English and Literature
Submitted By macomanram
The theory of individualism/collectivism developed by Harry Triandis (1990, 1995) emphasizes individual differences and cross-cultural differences in many of the same tendencies discussed by social identity theory. The theory of individualism/collectivism describes cross-cultural differences in the extent to which emphasis is placed on the goals and needs of the in group rather than on individual rights and interests. For individuals highly predisposed to collectivism, ingroup norms and the duty to cooperate and subordinate individual goals to the needs of the group are paramount. Collectivist cultures are characterized by social embeddedness in a network of extended kinship relationships.
Such cultures develop an “unquestioned attachment” to the ingroup, including “the perception that ingroup norms are universally valid (a form of ethnocentrism), automatic obedience to ingroup authorities [i.e., authoritarianism], and willingness to fight and die for the ingroup. These characteristics are usually associated with distrust of and unwillingness to cooperate with outgroups” (Triandis, 1990:55); collectivist cultures are more prone to ingroup bias (Heine and Lehman, 1997; Triandis and Trafimow, 2001). Like social identity processes, tendencies toward collectivism are exacerbated in times of external threat, again suggesting that the tendency toward collectivism is a facultative response that evolved as a mechanism of between-group conflict.
Groups: Process & Practice was built on a rich base of knowledge and years of professional experience on the part of the two authors in leading groups themselves. It is filled with an invaluable summary of the stages that groups go through, the role of the leader through each of these stages and a detailed description of the member's roles and challenges at the different stages.
In reading this book, I was most interested…...