Structure of the Universe

In: Science

Submitted By fishmanr
Words 6164
Pages 25
Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe * Geocentric universe: Earth-centered * Solar system: the Sun and all the objects that orbits it * Our solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago * Galaxy: great island of stars in space, having from a few hundred million to a trillion or more stars * Milky Way Galaxy contains more than 100 billion stars; our Milky Way is in the Local Group * Galaxy cluster: collection of galaxies bound together by gravity. Small collections (up to a few dozen) are generally called groups, while larger collections are called clusters * Supercluster: gigantic region of space where many individual galaxies and many groups and clusters of galaxies are packed more closely together than elsewhere in the universe * Universe (cosmos): the sum total of all mater and energy * Observable Universe: the portion of the entire universe that can be seen from Earth * Universe is expanding, Big Bang occurred 14 billion years ago * Planet: moderately sized object that orbits a star and shines primarily by reflecting light from its star; an object is a planet if it (1) orbits a star, (2) is large enough for its own gravity to make it round, and (3) has cleared most other objects from its orbital path * Dwarf planet: object that meets the first two criteria but not the third, like Pluto * Moon (or satellite): an object that orbits a planet * Asteroid: a relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star * Comet: a relatively small and ice-rich object that orbits a star * Small solar system body: an asteroid, comet, or other object that orbits a star but is too small to qualify as a planet or dwarf planet * Star system: a star (sometimes more than one star) and any planets and other materials that orbit it * Star: large, glowing ball of gas that…...

Similar Documents

Across the Universe

...Across the Universe Film Analysis Alisha Liboma English 225: Intro to Film Professor Denise Orpustan-Love July 30, 2012 The Beatles were one of the worlds most influential and iconic bands who evolved in the 1960’s from Liverpool, England. For years people have found refuge in their lyrics that calm, inspire, and awe us to this day. Across the Universe not only provides the audience with a more in-depth look at the Beatles’ lyrical explorations, but also incorporates the use of filming techniques such as, cinematography, editing and sound techniques. It also gives us a closer look at the Vietnam War, struggling singers, love and life during a revolutionary period in U.S history that would prove to be unforgettable. This review will encompass topics such as “mise en scène,” (Goodykoontz, 2011), storytelling, cinematography techniques and the meanings behind the directors actions in a film. The names of the characters in Across the Universe, with the exception of the character “Max,” played by Joe Anderson, were all derived from original Beatles songs. For example there is a character named “Jude,” from the song, “Hey Jude,” who’s character is played by Jim Sturgess, as well as a character named “Lucie,” played by Evan Rachel Wood, and, “Prudence”, played by T.V Carpio. In any part of the movie you see, you can find a character of a Beatle’s song. Using the Beatles’ music to create a flow to the movie allows for all types of audience members to connect to the film.......

Words: 1914 - Pages: 8

Universe

...to two teams of astronomers for a discovery that has been hailed as one of the most important astronomical observations ever. And today, after briefly describing what they found, I'm going to tell you about a highly controversial framework for explaining their discovery, namely the possibility that way beyond the Earth, the Milky Way and other distant galaxies, we may find that our universe is not the only universe, but is instead part of a vast complex of universes that we call the multiverse. Now the idea of a multiverse is a strange one. I mean, most of us were raised to believe that the word "universe" means everything. And I say most of us with forethought, as my four-year-old daughter has heard me speak of these ideas since she was born. And last year I was holding her and I said, "Sophia, I love you more than anything in the universe." And she turned to me and said, "Daddy, universe or multiverse?" (Laughter) But barring such an anomalous upbringing, it is strange to imagine other realms separate from ours, most with fundamentally different features, that would rightly be called universes of their own. And yet, speculative though the idea surely is, I aim to convince you that there's reason for taking it seriously, as it just might be right. I'm going to tell the story of the multiverse in three parts. In part one, I'm going to describe those Nobel Prize-winning results and to highlight a profound mystery which those results revealed. In part two, I'll offer a......

Words: 3198 - Pages: 13

Master of the Universe

...Case 11-3 Master of the Universe Saturn Inc. (“Saturn”) and Venus Inc. (“Venus”), two unrelated parties, form Jupiter, a joint venture. Saturn owns 51 percent of Jupiter and Venus owns 49 percent of Jupiter. The purpose of Jupiter is to own and operate organic clothing design and manufacturing facilities and sell organic clothing to unrelated retailers. When Jupiter was formed, Saturn contributed $561 million to Jupiter and Venus contributed four manufacturing facilities with an assembled workforce, with a total fair value of $539 million to Jupiter. Venus was looking to exit its clothing manufacturing business, as this business no longer was a strategic fit for Venus. However, Saturn was looking to expand its footprint in the manufacturing of children’s clothing. In exchange for their contributions, Saturn and Venus received a combination of equity and debt securities for Jupiter (in proportion to their overall contributions). The Articles of Incorporation of Jupiter state the following in terms of governance and management of Jupiter: • • • • The Board of Jupiter (the “Board”) comprises eight individuals, four each from Saturn and Venus. Both Saturn and Venus are able to nominate individuals for the position of CEO of Jupiter (the “CEO”). The CEO is responsible for the day-to-day operations of Jupiter. Most Board actions are passed by a simple majority vote; however, the following actions cannot be taken without unanimous approval of the Board: o Appointment and removal of......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Chronoly Universe

