Free Essay

The Antebellum Period

In: Other Topics

Submitted By SnackDaddyy
Words 709
Pages 3
The Antebellum period of the old South is considered the peak of the Southern aristocracy. Although the aristocrats owned a majority of the wealth and land, it was their slaves who made the plantations a success. The slaves had to undergo the worst conditions during the antebellum period such as the amount of work, lack of food, health, punishments, and clothes.
Slavery became the worst of work ever. Their labor services are obtained through force and their physical beings are regarded as the property of others. Most slaves were given tasks to do due to their physical wellbeing. A work day consisted of 15 to 16 hours a day during harvest time and could go on through harvest and milling for 18 hours per week for 7 days a week. There were little differences in the work field involving gender. Women, who were pregnant, were still sent to work. "Hard driving" was quite common, which was working slaves past their abilities. In the South there was no time to rest, the climate was always considered work weather, so everyone was active all year round. Children that were 6-10 might be active as water carriers. Children that were 10-12 were organized into groups and put to weeding.
Punishment was a horrible part of the slave system. The physical punishment brutal but the mental and sexual abuse was also a huge part of slavery. Each plantation had its own set of social, religious, and labor codes. The slave master reigned as god. He maintained the element of slave misery, by controlling the amount of pain giving. Treatments were given such as mutilation, branding, chaining, and murder which were supposedly regulated or prohibited. Whippings, beatings, drowning’s, and hangings were as unpredictable as they were awful. It was clear to plantation owners that slavery could not survive without the whip because they weren’t allowed to kill there slaves intentionally. Males and females were whipped without question. The severity of whipping depended on the number of times they were whipped and the type of whip. Fifteen to twenty lashes were normal, but they could receive much more. Other items used for punishments were chains, collars, and irons. Slaves could also be hunged or burned. Women could be raped by the owner of the plantation, family or any white male.
The slave standard of living started with a poor, and often, horrible diets. The food was generally awful, but imbalanced and monotonous. Usually food allowance was a square of corn meal and three or four pounds of salt pork or bacon per week per person. This diet could be supplemented by vegetables from their gardens, by fish or wild game, and molasses but it was unusual. The slaves prepared their own food and carried it out to the field in buckets. Lack of variety and vitamins made the slaves malnutrition and risked them to diseases. Slaves were not well-clothed. They had little clothing for people engaged in heavy labor all year. Children would dress in long shirts. Male slaves were provided with two shirts, woolen pants, and a jacket in the winter, along with two shirts and two cotton pants in summer. Women were provided with an less clothes then men and had to make their own clothes. The cloth was cheap material, produced in England known as "Negro cloth". Plantation slaves were housed in slaves cabins. Small, badly built with logs with clapboard sidings, with clay chinking. Floors were packed dirt. They were leaky and drafty and the combination of wet, dirt, and cold made them diseased environments. The South was a disease environment for everyone due to the hotter weather and the swamp and marsh. Physicians were in really there, and medical knowledge was poor. There was no concept of bacterial transmission of disease, or insect borne diseases. Life expectancy for Southerners was lower than Northerners and life expectancy of slaves was lower than whites. Diseases included Malaria, Asiatic Cholera, Dysentery, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Pellagra, Beri Beri. Deaths in child was due to heavy excess labor.
The only thing that eased the pains of slavery was that they were allowed to have families and that they could but their freedom, which was not likely, but it gave them hope.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Reconstruction Period

