or the three-dimensional expanse in which all material objects are located. While the affirmative side had tried to prove to you that space is the final frontier, our team will convince you that space is not the final frontier because there are far more frontiers that human beings still yet to go beyond. Let us begin begin by giving you clear concepts on final frontier. Final is a term to describe something that is ultimate and having no possibility for further discussion. While frontier ls the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject or the new field for exploitative or developmental activity.

Come to think of it, we have long been exploring space since 1942 in which the German V2 rocket reached the space. In 1961, Russian astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space. In 1969, Neil Armstrong, and then Buzz Aldrin took "one small step" and became the first men on the moon. These historical facts proved that space have been widely explored since long time ago. It is thus not any new field for exploitative or developmental activity and thus not final frontier as we are able break through it. Even we have not been fully explored the whole space, it is not the final frontier because we have not fully explored the earth crust and even ocean as well. We have not yet drilled down beyond mantle and never obtained samples from mantle. It can be our final frontier as well. Can the affirmative side deny this possibility? No! Not even any prestige scientists recorded in history have claimed the full exploration of earth crust and oceans! Both space and earth crust, oceans are tangible frontiers and no one is sure which one is the ultimate limit of knowledge. The opposite side cannot prove space is furthermost limit of knowledge but our team can prove many more possibilities that can be furthermost limit of knowledge.

When the opposite side tried to prove that space is the final frontier, this actually implies that they deny the possibilities of earth crust and ocean being final frontier. There is only “one” to be final. When there can be other equal-likely possibilities to be the final frontier, which the opposite side failed to prove beyond, we are confident to say space is not the final frontier.

Furthermore, frontiers are not confined to physical boundaries surrounding matters. They can be intangible like imagination, mind, thoughts, death, afterlife and time. Philosophisers have put forward these concepts but no humankind yet is able or capable to further explore how human beings can cross these limits of knowledge. Our team will prove to you that why these concepts can be final frontiers and why they are even far more difficult for human beings to cross and thus as compared to space that have been exploring by mankind, these intangible frontiers are more likely the final frontier.

My second speaker will discuss on the intangible frontiers that can be the furthermost limit of knowledge in which no human being is capable to lie their feet on. My third speaker will further convince you that space is NOT the final frontier and do some rebuttals. Let me conclude our team line, “Space is not the final frontier because there are far more likely possible intangible frontiers that can be the furthermost limit of knowledge.” Meanwhile, let me do some rebuttals on the definition of …...from the affirmative side. …..
Hence, the affirmative side still fail to concretely prove space is final frontier. Thank you.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Space Exploration

...Space Exploration Must Continue If The United States of America (USA) discontinues space exploration America will not continue to be viewed as a world leader by other countries. According to Encyclopedia Britannica Online Academic Edition, “Space exploration is the investigation, by means of manned and unmanned spacecraft, of the reaches of the universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere and the use of the information so gained to increase knowledge of the cosmos and benefit humanity” ("Space Exploration"). Even though financial costs are on the rise, the continuance of space exploration is imperative to our developing world because learning about life on other planets, untapped natural resources, and scientific research is essential to remaining a world leader. Our four fathers began space exploration many moons ago. It is imperative that we follow in their footsteps and have not only the courage to continue but also have the drive to want to succeed in this area of exploration. The USA is known as one of the leading world powers of scientific research and technology, if the nation is to remain in this position the USA must forge ahead with space exploration. As of today we do not have proof that we are the only life source in the universe. Scientist search for proof of other beings in the universe, “This year scientist identified sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphors, and carbon some very vital elements need to support life on a planet” ("Science Daily"). ...

Words: 1281 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...HOW America feel about Space Exploration Research Methods SS3150 May 08, 2013 How America feel about Space Exploration The space exploration has been a huge program for research and human knowledge. It has brought so many concerns, questions and suggestions which has engaged and, affected American’s in their everyday lives. Some of the research questions that I came up with which are appropriate for qualitative research are for example first, how does the earth interact with the neighboring planets? Second, how does space exploration help in securing our planet? And the third question is how does the exploration improve our lives economically? The explanation as to why these three questions are appropriate for qualitative research is that for one, the question of how does the earth interact with the neighboring planets, is a question which does not require any thought of numbers when answering because, one can simply answer that the earth interacts with the neighboring planets by how they all get the light from the sun. The target population on this question can be young or old and questionnaires would be the best sample to the participants for this research. The second question on how does space exploration help in securing our planet is also appropriate for qualitative research and, it shows or it can bring suggestions for example, that the technology used in space exploration is very highly advanced and that people feel safe because it sends signals of anything......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Space Exploration.

