State Reorganization

In: Social Issues

Submitted By aishwarya1993
Words 3312
Pages 14
“At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.

A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new,

when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance…”1

When the First Prime Minister of India, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, gave his speech, he must have

been prepared with the various post-independence hurdles, the infant democracy would have

to undergo. Certainly, India, exemplifies the phrase, ‘Unity in Diversity.’ It is thus, astonishing

to see a country with innumerable divisions and differences, managed to stay united for the 65

years of independence it has seen. Post independence the main motive of the Indian Government

was to ensure that the Indo-Pak partition incident isn’t repeated.2

as many as 136 small and large states were acceded to the Indian Union. The states were

reintegrated soon to form the Union. However, people in various states have been from the time

of independence, till date, extremely vocal of territorial autonomy and political independence.

One such demand relates to the demand of ‘Reorganization of states’3

ethnic differences, and economical differences.

This movement, thus led to what we see today, ‘The Union of India’, with 28 states and 7 Union

territories.

On the eve of independence

on the basis of language,

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s speech, at the time of Independence, 15th

1

2Majeed A. (The Changing Politics of States' Reorganization). 2003 Publius Vol. 33, No. 4, Emerging Federal

Process in India (Autumn, 2003) (pp. 83-98)

The Seventh Amendment to the Constitution, 1956, which bought about changes in- Articles 1, 49, 80, 81, 82,

3

131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.

Inserted articles 258A,…...

Similar Documents

Rsst1 Nation, State, and Nation-State.

...RSST Task 1 Kayode Bristol Western Governors University (SST1) This essay will endeavor to explain the characteristics of the nation-state and transnational entities by first providing modern examples of the following categories: Nation, State, and Nation-state. Initially, the United States with be excluded from examination. However, the United States will be used a model for modern nation-state. Attributes of the United States, such as, fixed territory, sovereignty, and common culture will be explored in order to demonstrate how the United States fits the model of modern Nation-state before briefly describing 2 of the United States’ foreign policy objectives. The European Union, a prime example of a transnational entity, will be explored, starting with a description of the historical events and interests that led to its creation. The structural and functional attributes of the European Union will then be explored before delving into its foreign policy objectives. At this point, the reader should have a thorough understanding of nation-states and transnational entities from both an academic and practical perspective through the use of modern examples. The foundation help to facilitate the exploration and analysis of the interaction of transnational entities and nation-states as it pertains to the foreign policy objectives of each. Finally, we illuminate the consequences of these interactions and its effect on international politics. A nation can be roughly defined...

Words: 2490 - Pages: 10

United States Post Office

...United States Postal Service Yvonne Shaw HRM/531 May 27, 2013 Gabriela Zeigler * Company Background The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent agency of the United States federal government and legally responsible for providing postal service to every American in any location within the United States. The USPS is one of only a few organizations who are authorized by the United States Constitution. The USPS can be dated back to 1775. In 1971 the Postal Reorganization Act made it what it is today. Today the USPS has roughly 570,000 employees, operates roughly 260,000 vehicles, and delivers approximately 660 billion pieces of mail a year (Wikipedia, 2013). In 1971 after a postal strike, the American Postal Workers Union (APWU) was established to help protect worker’s rights and gave them collective bargaining rights, a process of negotiations aimed at reaching agreements to help regulate working conditions. At the postal service this is a three step phase; negotiations, mediations, and interest arbitration. Currently, due to decrease in standard mail delivery, mostly due to ease of the internet, the postal service is facing dire times and being forced to look at alternative ways of doing business without failing to meet their legal obligations. One such option is to close sites. The APWU is currently fighting to stop the closure of postal offices. Due to federal laws, the......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

State

...expected end rather than fully paying out dividends based solely on potential. Integrating rewards with recognition strategies allows you to encourage employees to exceed performance expectations. T = Transformative. They don't want a compensation plan that's totally out of line with what the business environment looks like today--their plan should resemble the times. Therefore, their practices and reward elements should constantly change with the times. 1 In building compensation program, the objective is to create a compensation program that will:  Attract and retain top talent;  Motivate your employees to achieve and maintain high performance;  Ensure competitive and consistent pay practices;  Comply with applicable federal and state laws and regulations;  Operate within the constraints of your budget and financial resources;  Ensure administrative efficiency; and  Allow you to offer competitive salaries relative to the labor market. Smartly integrated compensation plans take into accounts what's necessary for your company to maintain its competitive edge today and its sustained growth tomorrow. When compensation dollars are limited, including a good balance of benefits, recognitions and rewards can create a more appealing offering--and help you attract and retain top talent. B. Employee Perception about their Compensation: Employee satisfaction is a measure of how happy workers are with their job and working environment. Keeping morale high among workers......

