Virtual Management

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Wania
Words 1292
Pages 6
Handout # 8
Introduction to Phychology
BBA-1
Consciousness
Instructed By Ms. Ghazala Danish

Consciousness:
Consciousness refers to your individual awareness of your unique thoughts, memories, feelings, sensations and environment. Your conscious experiences are constantly shifting and changing. It is prosperity of particular parts of the brain, not of the brain as a whole. The awareness of various cognitive processes and making decision. For example, in one moment you may be focused on reading this article. Your consciousness may then shift to the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a co-worker. Next, you might notice how uncomfortable your chair is or maybe you are mentally planning dinner.

Cognitive Process: |
Cognitive processes are very important for human behavior. It is about knowledge and the way people use their knowledge.
For example, sleep, looks dream are count in cognitive process. Consciousness as a social phenomenon:
Consciousness is that we aware of ourselves of our thoughts, our perceptions, our actions, our memories and our feelings. Historically, people have taken three philosophical positions about the nature of consciousness.

The first and earliest position is that consciousness is not a natural phenomenon, (natural phenomenon is that subject to the laws of nature that all scientists attempt to discover: laws involving matter and purely physical forces. This position says that consciousness is something supernatural and miraculous, not to be understood by human mind.

The second position is that consciousness is a natural phenomenon but also that, for various seasons, we cannot understand it. Some people say that we can never understand consciousness because our brains are simply not capable of doing so it would take a more complex brain than ours to understand the biology of subjective awareness. Before we…...

Similar Documents

Virtual Meetings: Smart Management Analysis

...Virtual Meetings: Smart Management Analysis Jeff Hebert April 27, 2012 City University, Bellevue, WA Virtual Meetings: Smart Management Analysis Teleconferencing and video conferencing are a technologies that allow individuals to conduct meetings virtually. A virtual meeting can be as simple as a multi person conference call, to a full blown video meeting with several individuals from all over the world. Technology advances and increases in travel costs have made virtual meetings an attractive option for both small and large businesses. However, companies must be aware of the risks of virtual meetings and implement proper precautions to avoid loss of intellectual property or sensitive company information. This paper will analyze case study Virtual Meetings: Smart Management (Laudon, K. & Laudon, J., 2012, pg 62) History The American Telephone and Telegraph introduced the concept of teleconferencing in the 1960s through its Picturephone device (Furnem 2007). Initial Picturephone’s were small Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) units with a small camera built into the housing. Many units were designed to sit on a desktop with the average unit size being approximately 6 inches. It would be several years before color would be available on the Picturephone (Wikipedia n.d.a). AT&T was one of the first to offer Picturephone service to businesses. Initial cost was high at approximately monthly cost of $169, plus 25 cents per minute after the first 30 minutes. ......

Words: 1521 - Pages: 7

Virtual Meetings: Smart Management

...Group meetings can be done through face to face conference or the web conference. Face-to-face meetings require individuals to be in the same place at the same time whereas virtual meetings reach across geographical boundaries to even the most remote locations. Each kind of conference has its own pros and cons. Face-to-face meetings and conferences can cost a great deal due to travel expenses, accommodations, venue rental, and the packing and shipping of displays. According to Bloomberg Businessweek, a virtual meeting or teleconference can save 50 to 80 percent of the costs of a face-to-face meeting. Virtual meetings may lower the costs and eliminate the geographical distances between attendees, but they sometimes fail to achieve the active participation of attendees. In these tough economic times, advancing technologies are making virtual events not only a less expensive replacement for physical meetings but also a superior one. The objectives of the meetings and events are to exchange information and to network. Virtual meeting and event technology can facilitate these two objectives easily. Considering the need and worthiness of virtual meeting, I will select the proper web conferencing software. Planning and preparation is everything when it comes to running a successful web conference so I will take care of the following steps while preparing for a web conference. 1. Pre-planning: I would prepare and send the conference invitation one or two weeks before the......