...SPACE EXPLORATION. Governments spend billions of dollars on expensive space programs. Is it worth spending such substantial amounts in this direction? Space exploration is one of the much talked about branches of science today. This branch of science has developed tremendously over the past few decades. In my opinion, ambitious space programs are extremely useful to humans in many ways; hence each penny invested in it is worth the effort. First of all, it is almost impossible to think of a life these days without depending on modern means of communication like mobile phones, Internet and so forth. These devices will be of no use if the man-made satellites stop working. Needless to say, those satellites are the contribution of the ever-growing space technology. Moreover, various television channels, radio stations and other wireless services also will come to a complete halt without the help of satellites which are orbiting in space. Apart from this, it is only due to space research and exploration that we have immense knowledge about planets, solar system, Milky Way, and even the mystery behind the origin of the universe. The ongoing space research all over the world also tries to solve the puzzle that whether there is any possibility of life or conditions which can sustain life in other planets. In addition, many economically and technologically advanced countries are already pampering the idea of organizing pleasure trips to other planets for their citizens in......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Women and Space

...Torres English 1A Professor Miller May 10, 2014 Her Righteous Stuff Space exploration has come a long way since that night of October 4, 1957, when Sputnik 1 was launched by the Soviet Union, eventually starting the Space Race. In Tom Wolfe’s book, The Right Stuff, he dives into the lives and perspectives of the male pilots/astronauts who accomplished one of the greatest feats of American and world history. But what about the women? In its early years, much like everything involving people in its early years, the space program was extremely male-dominant. However, in 1959 – according to an article from the Advances in Physiology Education – General Donald Flickinger and Dr. W. Randolph Lovelace II had suggested (from an engineering standpoint) it would have been “more practical” to try to send women into space because of their lower body weight and oxygen requirements. However, this suggestion was rejected by the Air Force. At least there was some sort of consideration of women involvement to play a crucial, early role in one of the most important times in American history. Despite the early times and setbacks for women, they continued to push through. Women have played a crucial role in the space program, from overcoming discrimination to make significant contributions in all aspects of space exploration, including mathematics and orbital flight. Women have made significant contributions to space flight, and one particular woman, Katherine G. Johnson, had had a huge......

Words: 2207 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Commercial Space

...Introduction The commercial space region consist of entrepreneurial space companies, emerging market for space capabilities and prime contractors. Space commercialization involves rendering or selling of services such as satellite communications, remote sensing, launching of space objects and the manufacturing, transferring and exchanging of space products for remuneration." Commercial space is divided into different areas which are: launch vehicle manufacturing and services, satellite manufacturing and satellite operation and services. The opportunity of using space to make money by selling goods and services to governments and private customers has become very prevalent in Europe, Nigeria and Russia and is growing rapidly. Government plats a huge and active part in the capitalizing and promoting of commercial space, they carry this role out by creating policies that are regulatory and polices that lead government agencies into purchasing services or hardware from Buying data from remote sensing satellite companies. “Space has become a global enterprise with the number of nations and firms with space goods and services growing rapidly. And not only are more people involved in space but also the unique advantages of the space environment have contributed greatly to the growing trend toward globalization through its almost universal coverage of......

Words: 2810 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Space Matrix

...The SPACE matrix is a management tool used to analyze a company. It is used to determine what type of a strategy a company should undertake. The Strategic Position & ACtion Evaluation matrix or short a SPACE matrix is a strategic management tool that focuses on strategy formulation especially as related to the competitive position of an organization. The SPACE matrix can be used as a basis for other analyses, such as the SWOT analysis, BCG matrix model, industry analysis, or assessing strategic alternatives (IE matrix). What is the SPACE matrix strategic management method? To explain how the SPACE matrix works, it is best to reverse-engineer it. First, let's take a look at what the outcome of a SPACE matrix analysis can be, take a look at the picture below. The SPACE matrix is broken down to four quadrants where each quadrant suggests a different type or a nature of a strategy: * Aggressive * Conservative * Defensive * Competitive This is what a completed SPACE matrix looks like: This particular SPACE matrix tells us that our company should pursue an aggressive strategy. Our company has a strong competitive position it the market with rapid growth. It needs to use its internal strengths to develop a market penetration and market development strategy. This can include product development, integration with other companies, acquisition of competitors, and so on. Now, how do we get to the possible outcomes shown in the SPACE matrix? The SPACE Matrix......

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Space Management

...SPACE MANAGEMENT A GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE A report on ways in which space management and space utilisation can be improved, based upon the work with the University of Wales Swansea January 2002 CONTENTS SUMMARY..................................................................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................................4 PURPOSE OF THE GUIDE............................................................................................................................................ 4 THE PROBLEM.........................................................................................................................................................4 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................................... 4 THE PROBLEM A REAS.............................................................................................................................................. 5 THE SOLUTION........................................................................................................................................................7 SPACE M ANAGEMENT CONTEXT ........................................................................................................