...The Reconstruction period began during the Civil War with President Lincoln offering his plan for reunifying the Unites States with his “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction”. As the Civil War ended, the Confederates surrendering to the Union started the real reconstruction of the South. President Lincoln established the Freedom Bureau to contribute to the reconstruction before he had been assassinated. President Johnson took over the reconstruction and the 13th Amendment was ratified later that year. In the southern states black codes were enacted giving African American hard time against the Whites until granted full citizen through the Civil Right Act. The Ku Klux Klan was founded that same year to help harm and intimated the southern states for their rights. In 1867, Congress vetoed President Johnson violating the Tenure of Office Act and the reconstruction was handed over to Congress. This period was known as the Congressional Reconstruction. The first reconstruction act divided the South in five military districts and ordered Southern states to call for a new constitutional convention. In 1868, President Johnson was impeach by the House but failed by one vote by the Senate to be convicted but stood in office losing majority of his power as president. Through the Congressional Reconstruction, the 14th and 15th Amendment was ratified, most southern states had readmitted into the Union, and a new president, Ulysses S. Grant, was elected. The struggle in the South......

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intertestament Period

...LIBERTY UNIVERSITY INTERTESTAMENT PERIOD PAPER A RESEARCH PAPER SUBMITTED TO DR. BOB KENDALL FOR NEW TESTAMENT INTRODUCTION IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE MASTERS OF PASTORAL COUNSELING DEGREE IN THE LIBERTY UNIVERSITY SEMINARY BY JASON MOORE OMAHA, NE OCTOBER 2013 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………1 SILENCE WITHOUT SILENCE...……………………………………………………………..2 SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………….….7 iii INTRODUCTION For many people the transition from the Old Testament to the New Testament is strange and considerably confusing. Without knowing what took place in the “silent years”, it very well can be a difficult task to make the leap from the Old Testament to the New Testament. The Old Testament world looks and sounds completely different from the world the New Testament describes, however, the same spirit inspired the writings of both canons. It must be known to the reader that the Old and New Testaments complement each other. In order to get the full understanding and the entire picture of God’s Word, you must understand them together. But, in order to understand them together, there is the time period of 400 years that are not included. This 400 year time frame plays a huge part in understanding how the two different worlds of the Old and New Testaments come together to make a comprehensive story. The “Intertestamental Period” is a short amount of time in relativity to the rest of Biblical history, but this short time frame...

Words: 2509 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Romantic Period

...Romantic period Noah, Patrick, and Wickert Facts about the romantic period -Lasted from 1800-1860 The Romantic era was a period of great change and emancipation The Romantic era allowed artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity. The Romantic Period or the Romantic Era is known as Romanticism -William Wordsworth - Born April 7, 1770 - Cockermouth, Cumbria, England - Went to school at Hawkshead Grammar school before going to St. Johns College. --His popular poems are…. - A character - A Night-piece - A night thought -A poet’s Epitaph - A morning exercise and many more… His famous quotes are… - “ The child is the father of the man” - “Imagination, which in truth Is but another name for absolute power and clearest insight, amplitude of mind, and reason, in her most exalted mood. In the winter of 1798-79 he wrote many of his greatest poems and also traveled with Coleridge and Dorothy. In 1807 he started the publication of Poems in 2 volumes which included “Resolution and Independence” William Blake -William Blake was born November 28th 1757 in London England - Blake was a poet, painter, and printmaker - Most famous poem is “The Tyger” - Some other poems are “and did those feet”, “a cradle song”, “a dream”, “a song”, and many more. - He was said to see visions - One instance of this is when his brother died in 1787; he said he saw his brother’s soul ascend into heaven. This greatly influenced his later poetry. - In 1800 Blake moved......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intertestamental Period

...UNIVERSITY ACCOUNT OF THE INTERTESTAMENTAL PERIOD IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE NBST 525 LIBERTY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY BY LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA August CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 INTRODUCTION The “Intertestamental period”, or the “Second Temple Period” represent a period within history, which upholds an interpretation for both Christianity and Judaism. According to Judaism, this era acknowledges the “Second Temple Period”, which exemplifies the Jewish Diaspora. First, “diaspora” simply means “dispersion” or “scattering.” This dispersion or scattering began through the efforts of the Assyrians when they defeated Israel in 722 B.C. In effect, the Jewish nation dispersed all over the Middle East, Egypt, and Babylon. These individuals literally disappeared from antiquity due to the results of the Jewish Diaspora. However, Nebuchadnezzar endured the Jewish populaces to inaugurate a cohesive group within Babylon around 597 B.C. Nevertheless, the subject of this essay will focus on the Christian assessment of the “Intertestamental Period.” For centuries, Christian intellectuals describe the era from the final quarter of the fifth century B.C. to the first century A.D. as the “Intertestamental Period.” This era arises with the reconstructing of the Jewish temple in the late sixth century, and terminating with its annihilation in A.D. 70. The “Intertestamental Period” represents a significant account of the......