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Virtual Team

...MANAGING VIRTUAL PROJECT TEAMS A research project submitted to the faculty of San Francisco State University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Business Administration by Bryan Rolf Trautsch San Francisco, California December 11, 2003 Copyright (c) 2003 by Bryan Trautsch. CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read VIRTUAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT by Bryan Rolf Trautsch, and that in my opinion this work meets the criteria for approving a research project submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the Master of Business Administration degree at San Francisco State University. ________________________________________ Dr. Robert C. Nickerson Professor of Information Systems ________________________________________ Dr. Sam S. Gill Professor of Information Systems ABSTRACT MANAGING VIRTUAL PROJECT TEAMS Bryan Rolf Trautsch San Francisco State University Fall 2003 The purpose of the project is to explore the communications and collaborations issues associated with managing virtual project teams. In order to establish a better understanding of the problem, the paper evaluates virtual teams against more traditional collocated teams to provide some background and depth to the research. The method used in the research was in the format of a questionnaire consisting of six questions. The questionnaire was delivered via e-mail to various project managers with virtual project team experience dispersed......

Words: 11404 - Pages: 46

Virtual Office

...Virtual Office MODULE: LECTURER: STUDENT: What is Virtual Office? A Virtual Office is a workplace that is not based in one physical location but consists of employees working remotely by using information and communications technologies. Such organizations are virtual not only in the sense that they exist largely in cyberspace, but also in that they are unconstrained by the traditional barriers of time and place. A virtual office is characterized by the use of teleworkers, telecenters, mobile workers, hot-desking, and hoteling, and promotes the use of virtual teams. A virtual office can increase an organization's flexibility, cost effectiveness, and efficiency. Justification for a Virtual Office An organization’s most important asset has always been and will always be its employees. For obvious reasons, however, organizations continue to expect more from their employees each year. Companies simply cannot afford to add new resources whenever the workload increases. The result is that the demands on the average professional employee continue to increase, and indications are that this will be the case for the foreseeable future. In other words, the pressure on an employee to perform - and even outperform - has never been greater. To respond to these challenges, employees need access to business tools that allow them to do their jobs efficiently. Since much of their work depends on......

Words: 3349 - Pages: 14

Virtual World

...work interdependently towards a common goal, spread across organization, distance and time are called a Virtual team. In the current global business environment it is a necessity for multi-national organizations to make globally distributed operating units to maintain a position in the marketplace. This paper discusses the future need for virtual teams in the global organizations. As organizations seek to spread in the global market , a need is created to explore the context, and management of virtual teams. There is a need to explore the success and failures of implementing virtual teams. Also as the trends arise of round the clock customer service by many major organizations, it is very much necessary to adopt virtual teams who can provide the same service round the clock to customers spread across the globe. INTRODUCTION A team is a combinational unit of interdependent individuals who work towards common goals; endowed with complementary skills such as, technical knowledge, problem-solving ability, time management and emotional intelligence etc.. Such a team which operates from different locations and communicates virtually can be called Virtual teams.[1] Four words capture the essence of virtual teams: people, purpose, links and time." Virtual teams can also be called Globally Distributed Teams (GDT). Lin, Standing and Lui define virtual teams as, “an interdependent group working on a project across time and space relying on information and...

Words: 1159 - Pages: 5

Virtual Classroom

... 34 9. REFERENCES 35 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Abstract Virtual Classroom represents an innovative shift in the field of learning, providing rapid access to specific knowledge and information. It represents an interface between the students and a professor and provides personalized learning materials to the users. It offers a possibility to the attendees to share different resources at once and work with them as if they were at the same place where (real) resources are. In the system design, we use agents as entities that work on different tasks in the system. A set of agents of the same type is responsible for handling different users and their requests. The cooperation among agents is established through the act of exchanging messages. A wide variety of classroom techniques are being advocated to increase learning: active learning, collaboration, integration of assessment and feedback. 1.2 Problem Definition Education will change tremendously within the next few years. The significance of life-long learning and life accompanying education raises the need for new teaching and learning technologies. Developing a virtual classroom system to promote a greater count of students to splurge into the field of education. It integrates the benefits of a physical classroom with the convenience of a ‘no-physical-bar’ virtual learning environment, minus the commuting hazards and expenses. It will usher in the immense......

Words: 7999 - Pages: 32

Virtual Teams

...According to Skillport Virtual Team Basics, a virtual team is defined as “a group of individuals linked by communication technology to achieve a common goal.” While this particular training session focused on forming and using virtual teams in the work place, virtual teams are also used in other modes, such as in academia. The virtual team may either be in the form of a group project or the team may be an online class. I have not had the opportunity to be on a virtual team while employed, however I have participated on various virtual teams while in undergraduate and graduate school in both group projects and online classes. The advantages and disadvantages for academic and workforce virtual teams are fairly similar; as the advantages of virtual teams include autonomy and independence, self-reliance, and increased productivity and the disadvantages of virtual teams include poor communication between group members and management/professors, poor leadership and management. It is essential that the individuals on the virtual team be disciplined, organized, self-motivated and have good time management skills. Unfortunately, in academia virtual teams as well as workforce virtual teams occasionally are filled with incompetent team members who do not possess these personality traits. However, management within the workforce is usually able to “pick and choose” who they put on a virtual team while professors are unable to perform the same feat. It is important to note here......

