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COMISION NACIONAL DE INVERSIONES EXTRANJERAS

INFORME ESTADÍSTICO SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA INVERSIÓN EXTRANJERA DIRECTA EN MÉXICO (Enero – marzo de 2010)

Página

Introducción.

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1. Metodología para la elaboración de las cifras sobre los flujos de inversión extranjera directa. 1.1. Nota metodológica. 1.2. Información sectorial y regional sobre inversión extranjera directa. 1.3. Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras.

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2. Comportamiento de la inversión extranjera directa durante enero – marzo de 2010. 2.1. Distribución sectorial y por país de origen de la inversión extranjera directa realizada y notificada al Registro Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras. 2.2. Proyectos autorizados por la Comisión Nacional de

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Inversiones Extranjeras.

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INFORME ESTADÍSTICO SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA INVERSIÓN EXTRANJERA DIRECTA EN MÉXICO (Enero – marzo de 2010)

Introducción.

En uso de las atribuciones conferidas a la Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en la fracción IV del artículo 27 de la Ley de Inversión Extranjera, se hace del conocimiento del H. Congreso de la Unión el presente informe estadístico sobre el comportamiento de la inversión extranjera directa en México durante el periodo enero – marzo de 2010.

En la primera parte del informe se presenta una nota metodológica sobre la cobertura y recopilación de las fuentes de información requeridas para elaborar las estadísticas sobre inversión extranjera directa (IED) en México, en la segunda parte se describe el comportamiento de la IED durante enero – marzo de 2010, destacando el sector económico al que se destinan las inversiones y el país de origen del cual provienen.

De manera adicional, el informe incluye un apéndice estadístico con cifras sobre fuentes de información de la IED, destino económico, geográfico y país de origen.

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1. Metodología para la elaboración de las cifras sobre los flujos de IED.

1.1. Nota metodológica. La metodología para medir y dar a conocer los montos de IED en México fue elaborada de manera conjunta por la Secretaría de Economía y el Banco de México, siguiendo las recomendaciones del Fondo Monetario Internacional1 y la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE)2. La Secretaría de Economía (SE) da a conocer de manera trimestral los flujos de IED acumulados en el periodo de referencia. Las cifras sobre IED se elaboran con datos de dos fuentes3 de información:

a) El valor de los movimientos de inversión realizados por empresas con IED y notificados al Registro Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras (RNIE), durante el periodo de referencia. b) Un monto estimado del valor de los movimientos de inversión de empresas con IED, que se sabe fueron realizados durante el periodo de referencia, pero que aún no han sido notificados al RNIE.

a) El valor de los movimientos de inversión realizados por empresas con IED y notificados al RNIE consiste en movimientos de inversión notificados por: I. Personas físicas o morales extranjeras que realizan actos de comercio en México y sucursales de inversionistas extranjeros establecidos en el país4; II. Sociedades mexicanas con participación extranjera;

1. Capítulo XVIII del Manual de Balanza de Pagos, editado en 1993 por el Fondo Monetario Internacional, Quinta Edición. 2. Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment. “Benchmark Definition”, editado en 1996 por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos, Tercera Edición. 3. El 1 de noviembre de 2006 se publicó el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (IMMEX), con el cual se integraron en un sólo Programa los correspondientes al Fomento y Operación de la Industria Maquiladora de Exportación y el de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación, denominado PITEX. Como resultado de lo anterior, en la estadística de inversión extranjera ya no se distinguirá a las empresas maquiladoras del resto de las empresas, por lo que para fines comparativos, la IED reportada en el rubro Importaciones de activo fijo realizadas por empresas maquiladoras con inversión extranjera se ha integrado en el rubro Cuentas entre compañías. 4. Se refiere a los establecimientos que para la prestación de servicios abren en México personas morales extranjeras, sin que para ello constituyan una sociedad mexicana.

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III. Instituciones fiduciarias que participan en fideicomisos de bienes inmuebles de los que se derivan derechos en favor de inversionistas extranjeros. Estas cifras corresponden a: Inversiones iniciales realizadas por personas físicas o morales extranjeras al establecerse en México5; Nuevas inversiones, reinversión de utilidades6 y cuentas entre compañías7 de sociedades ya establecidas; Monto de inversión involucrado en las transmisiones de acciones por parte de inversionistas mexicanos a inversionistas extranjeros, a través de las cuales la IED adquiere total o parcialmente sociedades mexicanas ya establecidas8. Monto de la contraprestación en los fideicomisos de bienes inmuebles.

