With Reference to Examples, Discuss the Overall Effectiveness of Urban Regeneration Schemes

In: Other Topics

Submitted By KatieJones
Words 2087
Pages 9
With reference to examples, discuss the overall effectiveness of urban regeneration schemes (40)
Many inner cities have suffered from urban decline in the past 30 years due to many reasons. Urban decline is generally defined as when an area starts losing businesses, people lose their jobs, people move away from the area as the local economy shrinks meaning the desirability of the area as a whole also falls. In response to this urban decline, many local governments have introduced urban regeneration schemes.
Urban regeneration is the attempt to reverse that decline by both improving the physical structure, and, more importantly and elusively, the economy of those areas. Re-urbanisation is the movement of people back to live in old city centres and inner city areas that have been redeveloped. The four different processes that drive re-urbanisation are Gentrification (Notting Hill), through partnerships (Sheffield City Centre and Park Hill Flats), property led regeneration schemes (Sheffield Development Cooperation in the Lower Don Valley) and Urban Re-Generation in Mumbai.
One partnership scheme which aimed to achieve urban regeneration was the Urban Splash scheme in Sheffield which focused on the regeneration of the Park Hill flats just outside the city’s CBD. The flats were built in 1957 to ease the problem of developing slums in the area. However over time the flats have become an eyesore. They were rundown and crime and vandalism became a problem. The regeneration scheme worked towards improving the aesthetics of the flats by adding coloured panels and glass to the exterior and by making the flats a listed building in the hope of attracting investment. The scheme was not a huge success overall, although the project did succeed in brightening up the exterior of the flats to a degree. It also served to benefit the community as residents could work together to…...

Similar Documents

To What Extent Can Housing Led Regeneration Schemes Tackle Social Exclusion?

...To what extent can housing led regeneration schemes tackle social exclusion? Written by: Rosalie Burke – University of Westminster MA Housing Policy and Practice (April 2012) In order for housing led regeneration schemes to tackle social exclusions, the regeneration organisers and the residents of the area will have to play their parts. This paper will be looking at how regeneration schemes can tackle social exclusion by creating mixed tenures, and what roles residents can play in sustaining mix tenures in order to tackle social exclusion. This paper will also look at if social exclusion can be kept out of housing regeneration schemes in this bad economical climate which has seen many job losses and the changes in which the Localism Act has introduced. Regeneration programmes, are normally conducted in areas which are deemed to be poor and is usually based around improving the quality of housing and tackling social exclusion. Regeneration can be funded by the public sector and a mixture of private and public sources (Muir, 2008). Regeneration schemes can bring in investors to the area which in turn can create employment opportunities and from employment, this would lead to money being spent in the area, people would want to raise a family, work and continue to live for a very long time. Regenerating an area does not always mean knocking down the whole community and starting again, it can be that some of the properties are knocked down......

Words: 2269 - Pages: 10

Reference List Example

...Reference List 1. ACCA, 2013. Rulebook. [pdf] London: ACCA. Available at: http://www.accaglobal.com/content/dam/acca/global/PDF-members/rulebook/acca_2013_rulebook.pdf [Accessed 2 October 2013]. 2. Acer, 2013. Aspire S7 [image online] Available at: http://static.acer.com/up/Resource/Acer/Ultrabooks/AGW2%20Aspire%20S7/Photo%20Gallery/20120919/S7-Helium-photo-gallery-02.png [Accessed 15 September 2013]. 3. AmosWEB, n. d.. FOUR-FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO. [online] Available at: http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/awb_nav.pl?s=wpd&c=dsp&k=four-firm+concentration+ratio [Accessed 10 September 2013]. 4. Apple, 2007. iPhone Premieres This Friday Night at Apple Retail Stores. [press release] 28 June 2007. Available at: http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/06/28iPhone-Premieres-This-Friday-Night-at-Apple-Retail-Stores.html [Accessed 15 September 2013]. 5. Apple, 2008. Apple Introduces the New iPhone 3G. [press release] 9 June 2008. Available at: http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/06/09Apple-Introduces-the-New-iPhone-3G.html [Accessed 15 September 2013]. 6. Apple, 2009. Apple Announces the New iPhone 3GS—The Fastest, Most Powerful iPhone Yet. [press release] 8 June 2009. Available at: http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/06/08Apple-Announces-the-New-iPhone-3GS-The-Fastest-Most-Powerful-iPhone-Yet.html [Accessed 15 September 2013]. 7. Apple, 2010. Apple Presents iPhone 4. [press release] 7 June 2010. Available at:......

Words: 2708 - Pages: 11

Discuss the Effectiveness of the Opening Scene in the Play.