Words: 2999 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

The Baroque Period

...empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Aleijadinho in Brazil was also one of the great names of baroque sculpture, and his master work is the set of statues of the Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos in Congonhas. The soapstone sculptures of old testament prophets around the terrace are considered amongst his finest work. The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini (1598–1680) give highly charged characteristics of Baroque style. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful. Architecture: In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The......

Words: 1594 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Teaching Period

...  Teaching Period 2, 2014 MGT10001 Introduction to Management Assessment 2: Environmental analysis Weighting: 20% Word limit: 1000 (+/- 10%) Due date: 9am AEST Monday 11 August 2014 (Week 6) Assessment overview This assessment is based on the case study below. You are to do an environmental analysis, which requires you to demonstrate your ability to identify and describe the key environmental challenges facing a particular group of managers within a specific industry operating in business today. Note that the case study provided, Landfill Gas Industries, is the same company to which you have been introduced at various points throughout this unit. Assessment details Landfill Gas Industries Pty Ltd is a company that specializes in offering gas extraction from landfill sites (rubbish dumps) around Australia. The extracted gas is used to generate electricity for local councils and landfill owners around the nation. L.G.I. Pty Ltd offers a variety of services from assessment of gas and flare capability to maintenance and monitoring of electrical generators powered by the gas they extract from landfill sites. You can find out more about landfill gas as well as the company’s specific customers, services and capabilities by going to their website at: Presume that L.G.I. Pty Ltd has commissioned you to conduct a preliminary investigation of the environmental factors and how they will impact the company’s operation in Australia. This......

Words: 1330 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Critical Period

... Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis Second Language Acquisition Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues Susan Gass and Jacquelyn Schachter, Editors Monographs on Research Methodology Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis Edited by David Birdsong University of Texas LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Mahwah, New Jersey London This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2009. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to Copyright © 1999 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers 10 Industrial Avenue Mahwah, NJ 07430 Cover design by Kathryn Houghtaling Lacey Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis/ edited by David Birdsong. p. cm. — (Second language acquisition research) Chiefly papers presented at a conference held Aug. 1996, Jyväskylä, Finland. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8058-3084-7 (alk. paper) 1. Second language acquisition—Congresses. I. Series. P118.2.S428 1998 401′.93–dc21 98–42609 CIP ISBN 1-4106-0166-8 Master e-book......

Words: 4930 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Antebellum Texas

...ANTEBELLUM TEXAS. In the drama of Texas history the period of early statehood, from 1846 to 1861, appears largely as an interlude between two great adventures-the Republic of Texas and the Civil War.qqv These fifteen years did indeed lack the excitement and romance of the experiment in nationhood and the "Lost Cause" of the Confederacy. Events and developments during the period, however, were critical in shaping the Lone Star State as part of the antebellum South. By 1861 Texas was so like the other Southern states economically, socially, and politically that it joined them in secessionqv and war. Antebellum Texans cast their lot with the Old South and in the process gave their state an indelibly Southern heritage. When President Anson Jonesqv lowered the flag of the republic for the last time in February 1846, the framework for the development of Texas over the next fifteen years was already constructed. The great majority of the new state's approximately 100,000 white inhabitants were natives of the South, who, as they settled in the eastern timberlands and south central plains, had built a life as similar as possible to that experienced in their home states. Their economy, dependent on agriculture, was concentrated first on subsistence farming and herding and then on production of cotton as a cash crop. This meant the introduction of what southerners called their "Peculiar Institution"-slavery.qv In 1846 Texas had more than 30,000 black slaves and produced an even larger......