Words: 3124 - Pages: 13

Kelsey Reorganization

...Reorganization Cetric Vazquez Contents Reorganization 3 Current Environment 6 New Orgaizational Structure 10 Developing Organizational Culture 13 References 16 Appendix A 18 Reorganization The City of Kelsey is a town with a population of approximately 625,000 residents. The City prides itself on being an earth-friendly community (City of Kelsey, 2011). In order to maintain this lifestyle, it has been determined that all potential candidates for city positions should take a personality test and those tests be made public. The reason for this is that the city wishes to maintain the earth-friendly atmosphere as well as the superior communities (City of Kelsey, 2011) that have been built. Unlike a business which may reorganize occasionally or not at all, the City of Kelsey basically reorganizes each time there are city elections. In order to meet the profile requirement, the city has chosen to use a Visual DNA profile test. The Visual DNA test works by having a series of questions that the person taking the test must answer. However, the answers that are available are pictures rather than words. According to the VisualDNA Understanding People website, the visual responses allow one to express their true selves instinctively without the need for precise wording (VisualDNA Understanding People, 2013). The Visual DNA test was chosen not only for the ease of taking the test, but for a more subtle reason of more accurate results. The test itself gives......

Words: 3811 - Pages: 16

Reorganization of the Intelligence Community

...Much like other agencies of the United States Government, the Intelligence Community was very big, stretching across several departments and agencies with similar or conflicting responsibilities. And some of the agencies operated entirely independent of others with no intelligence collaboration and sharing. After being dealt a huge blow on September 11, 2001, those in the government felt that is was necessary to reorganize the various agencies tasted with intelligence gathering. According to the 9-11 Commission Report: the sorrow, loss, anger, and resolve so evident immediately following the September 11, 2001, attacks have been combined in an effort to help assure that our country will never again be caught unprepared. As the 9/11 Commission notes, we are safer today but we are not safe, and much work remains. Although in today's world we can never be 100 percent secure, and we can never do everything everywhere, we concur with the Commission's conclusion that the American people should expect their government to do its very best. GAO's mission is to help the Congress improve the performance and ensure the accountability of the federal government for the benefit of the American people. GAO has been actively involved in improving government's performance in the critically important homeland security area both before and after the September 11 attacks. In its request, the House Committee on Government Reform has asked the GAO to address two issues: the lack of effective......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

State

...can go and look at Mount St. Helen’s? Let me tell you more about Washington. The Space Needle at night State Description Washington is the 42nd state in the United States. It became a state on November 11, 1889. Washington is located above Oregon and next to Idaho. The Pacific Ocean is on the left side of Washington. Washington looks like a box and my dog bit it. The population of the state is 6,971,406 people as of 2013. That's a lot of people! There are 39 counties in the state. The major city are Olympia and Seattle. The state capital is Olympia. The largest county in size is Okanogan County measuring 5,315 square miles. The largest county in population in Okanogan County with 41,120 people. There are 9 major highways in the state. Washington is the only state name after president George Washington. Washington got its nickname of the evergreen state because it is covered in thick forests. Did you know that Rhode Island the smallest state could fit inside Washington 46 times. The largest lake in Washington is the Franklin D. Roosevelt. The covering 123 square miles but it's fake. The Columbia is the largest and powerful rivers in Washington. It is also one of the rainiest regions in the world. It's much more continental climate characterized by cold winters hot summer, and sparse rainfall. The State Coin 2007 Major Industries Major Industries in Washington are farming (fruit, berries, nuts, cattle,......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Division of Health Care Quality Reorganization

...Public Health, oversees the enforcement of both federal and state regulations and licensing procedures for over 6,000 heath care facilities. Its mission statement is as follows: “The Mission of the Division of Health Care Quality is to promote, protect and preserve the health and safety of everyone in the Commonwealth across all settings.” Currently the Surveyor staff is divided into two main groups: Licensing & Recertification and Complaint Investigation, both of which are divided into 4 manager pools. The Licensing & Recertification manager groups are divided by state regions (north, south, west, metro), while the Complaint unit is divided by two specialty focuses (Hospital and Abuse groups) and two long term care (LTC) groups. The Licensing & Recertification section has approximately 60 surveyors, and the Complaints section has approximately 25 surveyors. In the last year, the division has had a change of director (who has since resigned), has lost the assistant director in charge of Licensing & Recertification, and has lost a manager of one of the complaint surveyor pools. Research Initiative The primary focus of this study is to look at the two largest work groups of the DHCQ that both primarily do investigation/survey work for the state and federal government. We will identify the strategic constructs, and focus on recommendations that will lead to improved efficiencies and that will save the division and the state time and money. Data Collection Despite the fact......