...has a great amount of characterization. In this opening scene of the play we see that Hansberry has carefully outlined the description for each of the main characters (the Youngers) as a way to properly introduce each character into the play. She opens the play with the description of Ruth (the pessimist of the family) who Hansberry states that though in her early thirties due to numerous disappointments in life appears quite older than she is. This is probably due to her letting her problems control her life, they grown from affecting her on the inside to affecting her overall appearance as well. Lorraine Hansberry has given each member of the family in this opening scene similar intros upon their debut in the play describing their appearance as well as giving slight details about their personality. She also further outlined different characteristics of the characters as the scene progressed. One example of this was while Walter was talking to his wife Ruth while showing ambition towards his dream. Walter tries to coax his wife Ruth into assisting him in his endeavour to get money from Mama’s cheque to open a liquor store so they can use the money made from the business venture to make a way to escape poverty. Though Ruth however looks down on and ignores Walter’s ideas simply telling him to just “eat his eggs”. I find it odd that Hansberry allowed a union between these two people who are almost with Ruth being a person to accept the struggle of life while Walter is......

Words: 1175 - Pages: 5

Apa Reference Examples

...Using APA: Creating a Reference Page (Updated October 2012—APA 6th Edition) General Guidelines for Formatting a Reference Page Your reference list provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the essay. Each source you cite in the essay must appear in your reference list (except for personal communications); each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.  Start the reference list on a new page. Type the word References in upper and lowercase letters, centered, at the top of the page on the first line below the page header; do not underline, and do not put it in quotation marks. Your reference list must be in alphabetical order according to author’s last name; if no author is given for a particular source, alphabetize by the title of the piece and use a shortened version of the title for parenthetical citations. If you have more than one work by a particular author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest. Provide first initial (and not first name) and middle initial (if provided) for all authors of a particular work. Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle of a work unless it is a proper noun. Italicize titles of books and journals—note that the italics extend to include the volume number of a periodical as well as the period at the end of a book title. Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a single work. The first line of each entry in your Reference list should be at......

Words: 3778 - Pages: 16

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

...WELCOME KAILAS SREE CHANDRAN CLASS: S7 INDUSTRIAL 432 Guide: V REGIKUMAR OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS OEE MODERN APPROACH TO OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS OEE 2 3 4 5 6  Loss due to breakdown of equipment.  Loss is more than 10 minutes.  Biggest of SIX BIG LOSSES.  Tooling Failures  Unplanned Maintenance  General Breakdowns  Equipment Failure  The time lost due to adjustments 7 in the equipment.  Loss is less then 10 minutes.  Setup/ Changeover  Material Shortages  Major Adjustments  Small stops losses occur when equipment 8 stops for a short time as a result of a temporary problem.  These includes stops that are under ten minutes.  Component Jams  Misfeeds  Sensor Blocked  Delivery Blocked  Cleaning/ Checking  Reduced speed refers to the 9 difference between Design speed and Actual Operating speed.  Under Nameplate Capacity  Under Design Capacity  Due to Equipment Wear  Due to Operator Inefficiency  Some equipments require warm10 up time and certain adjustments to obtain optimum output. Startup rejection occurs during this startup time.  Scrap  Rework  These losses occurs when products 11 produced are not conforming to the specifications.  These are rejects during steady-state production.  Scrap  Rework 12  The amount of time the facility is open and 13 available for operation.  One year consists of 365 days, one day consists......

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

With Reference to Examples, Evaluate the Success or Otherwise of Urban Regeneration Schemes in Combating the Causes and Consequences of Urban Decline. (40 Marks)

...With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline. (40 marks) Urban decline is the deterioration of the inner city often caused by lack of investment and maintenance. It is often but not exclusively accompanied by a decline in population numbers, decreasing economic performance and unemployment. There are many reasons for urban decline such as loss of industry through changing market conditions or a lack of withdrawal of government support, Political decisions – governments can favour some cities over others, and encourage the development of some areas over others.  Outmigration of wealthier and more skilled people leaves a lesser qualified population behind, which means less skilled workers are taking the jobs, and not doing them right linking back to a loss of industry, really urban decline is one big cycle, and it’s very hard to escape. This is where urban regeneration schemes come into play, urban regeneration schemes are used to improve the appearance of our towns and cities and to regenerate the area by restoring confidence and attracting new investment. In most cases they are used to improve the appearance of public open spaces in the centres of our cities, towns and villages. There are various government led schemes to regenerate cities, I am going to write about three such schemes, in London, Bradford and Southampton, and evaluate the overall effectiveness of whether......