Words: 6367 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Antebellum Louisiana

...Antebellum Louisiana Assignment Dodie Huval 1. The major societal levels (social order) of Antebellum are as follows: a. Large Planters – Sugar cane, tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton – Labor Intensive Crops i. 10% of Population – top of Socio-Economical Chain ii. Less than 10% Of Louisiana’s Planter Population owned more than 500 slaves iii. Controlled 90% of wealth iv. Most educated because there were no public schools until 1868; educated children abroad v. Plantation owners, very self-sufficient; vi. Didn’t mistreat slaves- slaves = money/investment b. Professional Class vii. 15% of Population viii. Doctors ix. Lawyers x. Store keepers xi. Bankers xii. Insurance Agents 1. Placed below planters because if the planters have economic downturn, so would the professional class 2. Their income was dependent upon planters c. Small Farmers xiii. 75% Of people (majority) xiv. Corn, wheat, potatoes, and livestock – subsistence farming xv. Meager living xvi. If they owned slaves, they worked side by side with them xvii. Education done at home by mom, dad, or elders xviii. Self Sufficient – when not farming, hunting to supplement income with fur trade xix. Weren’t very wealthy, but weren’t hungry either d. Slaves xx. Bottom of...

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Baroque Period

...The Baroque Period was the age of reason when minds and imaginations opened up new worlds of scientific knowledge as well as artistic creativity. (Fleming, 75) The Baroque era was a period of opulence and magnificence that gave off a powerful awe inspiring style that was full of flamboyant concepts and overall dramatic quality. From Venice, as well as from Rome and the centers where international mannerism flourished, the roads to Baroque art fanned out in all directions. The style of Baroque art was so diverse that it’s difficult to determine what classifies it as being art of the Baroque era. Although Baroque art has many diverse artistic manifestations there are certain general characteristics that appear in all three types of Baroque art. The Counter Reformation Baroque style focuses on astonishing and overpowering its audience. Art of this time was also enlisted in serving the purposes of the church militant. The Aristocratic Baroque style focuses on glorifying the position and asserting national power and prestige. The last style of the Baroque age, Bourgeois Baroque, was marked by the concentration on down-to-earth common people of the middle class. The individuality of each style of the Baroque period is visibly distinctive, yet similar in their own exclusive approaches. The Counter Reformation art, which focused on the command of the church, was created by the Jesuits in 154. It was also dynamic and religious due to the influence of the church. In Artemisia......

Words: 652 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Period Analysys

...------------------------------------------------- PERIOD ANALYSIS Period analysis show the inter-temporal dimension of production theory. It was developed by Alfred Marshallin his “Principles of Economics”, 1890, and has remained practically unaltered since. It tries to explain howequilibrium is achieved and explains the adjustment processes to reach it, going from the short-run equilibrium to the long-run equilibrium. His method is able to classify forces with references to the length of time needed for the production process; and then confine in ceteris paribus those forces that are of less importance with regards to the specific time we are considering. Four periods can be distinguished: very short-run, short-run, long-run and very long-run. The very short-run period is normally not studied as it is considered irrelevant. It is a period characterized by having all its production factors or inputs, fixed; thus implying there can be no change in their quantities.Costs are therefore considered to be fixed and logically there is inexistence of technological progress in this period. The short-run period is a period in which some factors remain fixed while others may vary in their quantity. Capital elements, such as equipment, are considered fixed factors while labour is considered to be a variable factor.  During this period, cost analysis has a large dependence on marginal cost and average total costs. But, since not all factors can be increased, this will result...