Words: 8807 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay


...Night time in space It is very easy to get busy up here and forget to “stop and smell the roses” as it were. (I think that is probably true for all of us everywhere!) So after dinner and before bedtime tonight I finally stopped and took a moment to watch the world go by during a night pass. It seems like it has been a while since I have done this. There are always excuses…other things that have to get done, e-mails to write, feet to warm up, too tired, there is always another day...blah, blah, blah. But I put my foot down, figuratively speaking, and took the time. We were passing up through the Atlantic going north across Africa and Europe and arcing down through Asia to come out east of Australia and New Zealand into the Pacific. I do not know exactly where we were but it was already night when I positioned myself at the docking compartment window. I think it was the one facing more starboard. I always get myself mixed up when I go into that module; I can never easily find the hatch again. It is completely night. There are thunderstorms across Africa and lightning is everywhere; bright flashes are going cloud to cloud illuminating the clouds as it arcs from one to the other. It is a private fireworks show. The storm is large and very spread out and at any moment you see 4 or 5 flashes occurring at one time, each one only lasting a moment. The colors range from something orange-ish to blue-white. Some are more like balls of light while others have that......

Words: 2391 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Hotel in Space

...behind in the growing space tourism industry. Russian firms unveiled their plans at the country's premiere air show this week at Zhukovsky, outside Moscow, saying the race was on to build a new craft to take people into space following the retirement of NASA's space shuttle in April. RKK Energia unveiled plans for a replacement shuttle and Orbital Technologies said it hoped to build an orbiting hotel with room for seven guests by 2016. Other plans include flying tourists to the dark side of the moon and, by 2030, to Mars. "Space tourism is a real and fast-growing business," said Sergei Kostenko, head of Russian firm Orbital Technologies, said at the MAKS air show. "Whoever builds the first new spaceship now will reap big dividends." Although Russia currently holds a monopoly on rides to space aboard its Soviet-designed Soyuz, it starts at a disadvantage. Foreign experts say they doubt Russian firms can achieve their ambitious goals because they lack funding and even Russian officials said it would be hard to rival U.S. private sector firms now competing for contracts with NASA. Funding for the U.S. space program is much higher and NASA is expected to forge ahead with building a new generation of craft capable of traveling into deep space, with flights into low Earth orbit outsourced to private firms. "The U.S. has more possibilities than us right now," said Alexander Derechin, deputy chief designer for Russia's partly state-owned space contractor RKK......

Words: 781 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Space Exploration

...IS MONEY SPENT ON SPACE EXPLORATION A WASTE? Running head: IS MONEY SPENT ON SPACE EXPLORATION A WASTE? Is Money Spent on Space Exploration a Waste? Name Institution Human beings have always been fascinated with the idea of visiting space. Scientists all over the world have scrambled on the opportunity to go and explore space. Rockets that were made back in the 20th century have made it possible for people to tour the area. Following the First World War, the Soviet Union and the United States made their missile programs, all aimed at space exploration. Knowing that space exploration is one costly affair, there have been raging debates whether it is necessary to spend tons of money on it. This essay begs to answer the question, "Is money spent on space exploration a waste?" It is better for countries to spend money improving the financial status of their country and its people. Countries should not channel their funds on sponsoring scientists to go to space yet their people are suffering back at home (Kranz, 2011). The money otherwise spent on space exploration could be used to take care of the destitute children, improve health care and the education quality. Some countries do not have enough employment for their youths. It could be logical to create resources that generate jobs then visit space. Jerry asserts that the earth is not entirely explored meaning that there is no need to go...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Space Race

...| Greg Van Lieu HIST101-1502B-02 Professor Gleason May 25, 2015 THE SPACE RACE During the cold war a competition between the United States and Russia started as each country competed in seeing who would make it to space first. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed, it replaces the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) in October 1, 1958. On September 12, 1962 the race was defined by President John F Kennedy’s speech at Rice University and thus “The Space Race” had begun. In that speech, John F Kennedy stated “We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.” JFK RICE MOON SPEECH. (n.d.). The space race ignited America’s competitive spirit. The space race between the two world powers changed humanity with breaking the limits of new technology in space travel and catapulted the United States to evolve into the world leader by landing a human on the moon. On October 4 of 1957, the space race began between two of the most powerful countries when Russian launched an unmanned rocket called Sputnik 1 into orbit. “The launch of Sputnik 1 had a "Pearl Harbor" effect on American public opinion.” Launius, R. (n.d.). Then Russia, a month later, launched Sputnik 2 which included a small dog named Laika. The U.S. tried to catch up by launching two satellites. One of the satellites failed to reach orbit, however one of......