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6

Discuss the Need for World Order and Evaluate the Effectiveness of Responses in the Maintenance of World Order

...dramatic growth and development of international law over the past 60 years. The international responses currently in place include are mainly enforced by the United Nations (UN) and are aimed at the maintenance of world order in the international community. There is an increasing need for World Order in contemporary society than ever before as a high level of interdependence between countries has resulted from the push for globalisation and free trade. This interaction between countries has instigated greater conflict in the world in the form of terrorism, civil unrest and conflict for access to the world’s shrinking resources. Access to resources has been a major source of conflict due to the world’s increasing consumption. An example of such as conflict is the chaos occurring in the Persian Gulf from 1980 over the access to oil reserves. Iraq has the world’s third largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia and Iran. Saddam Hussein in 1991 invaded Kuwait after the Iraq‐Iran war which was based on the access to oil, he gained control of the oil wells and when his forces were retreated they set the oil wells alight or drained them into the Persian Gulf. Here access to oil, was not only used to harm Kuwait’s economy but also to disrupt world order. A similar disruption in world peace occurred in 2003 when America invaded Iraq in accordance of the ‘Bush Doctrine’. Nelson Mandela claimed that George Bush’s order to invade was aimed to ‘please (America’s) arms and......

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Urban Regeneration of London Docklands (Case Study)

...Urban Regeneration. The Dockland scheme is an example of Re-generation. This involves partnership and the rebirth of an area. With the aid of labelled maps and satellite images, locate London’s Docklands London's Docklands is the name for an area that lies in the south east of the City of London in England. The area covered by the London Docklands Redevelopment Corporation stretches from Wapping and Tower Bridge in the west to The City Airport and Becckton in the east, and is built on the legacy of the trading power of the British Empire. Explain why the “East End” (Docklands area!) fell into decline After World War 2 London experienced net outward migration where people moved out of the city into surrounding towns and villages. This is known as counter-urbanisation. It was caused by the clearances of slums and bomb damaged areas. It was also down to the green belt, an area of land around London where development was banned or restricted, this meant people had to move further away. It was then found that there was a rapid increase in the amount of people moving to towns and villages around London, mainly commuters and there families. Following on from this came De-industrialisation. Most of the factories being in and round the docks due to materials passing through the docks themselves. After the 1980’s Thatcher’s government shut down most of the mines as it was too costly, therefore factories that relied on materials from mines and other sources no longer got them,......

Words: 1258 - Pages: 6

With Reference to Examples, Evaluate the Success or Otherwise of Urban Regeneration Schemes in Combating the Causes and Consequences of Urban Decline

...With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline (40) Urban decline was a problem faced by many inner city areas in the UK from the 1970’s onwards, and occurs when people move out of an areas because of factors such as deindustrialisation and depleting job availability. This leads to areas becoming unsightly, dangerous places to live which this government has tried to reverse in the past 40 years, with varying levels of success. In this essay I will be investigating the varying levels of success that different decision making governments have had at regenerating Hulme in Manchester, the city centre of Birmingham and Greenwich in London. Hulme is located 1½ kilometres from the central business district (CBD) of Manchester. It reached what could be said to be its lowest point of decline in the 70’s, shortly before conservative leader John Major introduced the Hulme City Challenge Partnership. At this point in time, 98% of the 5500 dwelling in Hulme were council owned; half of these were part of a deck access system which were very unsafe and the layout helped to facilitate crime. As well as this, many of these dwellings housed single parents or people with social problems, which provided evidence for the idea that the local authority had used the area to ‘dump’ some of its more unfortunate residents. The Hulme City Challenge Partnership was introduced in 1992, where plans......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Evaluate the Success of Urban Regeneration Schemes in Combating the Causes of Urban Decline

... SCLY2 Education with Research Methods; Health with Research Methods Unit 2 Mark Scheme Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments made at the standardisation meeting attended by all examiners and is the scheme which was used by them in this examination. The standardisation meeting ensures that the mark scheme covers the candidates’ responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same correct way. As preparation for the standardisation meeting each examiner analyses a number of candidates’ scripts: alternative answers not already covered by the mark scheme are discussed at the meeting and legislated for. If, after this meeting, examiners encounter unusual answers which have not been discussed at the meeting they are required to refer these to the Principal Examiner. It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and expanded on the basis of candidates’ reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark schemes on the basis of one year’s document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular examination paper. Further copies of this Mark Scheme are available to download from the AQA Website: www.aqa.org.uk Copyright © 2011 AQA......

