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Space

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mathildakwong
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Space is the final frontier

1. space: -outer space = region beyond earth
2. final: -last, ultimate, no more frontier beyond this
3. frontier: -an outer limit, especially one in which the opportunities for research and development have not been exploited
4. History of space exploration: simple overview of western countries – http://www.spacekids.co.uk/spacehistory/ includes China’s endeavors – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_space_exploration
5. Can space be considered an unexplored region if…
a. man has been observing the sky since before recorded history?
b. man has been thinking of exploring it since the 17th century?啟動螢幕閱讀器
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c. the first man-made vehicle flew 100 km outside earth in 1942?
d. the first human space flight in 1961?
e. the Voyager I and II space craft were launched?
f. man put a space station into orbit?
g. even ordinary people like singer Sarah Brightman can pay to fly into space?
h. we can be buried in space?
6. Consider:
-What do we know about space?
-What don’t we know about it?
-Is it our next or our final frontier?
-Is Antarctica the final frontier? Are the oceans our final frontier? Is the earth’s core our final frontier? Is time our final frontier? Is death our final frontier?
I don’t think the opposition needs to say what is the final frontier, only that space isn’t.

Negative side arguments

1st speaker
1) Definition on final, frontier, tangible or intangible frontier
2) Rebutt on opposite side definition, like Frontier IS NOT outer boundaries a : a region that forms the margin of settled or developed territory b : the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject --this will be our focus c : a line of division between different or opposed things d : a new field for exploitative or developmental activity
3)is = must be? other possibilties
4)if opposite side implies final = only, one of the final--? rebutt on definitions of final
4)No need to discuss what WILL BE the final frontier

2nd speaker
1)State other possibilites of FINAL FRONTIER eg earth crust, ocean
2) Bring out other possibilities for intangible frontiers like imagination, mind, thoughts, time, death, afterlife, parallel universe
3) new field for exploitative or developmental activity? the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject --this will be our focus?
4) mind--kots of philosophiser try to explore how mind works--> no conclusion can we further explore beyond mind? think out of box--> are we bounded by our mind ourselves? are there thoughts beyond mind? parallel universe-- beyond space, existence of another universe ie go beyond space, another space time-- einstein-- go beyond time to future? to the past? not yet DEVELOPED a WAY, NOT YET EXPLORED
5) REBUTTALS: AFFIRMATIVE: strong countries like usa, china, USSR in the past put lots of resources to explore--> no more frontiers more important than space OPPOSITE: only proves mankind are capable to start exploring out of earth--> no one yet has ability and capability to find a way to prove how imagination, mind, parallel universe works ie. new field MAY BE farthermost limit of knowledge thats why SPACE is NOT final becuase there can be lots othere possibilities to be final

3rd speaker
1) rebuttals

no one proves the existence of parallel universe, mind etc
→ no one proves not equal to not existing in the past no one can prove the existence of other planets only now human beings are able to explore space → proves existence hence parallel universe etc can be final frontier

people have already explored part of space--> able to go beyond space--> X final grontier while death X timeX breakthrough--> boundaries still new to be discovered and developed new knowledge compare--> how can we say space is the furthermost knowledge? then how can we say it is final frontier>

if affirmative said space is intangible space surrounding everyone
→ focus on parallel universe space / a. The expanse in which the solar system, stars, and galaxies exist; the universe.
b. The region of this expanse beyond Earth's atmosphere.
c. the unlimited three-dimensional expanse in which all material objects are located Related

REBUT on 3-dimensional cause 4D concept =time as proved by general relativity of einstein time is measured within space? → since abstract thought-->describe as time even when mankind are capable to go beyond space that includes matter--> is there null, empty, void/devoid?

CONCLUSION
*****include this phrase
As human beings have greater technology to explore space, it is foreseeable that we are able to break through the limit. Meanwhile, we still have no knowledge to explore how to cross the limit of time, of death, of parallel universe etc. Compare the tangibility for mankind to cross, space is definitely not the furthermost or ultimate frontier.

If affirmative uses the definition of space as the unlimited 3-dimensional space....
Repeat the theory of Einstein and emphasizes that time is 4dimensional unlimted continuum that never stops. beyond material objects

1st speaker script Kwong Yuan Shang, Mathilda

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. Today’s motion is space is the final frontier. We will prove to you that this is entirely not true. Human beings have been trying to go beyond our physical limits, including space. What is space then? It can be the expanse in which the solar system, stars, and galaxies exist; or the three-dimensional expanse in which all material objects are located. While the affirmative side had tried to prove to you that space is the final frontier, our team will convince you that space is not the final frontier because there are far more frontiers that human beings still yet to go beyond. Let us begin begin by giving you clear concepts on final frontier. Final is a term to describe something that is ultimate and having no possibility for further discussion. While frontier ls the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject or the new field for exploitative or developmental activity.

Come to think of it, we have long been exploring space since 1942 in which the German V2 rocket reached the space. In 1961, Russian astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space. In 1969, Neil Armstrong, and then Buzz Aldrin took "one small step" and became the first men on the moon. These historical facts proved that space have been widely explored since long time ago. It is thus not any new field for exploitative or developmental activity and thus not final frontier as we are able break through it. Even we have not been fully explored the whole space, it is not the final frontier because we have not fully explored the earth crust and even ocean as well. We have not yet drilled down beyond mantle and never obtained samples from mantle. It can be our final frontier as well. Can the affirmative side deny this possibility? No! Not even any prestige scientists recorded in history have claimed the full exploration of earth crust and oceans! Both space and earth crust, oceans are tangible frontiers and no one is sure which one is the ultimate limit of knowledge. The opposite side cannot prove space is furthermost limit of knowledge but our team can prove many more possibilities that can be furthermost limit of knowledge.

When the opposite side tried to prove that space is the final frontier, this actually implies that they deny the possibilities of earth crust and ocean being final frontier. There is only “one” to be final. When there can be other equal-likely possibilities to be the final frontier, which the opposite side failed to prove beyond, we are confident to say space is not the final frontier.

Furthermore, frontiers are not confined to physical boundaries surrounding matters. They can be intangible like imagination, mind, thoughts, death, afterlife and time. Philosophisers have put forward these concepts but no humankind yet is able or capable to further explore how human beings can cross these limits of knowledge. Our team will prove to you that why these concepts can be final frontiers and why they are even far more difficult for human beings to cross and thus as compared to space that have been exploring by mankind, these intangible frontiers are more likely the final frontier.

My second speaker will discuss on the intangible frontiers that can be the furthermost limit of knowledge in which no human being is capable to lie their feet on. My third speaker will further convince you that space is NOT the final frontier and do some rebuttals. Let me conclude our team line, “Space is not the final frontier because there are far more likely possible intangible frontiers that can be the furthermost limit of knowledge.” Meanwhile, let me do some rebuttals on the definition of …...from the affirmative side. …..
Hence, the affirmative side still fail to concretely prove space is final frontier. Thank you.…...

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