De acuerdo a los artículos 32 y 33 de la Ley de Inversión Extranjera y 38 del Reglamento de la Ley de Inversión Extranjera y del Registro Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras, los movimientos mencionados deben ser reportados al RNIE, dependiente de la Dirección General de Inversión Extranjera de la Secretaría de Economía.

5. Incluye inversiones en activo fijo y capital de trabajo para la realización de actos de comercio en México. Este tipo de inversiones se refiere a las realizadas por personas físicas o morales extranjeras a quienes el Código de Comercio reconoce personalidad jurídica y la Ley de Inversión Extranjera posibilita a efectuar actividades económicas en México, sin constituirse como una sociedad mexicana. 6. Es la parte de las utilidades que no se distribuye como dividendos y que, por representar un aumento de los recursos de capital propiedad del inversionista extranjero, es parte de la IED. En la contabilidad de la balanza de pagos, en congruencia con lo dispuesto en la quinta edición del Manual de Balanza de Pagos del FMI, la contrapartida a la reinversión de utilidades de la IED (que se registra en la cuenta de capital como entrada virtual) es una erogación (también virtual) en los pagos factoriales de la cuenta corriente. 7. Se refiere a las transacciones originadas por deudas entre empresas asociadas. Así, incluye tanto préstamos de las matrices residentes en el exterior a sus filiales en México, como préstamos o adelantos de pagos de las filiales a sus matrices; estas transacciones son consideradas como IED debido a que significan un ingreso proveniente del exterior, financiado directamente por el inversionista extranjero a su filial en México. 8. Estos movimientos se consideran IED debido a que tienen la finalidad de obtener un interés de largo plazo en empresas mexicanas, lo cual es congruente con la definición de IED de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, página 7, Tercera Edición, 1996), misma que señala lo siguiente: “La inversión extranjera directa refleja el objetivo de obtener un interés duradero por parte de una entidad residente en una economía (inversionista directo), en una entidad residente en otra economía diferente a la del inversionista (empresa de inversión directa)”. El interés duradero implica la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre el inversionista directo y la empresa, así como un grado significativo de influencia en el manejo de la empresa.

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Cabe señalar que esta primera fuente de información (El valor de los movimientos de inversión realizados por empresas con IED y notificados al RNIE) tiene la característica de proporcionar cifras muy preliminares, debido a que las notificaciones al RNIE de dichos movimientos por parte de las empresas con IED tienden a darse con un importante rezago con respecto a las fechas en las que se realizaron las inversiones, debido, entre otras razones, al periodo de tiempo que se requiere para formalizar el acta de asamblea en la cual se asienta la inversión realizada (los movimiento de inversión -cambios en el capital social- deben por ley ser protocolarizados ante un fedatario). Este rezago se traduce en que los montos de IED reportados al RNIE en un periodo determinado corresponden en su mayoría a inversiones realizadas varios meses antes, y en menor cuantía a las inversiones realizadas en el periodo en cuestión. Por ende, la cifra reportada como IED realizada en un periodo determinado no es definitiva, ya que ésta aumenta posteriormente en la medida en que el RNIE recibe las notificaciones del resto de las inversiones realizadas en dicho periodo. Debido a ello, en la generación de cifras sobre el monto total de IED se incluye una estimación de los montos de IED ya realizados pero que aún no han sido notificados al RNIE.

b) Un monto estimado del valor de los movimientos de inversión de empresas con IED, que se sabe fueron realizados durante el periodo de referencia, pero que aún no han sido notificados al RNIE. Esta estimación se elabora tomando en cuenta el comportamiento mostrado por el rezago mencionado durante los últimos años, y con la información de diversos indicadores obtenidos por el Banco de México (información obtenida de diversas áreas del propio Banco; de las empresas; y, de medios especializados de información) 9.
9. Debido a la existencia de este rezago, se debe tener cuidado en la comparación de los flujos de IED correspondientes a dos periodos, pues las inversiones realizadas durante el periodo menos reciente han tenido más tiempo para haber sido notificadas ante el RNIE. Por ejemplo, sí sería válido comparar las cifras de IED correspondientes al periodo enero – marzo de 2010, que se tienen registradas hasta al 31 de marzo de 2010, con la información que se tenía registrada al

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Este monto es estimado conjuntamente por la SE y Banxico, y se debe señalar que no se dispone de desagregaciones por país, sector y estado, solamente se estima un monto global.

1.2.

Información sectorial y regional sobre la IED.

Se dispone de información desagregada por sector económico, entidad federativa y país de origen, únicamente respecto de los montos realizados y notificados al RNIE. La información geográfica de la IED se refiere a la entidad federativa donde se ubica el domicilio del representante legal o de la oficina administrativa de cada empresa (único dato que proporcionan los inversionistas extranjeros cuando notifican al RNIE sus movimientos de inversión), y no necesariamente a la entidad federativa donde se realizan las inversiones.