...This chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology, the prevailing scientific model of how the universe came into being and developed over time, using the cosmological time parameter of comoving coordinates. The instant in which the universe is thought to have begun rapidly expanding from a singularity is known as the Big Bang. As of 2013, this expansion is estimated to have begun 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago.[1] It is convenient to divide the evolution of the universe so far into three phases. The very earliest universe was so hot, or energetic, that initially no particles existed or could exist (except perhaps in the most fleeting sense), and the forces we see around us today were believed to be merged into one unified force. Space itself expanded during an inflationary epoch due to the immensity of the energies involved. Gradually the immense energies cooled - still to a temperature inconceivably hot compared to any we see around us now, but sufficiently to allow forces to gradually undergo symmetry breaking, a kind of repeated condensation from one status quo to another, leading finally to the separation of the strong force from the electroweak force and the first particles. In the second phase, this quark-gluon plasma universe then cooled further, the current fundamental forces we know take their present forms through further symmetry breaking - notably the breaking of electroweak symmetry - and the......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Dark Matter in the Universe

...Have you ever wondered why there's so much empty space in the universe? it turns out that more than 70% of or known universe is made up of Dark Matter. What is Dark Matter? Why does it take up so much space? How can we use it for the betterment of our universe? There are so many questions that arise when something we know little about makes up so much of where we live. What I Already Know About My Topic: I chose to write about Dark Matter in the universe because it is a very rarely known thing in human understanding. When someone thinks space, they think planets, galaxies, and “Star Wars.” When I took my first high school science class, the very last section we had was about Dark Matter, and I had visibly freaked out to the point that my teacher asked me if I was okay. When it comes to “galactic” science, I tend to know quite a bit more about the subject than those that taught it to me because I was always a “Discovery Channel” child. Dark Matter is an interesting thing that you seldom hear or see anything pertaining to. This is why I have chosen to “teach” you about this potentially catastrophic element. Have you ever just taken a moment to look up at the stars and thought, “Wow, there’s quite a lot of black up there! I wonder what it is?” Well, ladies and gentlemen, that “space” that surrounds us is actually not space at all! It is filled with boundless amounts of an element that doesn’t exist within the Earth’s atmosphere! Surprisingly...

Words: 2611 - Pages: 11

Master of the Universe

...Case 11-3 Master of the Universe Saturn Inc. (“Saturn”) and Venus Inc. (“Venus”), two unrelated parties, form Jupiter, a joint venture. Saturn owns 51 percent of Jupiter and Venus owns 49 percent of Jupiter. The purpose of Jupiter is to own and operate organic clothing design and manufacturing facilities and sell organic clothing to unrelated retailers. When Jupiter was formed, Saturn contributed $561 million to Jupiter and Venus contributed four manufacturing facilities with an assembled workforce, with a total fair value of $539 million to Jupiter. Venus was looking to exit its clothing manufacturing business, as this business no longer was a strategic fit for Venus. However, Saturn was looking to expand its footprint in the manufacturing of children’s clothing. In exchange for their contributions, Saturn and Venus received a combination of equity and debt securities for Jupiter (in proportion to their overall contributions). The Articles of Incorporation of Jupiter state the following in terms of governance and management of Jupiter: • • • • The Board of Jupiter (the “Board”) comprises eight individuals, four each from Saturn and Venus. Both Saturn and Venus are able to nominate individuals for the position of CEO of Jupiter (the “CEO”). The CEO is responsible for the day-to-day operations of Jupiter. Most Board actions are passed by a simple majority vote; however, the following actions cannot be taken without unanimous approval of the Board: o Appointment and removal of......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Universe

...Universe From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). Part of a series on Physical cosmology • • • • Early universe[show] Expanding universe[show] Structure formation[show] Future of universe[show] Components[show] History[show] Experiments[show] Scientists[show] Social impact[show] Universe Big Bang Age of the universe Chronology of the universe • • Astronomy portal Category: Physical cosmology • • • V T E The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence,[1][2][3][4] including planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, the smallest subatomic particles, and all matter and energy.[5][6] Similar terms include the cosmos, the world, reality, and nature. The observable universe is about 46 billion light years in radius.[7] Scientific observation of the Universe has led to inferences of its earlier stages. These observations suggest that the Universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout most of its extent and history. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe, which is calculated to have begun13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago.[8][9] Observations of supernovae have shown that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.[10] There are many competing theories about the ultimate fate of the universe. Physicists remain unsure about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang.......