Words: 4795 - Pages: 20

States

...States 1 Caught in a meager, anonymous space outside a drab Arab city, outside a refugee camp, outside the crushing time of one disaster after another, a wedding party stands, surprised, sad, slightly uncomfortable. Palestinians — the telltale mixture of styles and attitudes is so evidently theirs — near Tripoli in northern Lebanon. A few months after this picture was taken their camp was ravaged by intra-Palestinian fighting. Cutting across the wedding party’s path here is the ever-present Mercedes, emblazoned with its extra mark of authenticity, the proud D for Deutschland. A rare luxury in the West, the Mercedes — usually secondhand and smuggled in — is the commonest of cars in the Levant. It has become what horse, mule, and camel were, and then much more. Universal taxi, it is a symbol of modern technology domesticated, of the intrusion of the West into traditional life, of illicit trade. More important, the Mercedes is the all-purpose conveyance, something one uses for everything — funerals, weddings, births, proud display, leaving home, coming home, fixing, stealing, reselling, running away in, hiding in. But because Palestinians have no state of their own to shield them, the Mercedes, its provenance and destination obscure, seems like an intruder, a delegate of the forces that both dislocate and hem them in. “The earth is closing on us, pushing us through the last passage,” writes the poet Mahmoud Darwish. Tripoli, Badawi camp, May 1983. 2 The paradox of......

Words: 8577 - Pages: 35

State of the United States Economy

...Evan DiLauro ECON 152 12/3/13 The State of the United States Economy By looking at the past five years of data, it is clear that the United States economy is in a state of rebound from the Great Recession. The data shows that before the recession the United States’ economy was operating at a solid level. The recent numbers show that the economy is on its way back to the state it was in before the recession hit. The Great Recession began in December 2007 due to major factors that lead to economic turmoil. Causes of the recession include failure of the federal to stem the tide of toxic mortgages, breakdowns in corporate governance, a excessive mix of risky barrowing by the households and wall street, key policy makers were not prepared for the crisis, and breaches in accountability and ethics at all levels. Due to the combination of these factors the Great recession was started and did not officially end until June 2009. During this time the unemployment rate took an all-time high and GDP growth was slowed down and at one point went negative. This was a rough time for the United States financially. Many people were in debt and did not have a job. The housing market also crashed, leaving Americans with little money and high prices on real-estate. Consumer cutbacks took a major increase, which also increased inflation, which lead to the decrease in GDP. Although the recession ended in 2009, it was the worst year for the United States unemployment rate. The annual......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

State

...The modern state As Adam Ferguson himself described, natural productions are generally formed by degrees. Vegetables are raised from a tender shoot, and animals from an infant state. The latter, being active, extend together their operations and their powers, and have a progress in what they perform, and have a progress in what they perform as well as in the faculties they acquire. This progress in the case of man is continued to a greater extent than in that of any other animal. Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilization. Given practical form by the new nation states of Western Europe such as France in the late Middle Ages or Prussia in the nineteenth century, the old state system rested on the idea that by concentrating power in a single head or centre, the state itself could be sufficiently controlled and its environment sufficiently managed to achieve self-sufficiency or at least a maximum of self-sufficiency in a world which would inevitably be hostile or at best neutral toward each state's interests and in which alliances would reflect temporary coalitions of interests that should not be expected to last beyond that convergence. The old maxim: "No state has friends, only interests," typified that situation. The first powerful nation-states were monarchies, advocates of the divine right of kings to protect central authority and power. After a series of modern revolutions, first in thought, led by...

Words: 1553 - Pages: 7

States

...States Do you own your identity, or are you slaved with the one someone else has given you. “The paradox of the mobility and insecurity. Wherever we Palestinians are, we are not in our Palestine, which no longer exists.” (Said, p. 542) The Palestine people must feel like a tumble weed, not knowing where the next stop will be or when they must leave another home. One has to wonder how Said would be reacting to the troubles in the East. We learn most of the Palestinians were always fleeing in some way or another. In the late 70’s thru the mid 80’s Said thinks back, reflects on his past and his heritage. In his pictures they reflect so much pain and hard-ship; they also show a resilient culture. Imagine in one of his photos a wedding party posing for a picture (Said, p. 541), with smiles on your faces, with buildings around you that have had mortar hits. Not knowing whether you will need to move again. Some of Said’s pictures to me are to tip the reader to see what Said wants them to see. I believe his story with no pictures is very strong and full of details. His story should be able to stand on its own. Other pictures are to let the reader feel the pain to share their pain, and to share their love for the country they love. So many pictures are showing normalcy. Said, lets us see inside his family and his country peoples life, always looking over their shoulder, knowing they have no passport, no identity. We take a lot of things for granted. The Palestinians don’t......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Reorganization and Layoff: Decision Making and Evaluation Paper