Words: 748 - Pages: 3

Virtual Teams

...Virtual Teams: A Review of Current Literature and Directions for Future Research1 The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems Anne Powell Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Gabriele Piccoli Cornell University Blake Ives University of Houston Winter 2004 (Vol. 35, No. 1) Introduction Global competition, reengineered product life cycles, mass customization, and the increased need to respond quickly to customers’ needs are just some of the more pronounced trends currently driving organizational change (Grenier & Metes, 1995; Miles & Snow, 1986; Miles & Snow, 1992). One of the building blocks of these successful organizations is the Virtual Team. As a consequence, a growing number of organizations are implementing them or plan to implement them in the near future (Lipnack &Stamps, 1997; McDonough et al., 2001) and their use is expected to continue to grow (Carmel & Agarwal, 2001; McDonough et al., 2001). The increasing popularity of virtual teams has spurred a parallel growth in research examining various aspects of virtual team adoption and use. Recent research has studied virtual team inputs, socioemotional processes, task processes, and outcomes. Much of this literature focuses on comparisons of virtual teams and traditional teams. Virtual Teams Traditionally, both the terms “team” and “group” have been used to describe small collections of people at work. While the two terms are often used......

Words: 16269 - Pages: 66

Virtual Teams

...VIRTUAL TEAMS Virtual teams are teams whose members operate across space, time and organizational boundaries, and are linked though information technologies to achieve organizational tasks. (Organizational behaviour, Steven L. McShane, 8th edition, p-230.) Virtual team members are usually dislocated from the main office and each other, depending on information technology instead of face-to-face communication for the interaction. A virtual team consists of professionals working remotely in various locations. Some members may work out of their home, some may work in co-working offices, while others might work in branch offices. All, however, work on the same team and work toward the same objectives. Virtual team members collaborate and work together from separate locations by leveraging technology: instant messaging, web conferencing, Skype, online project management software, etc. Teams located in the same location may have one or two members located elsewhere. Some people may not consider this a full virtual team. For the purposes of exploring the topic, I’m going to include these teams in the definition as hiring remote members can be one way to transition to a broader virtual team. Advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams. Adventeges: § Cheaper Salaries: while salaries in Canada and USA skyrocket, salaries for example for programmers elsewhere remain much lower. Expand outside Canada and the U.S. and the price goes lower. You can hire awesome......

Words: 3008 - Pages: 13

Virtual Memory

...There are many benefits of using virtual memory; the most important part is memory management, Memory management is the process of managing computer memory. The memory management subsystem of the operating system carries out this duty. Because the beginning of calculating, there has always existed the need for more memory than the existing physical memory in the system. Surrounded by many important jobs an operating system does in a computer memory allocation to the processes being implemented is the most important one. Operating systems should have the capability to assign memory when available and clear to make room for data and instructions when the memory is full. The capability to recognize the location of an entire program or a particular location in the physical memory is another responsibility the operating system should be able to accommodate. Operating systems are designed to take benefit of file system conveniences and virtual memory to address the needs of memory management. Data stored in long-term memory is saved as named objects called files, and data and instructions stored in virtual memory is addressed in a logical point of view. Because of the small ability of the virtual memory, only a limited part of a program is kept in virtual memory. The ability to address memory both reasonably and physically enables the operating system to separate processes and run several programs run concomitantly. By using virtual addresses and real addresses, the......

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Virtual Meetings: Smart Management

...CASE STUDY 1. One consulting firm has predicted that video and Web conferencing will make business travel extinct. Do you agree? Why or why not? We believe that video and web conferencing is a much more viable option for businesses in today’s day and age and will in deed supersede business travel. Businesses that are finding that they are spending a significant amount on unnecessary travel will soon be taking the video/ web conferencing option to save money. Case Study, Virtual Meetings: Smart Management states that “Videoconferencing is now growing at an annual rate of 30 percent”. This confirms that videoconferencing is on the increase therefore we can only assume that business travel must be decreasing and will eventually be non-existent. Video/ web conferencing has become easily accessible for most businesses around the world and is much more convenient than organising flights and accommodation to attend those important meetings. There is less risk of not being able to attend a meeting due to flight delays or cancellations and if a meeting has been cancelled at the last minute there will be no expenses due to flight or accommodation cancellation charges. There are a variety of video conferencing products in the market as well as web based programs making this option readily available to businesses. Videoconferencing products can be a significant expense incurred at the start but these costs will mean a large saving on travel expenses that will either be......

