Term Sheet

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风险投资协议(Term Sheet)详解之一:清算优先权 情景一:假如你是第一次创业,你正在寻找风险投资(VC),在经过跟风险投资人漫长的商业计划演示和交流之后,突然有一天,投资人对你的公司产生了投资兴趣,于是给你出了一份所谓“投资协议条款清单”(Term Sheet)。但是,包括你的团队、你的董事会、你周围的朋友在内,都没有人曾经看到过一份Term Sheet,里面的某个“清算优先权”条款是这样写的(通常是英文): Series A Preferred shall be entitled to receive in preference to the holders of the Common Stock a per share amount equal to 2x the Original Purchase Price… A系列优先股有权优先于普通股股东每股获得初始购买价格2倍的回报… 你完全搞不懂这是什么意思。 情景二:假如你接受了上面那份Term Sheet,投资人跟你投资了$2M,给你的投资前估值(Pre-money valuation)是$3M,投资后(Post-money)估值$5M,于是投资人拥有你公司40%的股份。经过1年,公司运营不是很好,被人以$5M的价格并购。你认为你手上60%的股份可以分得$2.5M的现金,也还满意。但是投资人突然告诉你,根据协议,他要拿走$4M(投资额的2倍),留给你的只有$1M。你又糊涂了。 什么是清算优先权(Liquidation Preference)? 几乎所有的VC选择可转换优先股(Convertible preferred stock)的投资方式,而可转换优先股的最重要的一个特性就是拥有清算优先权。 优先清算权是Term sheet中一个非常重要的条款,决定公司在清算后蛋糕怎么分配,即资金如何优先分配给持有公司某特定系列股份的股东,然后分配给其他股东。例如,A轮(Series A)融资的Term sheet中,规定A轮投资人,即A系列优先股股东(Series A preferred shareholders)能在普通股(Common)股东之前获得多少回报。同样道理,后续发行的优先股(B/C/D等系列)优先于A系列和普通股。也就是说投资人在创业者和团队之前收回他们的资金。 通常所说的清算优先权有两个组成部分:优先权(Preference)和参与分配权(Participation)。参与分配权,或者叫双重分配权(Double Dip)有三种:无参与权(Non participation)、完全参与分配权(Full participation)、附上限参与分配权(Capped participation),相应的就有三种清算优先权: (1)不参与分配优先清算权(Non-participating liquidation preference) 参考下面实例: Liquidation Preference: In the event of any liquidation or winding up of the Company, the holders of the Series A Preferred shall be entitled to receive in preference to the holders of the Common Stock a per share amount equal to [x] the Original Purchase Price plus any declared but unpaid dividends (the Liquidation Preference). 清算优先权:在公司清算或结束业务时,A系列优先股股东有权优先于普通股股东获得每股[x]倍于原始购买价格的回报以及宣布但尚未发放的股利(清算优先权)。 这就是实际的清算优先权,退出回报如下图。 (1)当公司退出价值(Exit Value)低于优先清算回报时,投资人拿走全部清算资金; (2)当公司退出价值按投资人股份比例分配的数额高于优先清算回报时,投资人将优先股转换成普通股,跟普通股股东按比例分配; (3)当公司退出价值介于两者之间时,投资人拿走约定的优先清算回报额。 [pic]…...

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Balance Sheet

...rP os t 9-101-108 REV: MARCH 5, 2007 DAVID F. HAWKINS The Balance Sheet op yo A balance sheet, otherwise referred to as the Statement of Financial Position, presents information related to a company’s financial condition as of a specific point in time based on generally accepted accounting principles. These data are classified in three categories—assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity. The basic balance sheet is: Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity or Resources = Creditors’ and Owners’ Claims on Resources tC Assets are probable, measurable, future economic benefits (things of value that the company owns or controls) to which the business holds the rights, which have been acquired through a current, or past, transaction. These are the resources of the firm. Liabilities are probable, measurable, future economic sacrifices arising from a company’s obligations to convey assets or perform services to a person or other organization outside of the company at some time in the future. These are the creditors’ claims on the resources of the firm. No Owners’ equity is the residual balance remaining after total liabilities are deducted from total assets. It represents the stockholders’ claims on the resources of the business. Do Assets and liabilities are presented in two categories: current and noncurrent. Current assets are cash and cash equivalents and those assets that are expected to be liquidated (turned into cash)......

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