Words: 12085 - Pages: 49

Universe

...The observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that can, in principle, be observed from Earth at the present time because light and other signals from these objects has had time to reach the Earth since the beginning of thecosmological expansion. Assuming the universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable universe is a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the observer. Every location in the Universe has its own observable universe, which may or may not overlap with the one centered on Earth. The word observable used in this sense does not depend on whether modern technology actually permits detection ofradiation from an object in this region (or indeed on whether there is any radiation to detect). It simply indicates that it is possible in principle for light or other signals from the object to reach an observer on Earth. In practice, we can see light only from as far back as the time of photon decoupling in the recombination epoch. That is when particles were first able to emitphotons that were not quickly re-absorbed by other particles. Before then, the Universe was filled with a plasma that was opaque to photons. The surface of last scattering is the collection of points in space at the exact distance that photons from the time of photon decoupling just reach us today. These are the photons we detect today as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Alone Universe

...Are We Alone in the Universe? Throughout its history humankind asked itself this question and constantly tried to answer “no”. The idea of sentient living beings who are not people is present in writings of historians, geographers and other scientists for as long as the science itself exists. Mermaids, cynocephali, various bizarre species of beastmen, antipodes: all of them were embodiments of this dream. In course of time, the limits of the known Universe expanded and it became known that no such creatures existed. The only place to seek for non-human life now is other planets. Is there any hope for finding it? There are a great number of theories concerning extraterrestrial life. According to the “rare Earth hypothesis”, the conditions on Earth are close to unique and the possibility of them taking place on any other planet is close to zero. However, this theory takes it for granted that the appearance of life requires conditions identical to those on Earth. But is it true? If life on other planets exists, it may be completely different from what we are used to not only in form, but in fundamental principles as well. Of all the chemical elements only carbon and silicon seem to be suitable for being the basis of life, although silicon can form connections with far less other elements. Needless to say, we have never encountered silicon-based lifeforms, but if they exist, they may have properties that have nothing in common with what we used to associate life......

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Life in the Universe

...Prachi Sonani Mr. Bal Honors English 10 29 September 2014 Extraterrestrials in the Universe No one has seen the element ununoctium, but it does not indicate that it does not exist; in fact it is an actual synthetic element that has yet to survive for more than a thousandth of a second. All that is needed are scientists who can stabilize the element to survive longer. The same goes for extraterrestrials. Just because no one has found them, it does not prove they do not exist. Extraterrestrials are any form of life that does not originate, or did not originate from Earth. When people think of aliens, they imagine creatures like Megamind, E.T., and many others that they have seen on television or read about in fiction books. What people really forget is that life can be as simple as an individual cell, or a microbe; so when asked, without thinking, many people say they do not believe in the possibility of life elsewhere. Over the years, scientists have dedicated a significant amount of their life looking for any type of evidence. There is a great possibility of extraterrestrial life existing on other planets as is evidenced by the history of the universe, the extant research, and the expanse of the universe. The past of the universe substantiates the possibility of aliens living on other worlds. In order to find the proof of life, the scientists have intensely studied planet Mars. About 16 million years ago, the collision of an asteroid with Mars blasted martian rocks in...

Words: 2465 - Pages: 10

Universe

...THE UNIVERSE When we look up in the night sky we can see the stars and the moon. And because it is natural to be curious, we ask questions and we want answers. When our view was limited by what our eyes could see, the sky was our Universe. Then the telescopes deepened our view, photography enhanced it, and spectroscopy broadened it. The universe grew from a sky of stars to a realm of galaxies, to an expanding universe of galaxies. Many people believe that nature, the sun and moon, the star, even human beings never had a beginning. There is an endless, external cycle of birth, life and death that constantly repeats itself and it never began and will never end. In the Book of Genesis in the Bible, it was written that at first the world did not exist and that God is the only one who existed. So He created the world. The universe is the totality of everything that has ever existed. It is so large that it contains billions of stars, and all of the planets, galaxies and all of space. The study of the universe is called Cosmology. Traditional Views about the Universe 1. Geocentric Universe Greeks believed that the earth was a sphere that stayed motionless at the center of the universe or the geocentric (Earth-centered) view. Orbiting the earth were seven wanderers (planetai in Greek) including the sun, the moon and the known planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Greece was centered as the “Golden Age” of early astronomy. Claudius Ptolemy created the book......