Words: 2577 - Pages: 11

Virtual Meetings Smart Management

...to communicate through two-way video and audio transmissions at the same time.” On the other hand, telepresence is a more advanced technology than videoconferencing. “ The top-of-the-line videoconferencing technology is known as telepresence. Telepresence strives to make users feel as if they are actually present in a location different from their own.” 3. There are many ways in which videoconferencing provides value to a business. Cost effectiveness and efficiency are two of them. For example, it allows sales representatives to do their presentations without meeting with customers face to face. Employees are also able to work at home while conducting meetings with other colleagues through videoconferencing. I consider it to be smart management simply because it will reduce the cost for traveling while improving the efficiency of conducting meetings with a variety of different groups around the world. 4. If I were in charge of a small business, I would make sure that the company really depended on the technology to gain a profitable venture before implementing videoconferencing. If the employees relied heavily on conducting meetings with people around the world, and the products could be easily demonstrated by salespersons through videoconferencing, I would consider implementing videoconferencing. Conversely, if the business depended more on face-to-face interaction with others , I would not consider it....

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Virtual Management

...Virtual Management: A New Way to Manage Virtual Management: A New Way to Manage Technological innovation has been a driving force in the growth of e-business organizations. The e-organization growth has spawned new leadership methods and business processes aimed at maintaining competitiveness in a changing global economy. One business model attributed to the technical revolution is virtual models. This paper is intended to argue that traditional business management, methodology, and structures are failing to accommodate an ever-changing global environment, characterized by hyper-competitiveness, and the exponential increase of information systems design. The current virtual model is managed using out of date management theories, performance metrics, and technical innovations, thus creating a need to update the open systems thinking and organizational theory of the virtual model. As an open system, virtual environments are quickly becoming the new wave of business organizing. Open Systems Organizational Theory Jones (2010) defines organizational theory as “the study of how organizations function and how they affect and are affected by the environment in when they operate” (p.7). Organizational theory maintains a master relationship with organizational structure, organizational change and design, and organizational culture. Organizational structure is “the formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their...

Words: 1935 - Pages: 8

Virtual Project Management

...TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT SUMMER 2012 VIRTUAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT “A virtual project is a collaborative effort towards a specific goal or accomplishment which is based on ‘collective yet remote’ performance.” “Virtual project management is the structure in which virtual teams work together for a finite period of time to accomplish a specific goal” Current penetration of Internet and development of collaborative software have introduced new dimension to technical organizations for project management that “dispersed peoples” can be a project team in place of traditional concept of project team. Three types of virtual projects are common; Lean Project, Hybrid Project and Extreme projects. The people work on virtual project as team called virtual project team and virtual project management manage the input & output of the project. Basic seven types of virtual project teams are Networked teams, Production teams, Management teams, Action teams, Production teams, Services teams and Parallel teams. The major challenge faced by the company in executing the virtual project, is the management of virtual project team. Coordination, Communication and Control are the three essential elements for successful execution of virtual project by project management; where Control is a mechanism for mitigating coordination and communication challenges in virtual project team to make effectiveness of virtual project Management practices. Technologies like E-mail, Tele- and Videoconferencing......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Virtual Meeting: Smart Management

...Virtual Meetings: Smart Management-1 Case # 2 Analysis and Evaluation: Virtual Meetings: Smart Management Kiko Nyambi January 20,2012 Virtual Meetings: Smart Management-2 Case Analysis and Evaluation: Virtual Meetings: Smart Management. When looking at virtual meetings: Smart Management we are not only looking at the technologies used but also the benefits they provide. The way the internet has developed has made things like videoconferencing, and its extension, telepresence, a much cheaper, easier and a more accessible way to do business. This report looks primarily at reduced business travel and its associated costs, the environmental benefits, the differences in videoconferencing and telepresence, how these things add value to a business, if they are needed at all by a business and how they are changing the way we prepare for business......

Words: 3390 - Pages: 14