What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Division of Labor?

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of division of labor?

By division of labor we mean an arrangement where by people perform different functions at the same time. Though the term, 'Division of labor' is applied in the field of economics, yet infact division of labor in modern society is not limited simply to labor but applies to all the factors of production and exists beyond the purely economic field. There may be three forms of division of labor.

(i) Social division of labor

This means division into occupation. Thus, there are farmers, weavers, teachers, priests, laborers etc.

(ii) Technical division of labor

This means the division of labor within a particular enterprise. Thus within a factory there are weavers, spinners, designers, accountants, managers and engineers. The work may be divided into complete tasks like spinning, weaving, bleaching, designing, finishing etc. or it may by divided into incomplete processes. It is said that work in a modern spinning factory is divided into 18 processes. Technical division of labor is marked feature of modern machine age.

(iii) Territorial division of labor

This is also known as localization of industries. Certain places or regions come to specialize in the making of certain articles; Hosiery at Ludhiana, Cotton textiles at Ahmadabad and Bombay, Jute industry at Calcutta, Leather industry at Agra and Kanpur etc.

Division of labor is based on the principle of co-operation or interdependence. The different persons among whom the work is divided co-operate in the production of a thing for example, to make a chair, one group is engaged in making backs another seats and still another joining them and finally there is group of workers polishing the chairs. All of them co-operate and through their cooperation, a chair is made. Division of labor is both a divisional and integrating social…...

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