Words: 13032 - Pages: 53

Master of the Universe

...Master of the Universe For the purpose of owning and operating an organic clothing design store, the company Jupiter was created. Jupiter was formed by Saturn, which owns 51% of Jupiter, with Venus owning the remaining 49%. Both Saturn and Venus participate in managing Jupiter, with each absorbing potential losses as well as the profits in proportion to their respective ownership interest percentages. ACS 810102521, 22, discuss the variability to be considered in applying the VIE (the Variable Interest Entity accounting considerations) in the noted Subsections as well as analysis of the design of the legal entity in two steps. Step 1 provides analysis of the risk to the legal entity. Step 2 requires determination of the purpose for which the entity was formed, including the variability that the entity was designed to create and pass through. ACS 810102525 introduces the circumstances that must be considered in determining the purpose(s) for which an entity was created and the variability that the entity was designed to create and pass. That includes: A. The activities of the legal entity; B. The terms of the contracts into which the legal entity has entered into; C. The nature of the legal entity’s interest; D. The manner by which the legal entity’s interests were negotiated and marketed to potential investors; and, E. Which parties significantly participated in the design or redesign of the legal entity. According to ACS 810102524 , the risks that cause or give......

Words: 620 - Pages: 3

The Life in Universe

...organism on the Earth. However, to come to this point, we went through 4 billion years of this phenomenon called evolution. However, the Universe, to our knowledge, is approximately 15 billion years. My idea is that in this 15 billion years life could develop everywhere. This means that how do you think we came to exist in the Universe. Most people think that planet Earth is unique in the whole Universe. Even ancient scientists, such as the genius Aristotle, put the Earth at the centre of the Solar system. However, now we know that it is not true. May be we were wrong in thinking that we are alone in the universe? The emergence of life on Earth gives obvious background for the assumption that the same conditions could emerge on other planets. This means that if life on the earth started 4 billion years ago, why it could not start somewhere else. Soviet astronomer Iosif Shklovsky cautiously suggested that favorable conditions for life exist on planets orbiting near the same age, cold enough and stable single stars of spectral type G, K, M (similar properties to the Sun). The number of stars in our galaxy can be estimated as 1000000000. Therefore, many planets like earth formed at the same time. Therefore, lots of time was to form the life. The discovery of planets in other star systems also indirectly indicates the availability of the universe conducive to the emergence of life in the "habitable zone." Now modern technology allows us to find out what what made......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Masters of the Universe

...Devry College of NY | Masters of the Universe | Accounting Project Case 11-3 | 12/7/2011 | | Introduction Mergers and Acquisitions are a normal part of the Corporate Finance world. Every week we hear news about large and small corporate mergers and buy-outs. They bring separate companies under the umbrella of a larger company that can be more efficient, created more profits and often offer more products, services and better quality. In this project we look at a joint venture type of merger that brings two companies together in order to form a third company and compete in new market segment. Saturn Inc. and Venus Inc. are two unrelated companies that have decided to form a Joint Venture to form a third company that will be called Jupiter Inc. The new company will be owned 51 percent by Saturn and 49 percent by Venus. At the forming of the Jupiter Inc., Saturn contributed $561 million and Venus contributed four manufacturing facilities and assembled the workforce. Venus’ contribution came with a fair value of $539 Million. Venus was already in the clothing manufacturing business and was looking for an exit strategy because it no longer seemed like a good fit for Venus Inc. Saturn Inc. wanted to expand its manufacturing of children’s clothing. The newly formed company, Jupiter Inc. would satisfy both of the needs by entering into a relatively new industry in making and selling organic clothing to be sold to unrelated retailers. Saturn and......

Words: 2022 - Pages: 9

Curatorial Rationale – the Universe at Large

...Curatorial Rationale – The Universe at Large At present, in today’s world, a pattern of an increasing disconnect between society and scientific discovery has begun to arise. As of July 2011, the United States, being a prime example due to the similarities and ties Australia has with its ally, have shutdown their space shuttle program, which was accompanied by a an opinion poll detailing that just 10 percent of American citizens believe there should be more spent on space exploration, 49 percent thinking the same should be spent, 23 percent believing they should spend less, with 6 percent believing NASA and the space program should be scrapped altogether (Whittington, 2011). This was followed by the unsuccessful motion made in the U.S. congress to scrap the innovative Hubble telescopes successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (Lemonick, 2012). What this demonstrates, as previously stated, is the divide between society and science, in particular the exploration of space and the Universe. The Universe at Large is a proposed exhibition which illustrates the intrinsic beauty and colossus of the universe inside of which we live. The exhibition aims to connect with the audience in such a way that will bring back and brighten the spirit of discovery and inquisitiveness which pushed humanity towards space exploration in the 1960’s. The exhibition involves the use of images and videos produced by The European Space Station (ESA) and Hubble, who have allowed there images and......

Words: 1517 - Pages: 7