...Reorganization and Layoff: Decision Making and Evaluation Paper Reorganization and Layoff: Decision Making and Evaluation Paper “One in seven U.S. families goes bankrupt in the course of a decade, 90% of them are educated, middle-class families, mostly with children (Warren & Tyagi, 2003).” Job loss is one of the major causes. Middle-income jobs are usually impacted most during reorganization and layoffs. To help protect the middle-class consumer, it is important for companies to train its managers about the effects of layoffs, and proper handling of layoffs. The Middle-income A typical family, living a middle-class lifestyle with children, usually requires both parents to work. If one parent loses their job, the family could face a financial crisis (Warren & Tyagi, 2003). It is common that middle-income jobs are the most affected by reorganization and layoff, especially at big factories and companies. Many companies rely on the middle-income consumer, so companies need to be careful with why and how they reduce its workforce. As seen in bankruptcies, many markets hurt when middle-income jobs are lost. Business Decision To help maintain a healthy market and company perception by the public, companies need to avoid layoffs if possible, and when necessary handle the issue with care and professionalism. A good business decision is for a company to invest in training its managers on the effects of layoffs and proper handling of layoffs. When managers......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

...The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler Howard Act or the IRA, had a major impact on the everyday lives of Native American Tribes that were scattered across the United states. The Indian Reorganization Act provided the means and tools for tribes to form their own governments and constitutions. The IRA stopped the general allotment act that was put into effect by the Dawes of 1887. The Indian Reorganization Act granted the Secretary of Interior a tremendous amount of power over Native American affairs ranging from land, livestock, employment, government, etc. According to the reorganization plan, after a tribe or nation voted to accept the IRA, it would draw up a constitution and bylaws, submit it to a referendum, have the Secretary of the Interior certify the results, and then start operating as a corporate tribal council. Of the 181 tribes accepting the Indian Reorganization Act between 1934 and 1945, only ninety-six adopted a tribal constitution, and only seventy-three tribes ever received corporate business charters. Seventy-seven tribes with a population of 86,365 members rejected the Act outright. Several of these were large reservation groups, such as the Klamath Indians of Oregon and the Crows of Montana. An especially bitter blow to Collier was the rejection of the IRA by the Navajo Nation. With 98 percent of the eligible Navajo voting, the tribe rejected the Act by 419 votes. The Navajo had not forgiven the Collier administration for its......

Words: 1456 - Pages: 6

Departmental Staff Reorganization

...Departmental Staff Reorganization This was actually one of the most successful projects that I have ever managed throughout my career. I was newly appointed as the production manager in my company when the general manager suggested that there was need for a radical change in the production department to boost production. Having worked in the company for four years in the same department it was obvious to me that something had to be done. The challenge was that change had to happen under my leadership as the production manager. Being a busy manufacturing company the production sector is the largest with 32 employees. There are four sub-sectors in the department with seven employees each. The other 4 are supervisors each in charge of a subsector. Being the production manager I am in charge of activities with the help of two assistant production managers. During the staff reorganization I included all the employees in the department through my assistants and the sub-sector supervisors. I had a meeting with my two assistants who helped me to establish the problems facing the department and how they could be solved through staff reorganization. I then invited the subsector supervisors and explained to them my intention to rearrange staff at the department in order to boost production. Every staff member was therefore required to come up with a list of the challenges that they felt were affecting production and the probable solution. I requested all the supervisors to collect......

Words: 968 - Pages: 4

Company Reorganization

...domestic technology innovation, foreign competition and ICT in China's fast-growing economy. It is expected that this research project will deliver significant contribution to the advancement of ICTs and economics ground breaking researches. Results will imply that telecommunications networks need to reach a critical mass to have a discernible impact on economic output. References: 1. Michael Gurstein, “Community Informatics: Enabling Communities with Information and Communications Technologies” 2. Maximo Torero and Joachim von Braun, “Information and Communication Technologies for the Poor” 3. Mark Haselkorn, “Strategic Management of Information and Communication Technology: The United States Air Force Experience with Y2K” 4. Jamie Popkin, “China's ICT Industry: Current State and Future Direction Report” 5. Tina James, Information and Communication Technologies for Development in Africa: Volume 3, Networking Institutions of Learning – SchoolNet 6. Paul McConnell, “Making Difference, Measuring the Impact of Information on Development” 7. Michel J. Menou, “Measuring the Impact of Information on Development”...

Words: 1071 - Pages: 5