1.3.

Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras.

Finalmente, los montos de IED involucrados en los proyectos autorizados por la Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras de conformidad con lo establecido en los artículos 8º, 9º y noveno transitorio de la Ley de Inversión Extranjera, representan un importante indicador de las inversiones por realizarse en el corto plazo. Estas inversiones se incluyen en las estadísticas sobre IED, únicamente a partir de que se realizan y se notifican al RNIE.

31 de marzo de 2009, relativa al periodo enero – marzo de 2009.

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2. Comportamiento de la IED en enero – marzo de 2010.

A continuación se presentan las cifras que reflejan la evolución de la IED en el periodo enero – marzo de 2010, recopiladas hasta el 31 de marzo de ese año, de acuerdo a la metodología descrita en la sección anterior. El monto de la IED total reportada para en enero – marzo de 2010 asciende a 4,333.3 millones de dólares (md), cantidad 62.7% mayor a la reportada en igual periodo de 2009 (2,663.2 md). De acuerdo a la fuente de la inversión, los 4,333.3 md de IED reportada en enero – marzo de 2010 se integraron con 1,451.5 md (33.5%) de nuevas inversiones; 1,697.5 md (39.2%) de reinversión de utilidades; y 1,184.3 md (27.3%) de cuentas entre compañías.
Comparativo de la IED reportada en enero – marzo 1/ (Millones de dólares)
FUENTE 2009 2010 Diferencias Absoluta
TOTAL

Relativa 62.7 605.3 77.0 -21.0

2,663.2 205.8 958.8 1,498.6

4,333.3 1,451.5 1,697.5 1,184.3

1,670.1 1,245.7 738.7 -314.3

Nuevas inversiones notificadas Reinversión de utilidades notificadas Cuentas entre compañías notificadas

1/ IED realizada y notificada entre el primero de enero y el 31 de marzo de cada año. Fuente: Secretaría de Economía. Dirección General de Inversión Extranjera.

Los montos de IED correspondientes al periodo enero – marzo de 2010, fueron realizados por 1,672 sociedades mexicanas con inversión extranjera directa en su capital social.

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2.1. Distribución sectorial y por país de origen de la IED notificada al RNIE Los 4,333.3 md de IED realizada y notificada en enero – marzo de 2010 se canalizaron principalmente a comercio, que recibió el 42.7%; a la industria manufacturera fue el 34.6%; a servicios financieros, el 20.2%; y a otros sectores, el 2.5%.

Distribución sectorial de la IED en enero - marzo de 2010 (Porcentajes)

Comercio, 42.7%

Ind. manufac., 34.6% Otros sectores, 2.5% Serv. Financieros, 20.2%

Comparativo de la distribución sectorial de la IED reportada en enero – marzo a/ (Millones de dólares)
Sector
Total

2009 2,663.2 0.3 20.2 1,246.1 0.0 21.5 699.4 20.9 23.7 631.1

Part. % 100.0 0.0 0.8 46.8 0.0 0.8 26.3 0.8 0.9 23.7

2010 4,333.3 1.8 184.9 1,501.2 0.0 -76.7 1,850.8 58.2 873.5 -60.4

Part. % 100.0 0.0 4.3 34.6 0.0 -1.8 42.7 1.3 20.2 -1.4

Agropecuario Extractivo Industria Manufacturera Electricidad y agua Construcción Comercio Transp. y Comunic. Servicios Financieros b/ Otros Servicios c/

a/ Incluye la IED realizada y notificada al RNIE al 31 de marzo de cada año. No incluye estimaciones. b/ Servicios financieros, de administración y alquiler de bienes muebles e inmuebles. c/ Servicios comunales y sociales; hoteles y restaurantes; profesionales, técnicos y personales.

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Asimismo, durante enero – marzo de 2010, la IED provino principalmente de Estados Unidos, que participó con 48.5%; Holanda aportó 32.5%; España, 13.4%; Alemania, 4.6%; y otros países, 1.0%.

Origen de la IED en enero – marzo de 2010 (Porcentajes)
60.0% 50.0% 48.5%

40.0%
30.0% 20.0% 10.0%

32.5%

13.4% 4.6% 1.0%

0.0%
Otros países Holanda
España

2.2.

Proyectos autorizados por la Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras.

Durante enero – marzo de 2010, la Comisión Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras (CNIE) autorizó 3 proyectos de inversión por un total de 7,465.8 md. Los proyectos se realizarán en actividades de la construcción, el transporte y el sector servicios, respectivamente.

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Alemania

Estados Unidos…...

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