Words: 2028 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Sensitive Periods -

... Please write the essay title in FULL below: |Define the term Sensitive Periods and link them appropriately to the child’s first stage of development. | | | |Explain how you would support these sensitive periods during this first crucial stage. | | | |Briefly outline the stages of growth (planes of growth). | | | |Define the term sensitive periods and give full details of the six main periods, together with examples to show your understanding. | | | |Explain why it is important to support and facilitate these periods during the child’s first stage of development (birth – 6). ......

Words: 2384 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Frances Wright: an Antebellum Activist never produced enough to achieve her initial goal, a result that was not unprecedented as Wright had little to no experience running a farm on her own. When Wright made a brief journey back to England, Nashoba and the politics surrounding it provoked a national scandal after its remaining settlers proclaimed a doctrine of free love. Upon her return to the United States, Wright paid to transport of the slaves to Haiti, where they would be free, and moved to another utopian community in Indiana. An anti-clerical lecture tour consolidated Wright’s unpopularity among the American middle class. In these lectures, Wright recommended the abolition of capital punishment in the prisons of America, an option that was far more widely used in Antebellum America than today. Wright also advocated very strongly for women's rights, focusing especially on the need for birth control and liberalized divorce laws that gave more rights to the women. Wright was relatively well-received in New York City, the nexus of liberalism for its day. Wright relocated there and became a leading figure in the progressive working class politics of the day. In New York, Wright met, had a child with, and married French doctor Guillaume D'Arusmont in the year 1831. The couple moved to Paris, where Frances Wright D'Arusmont occupied himself with raising their daughter and removed himself, and Wright, by extension, somewhat from the public eye. After the scandal, Wright occupied herself by traveling across......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Amortization Periods

...) The key differences arise from the use of shorter amortization periods for (1) unrecognized prior service costs, and (2) unrecognized actuarial differences. These latter items likely reflect unrecognized gains and losses, and would include asset gains and losses. Under U.S. GAAP, amortization periods are based on remaining service lives of employees, which is probably longer than five or ten years. One other difference that students might note are the relatively low discount rate and expected return assumptions used by this Japanese company. For example, Procter and Gamble (and many U.S. companies) use rates up to three times as high as the rates used by this Japanese company. It should be noted that there are several similarities. Under Japanese GAAP, the pension obligation is measured based on the projected benefit obligation and amount recognized is based on an amount net of the liability and plan assets. There is smoothing of gains and losses. Also, the components of pension expense are similar. (b) Shorter amortization periods will result in higher pension expense with respect to prior service costs. Depending on whether the company has unrealized gains or losses, the shorter amortization period for the actu- arial differences may result in either higher or lower reported income. On the balance sheet, there will be less non-recognition of the prior service costs and gains and losses. So the net pension asset......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Interracial Marriage in Antebellum America

...Under the Cloak of Religion – Interracial Marriage in Antebellum America The letters among Harriett Gold and her extended family in To Marry an Indian, edited by Theresa Strouth Gaul, give intimate insight into antebellum white people’s opinions on Indians and interracial sex. This correspondence between a young white Christian woman and her extended family regarding her relationship with an Indian man reveal white Americans’ disapproval of interracial sex and marriage. This family’s views are reflective of society at large during the early to mid-1800s. Overall, the letters show that antebellum white people see Indians as a heathen, uncivilized people who need to be saved. White Americans are willing to accept Indians as converts into the Christian religion; however, the white people do not see them as equals. It is generally thought that Indians and whites should not engage in interracial sex or marriage, and white Americans consistently mask their feelings of superiority with their religious beliefs. Upon hearing of Harriett’s engagement to Indian Elias Boudinot, her extended family begins voicing their opinions on the matter through the letters compiled in To Marry an Indian. Harriett’s brothers-in-law are particularly vocal about their disapproval of the engagement, and their words very clearly express their view that interracial sex and marriage are not acceptable. Daniel Brinsmade refers to the couple’s love as an “animal feeling,” and Cornelius Everest states,......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5