Words: 845 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...I. Introduction: The purpose of this paper is an overview about the current space tourism industry with advanced developments of space vehicles. Until now, seven tourists have ridden Soyuz spacecraft, a Russian spacecraft, to the International Space Station. Capturing the potential demand of space tourism, many private companies began to introduce their new and well-designed spacecraft promising to enable tourist to travel to space. From now to the next couple of years, we are expected to see many launches including testing and commercial flights into suborbital and low Earth orbit. There are also some private companies, who were awarded by NASA for their space programs to carry astronauts to the space station. II. Virgin Galactic – Scaled Composites (Suborbital): Virgin Galactic – Scaled Composites founded by Burt Rutan designed a unique type of spacecraft. Using a mothership aircraft, the space plane will be carried to midair and then be released to launch toward the edge of the atmosphere. Using carbon composite construction, the company has introduced two version of the space plane: SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo along with two model of the mothership aircraft: WhiteKnightOne and WhiteKnightTwo. (Ref 1,3) A. Spaceship: a. SpaceshipOne – WhiteKnightOne: Scaled Composites first launched the SpaceShipOne to the suborbital in 2004 while the first of WhiteKnightOne was in 2002. Overall, the WhiteKnightOne’s features are carriage and launch of payloads up to 7...

Words: 4161 - Pages: 17

Free Essay


...advantageous alignment of a planet and its parent star in the system HD 189733, which is 63 light-years from Earth, enabled NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency’s XMM Newton Observatory to observe a dip in X-ray intensity as the planet transited the star. "Thousands of planet candidates have been seen to transit in only optical light," said Katja Poppenhaeger of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., who led a new study to be published in the Aug. 10 edition of The Astrophysical Journal. "Finally being able to study one in X-rays is important because it reveals new information about the properties of an exoplanet." The team used Chandra to observe six transits and data from XMM Newton observations of one. The planet, known as HD 189733b, is a hot Jupiter, meaning it is similar in size to Jupiter in our solar system but in very close orbit around its star. HD 189733b is more than 30 times closer to its star than Earth is to the sun. It orbits the star once every 2.2 days. HD 189733b is the closest hot Jupiter to Earth, which makes it a prime target for astronomers who want to learn more about this type of exoplanet and the atmosphere around it. They have used NASA's Kepler space telescope to study it at optical wavelengths, and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to confirm it is blue in color as a result of the preferential scattering of blue light by silicate particles in its atmosphere. The study with......

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Space were, the real world is no episode of Star Trek or Doctor Who. The initial exploration of space was met with extreme enthusiasm, but since then, the positive look on space travel has become almost non-existent, and for good reasons. To be blunt, the costs are outweighing the benefits. We have hoped for discovering Earth-like planets and other inhabitants in our universe, but these hopes have been squashed considering how large the universe is, and how impossible the possibility of reaping the benefits from the large task is. Earth is our home now, and we must deal with its problems first before we deal with any other planets. Earth’s issues must be tackled first, for the sake of our planet and everyone, man or animal, on it. Money is always an issue, no matter what. When looking at the “Pennies of Each Federal Spending Dollar” chart, space travel is so low in the national budget that it is included in the “all others” section, which only makes up 6% of the budget. Even when we went to the moon, there was no monetary return, so space travel is a waste of resources. We need all the extra money it can gather to protect our planet. Russell Roberts, a space enthusiast from the National Public Radio, said to “Leave the money here on Earth.” Like many others, he sees no point in using taxpayer dollars for useless, hopeless expeditions. Even though the freedom of traveling through space is promising, “we would do well to remember that we do not have a very good track record in......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Space Exploration

...synthesis Essay Is space exploration really worth the cost? This is the inevitable question we must face when deciding how much of our tax dollars and the federal government's dollars are spent on space exploration versus things such as education, social security, medicare and health. Although space exploration could eventually make a difference in the way we live our lives and life as we know it here on Earth, we should be focused on the things that could change our lives now. Things like a cure for cancer, and a cure for HIV and AIDS. Our money needs to stop being spent on space exploration, and be put towards something that’s been proven to benefit the people of our nation. It would not be wrong to say that maybe one day space exploration could provide us with something miraculous here on earth, but in the meantime the extensive amount of money being spent on space exploration should stay here where we can make a difference now. In February of 2006, Margaret Mclean published an article on a web page dedicated to ethics called To Boldly Go: Ethical Considerations for Space Exploration. The article stated, “almost $17 billion will fly into NASA’s coffers with around $5.3 billion dedicated to space exploration” (source E). I don’t know about you, but to me this seems like an awful lot of money to be spending on something that has no supporting evidence of benefiting the United States and its people. Our government is responsible for how our tax money is spent and it is......

Words: 723 - Pages: 3