Words: 6467 - Pages: 26

‘Equity Has Brought Benefits to Many Litigants Who Would Otherwise Have Been Severely Disadvantaged by the Common Law.’ Discuss, with Reference to Decided Cases.

...CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series 9699 SOCIOLOGY 9699/33 Paper 3 (Social Inequality and Opportunity), maximum raw mark 75 This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner Report for Teachers. Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes. Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2014 series for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components. Page 2 1 Mark Scheme GCE A LEVEL – May/June 2014 Syllabus 9699 Paper 33 (a) Explain how the achievement of pupils may be influenced by pupil sub-cultures. [9] 0–4 A few general observations about pupils’ educational achievement, with no direct links to the question, would be worth 1 or 2 marks. A basic account of what is meant by pupil sub-culture, with no further development in relation to the question, would be placed in the higher part of the band. 5–9 Lower in the band, answers are likely to provide a......

Words: 3917 - Pages: 16

Urban Regeneration

...With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline. (40 marks) Urban decline can be defined as the drastic decline of a city into infirmity and disrepair. It is usually characterised by increased unemployment, depopulation, deindustrialization, increased crime and political disenfranchisement. Not only does it cause these problems but also it can make the area look unattractive – consequently less people being enticed to the area. This can then lead to a vicious cycle. The causes of these factors, which ultimately cause urban decline, can be: educated workers keep moving to the suburbs to avoid crime, poor schools, taxes and racial tensions. These businesses also find that building new facilities in the suburbs is much cheaper than refurbishing old buildings for their needs. There are many reasons to move out of the city but only a few reasons to stay. When a city or an urban area sinks into decline, the council has the choice to regenerate the area to entice people back into the area. When regeneration is considered in the context of ‘urban,’ it involves the rebirth or renewal of urban areas and settlements. Urban regeneration is primarily concerned with regenerating cities and early/inner ring suburbs facing periods of decline. The term urban regeneration covers everything from creating desirable homes in city centers to finding new uses for our formal industrial heartlands...

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

With Reference to Either Waste Management in Urban Areas or Transport Management in Urban Areas, Discuss the Extent to Which Sustainability Can Be Achieved.

...With reference to either Waste management in urban areas or Transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability can be achieved. Answer 1 (Transport) Sustainable management in urban areas is a constant theme for urban areas in both LEDCs and MEDCs. This essay will be based on whether transport management can be achieved sustainably and whether or not it is only transport management that can achieve sustainability or other aspects such as improved housing, preventing urban sprawl and protecting the environment also add to the possibility of achieving sustainability. Transport management in urban areas is approached differently in both LEDCs and MEDCs. However the problems as a result of increased congestion in cities are similar. Some of those problems include deliveries being late, causing businesses to slow down and therefore the economy of the area; increased car ownership and therefore congestion releases a lot of pollutants such as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. These cause problems such as acid rain when sulphur dioxide combines with water vapour forming sulphuric acid and carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas so increased levels add to the greenhouse effect and therefore global warming. Increased car ownership also lacks sustainability in terms of natural resource use so managing this transport in cities is important. In MEDCs the problem of obesity is rife with one in four adults in the UK that are obese and 10% of......

Words: 1356 - Pages: 6

Urban Regen. Schemes

...With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline (40) Urban decline is defined as the deterioration of the inner city. It is normally caused by a lack of investment and maintenance as well as social reasons and government policy and these declining areas are characterised by the low economic status, social and environmental decline and problems. Even with this decline, there are ways of regenerating the inner city, such as Urban Development Corporations and City Partnerships. The de-industrialisation of UK inner cities led to unemployment in the area, meaning there was a lack of disposable income and therefore and therefore a lack of expenditure in the local economy. This decreased income and expenditure means that rent prices would be lowered in the area and therefore landlords would not be motivated to carry out repairs and refurbishments, leading to a decline in the standard of living as well. The lack of expenditure meant that mass disinvestment from local businesses occurred as they decided to move to more prosperous areas to further their business ventures. This in turn creates more unemployment and a further lack in expenditure and more disinvestment; and the cycle continues. The local government collect less tax, while in turn having to shell out more in unemployment benefits, leading to further economic decline in the area, as well as a physical decline. This......

Words: 2684 - Pages: 11

Give an Example of Strategic Decision Making You Saw, Heard or Experienced and Discuss Why It Should Be Called Strategy Instead of Something Else (Such as Operational Effectiveness)?

...“Papa John’s Pizza – Better Ingredients. Better Pizza.” This is the brand promise of Papa John’s International and the foundation of a careful mix of business strategies used to stand out from, and remain ahead of the competition. Papa John’s was established by a young entrepreneur that had the idea of creating a “better pizza” and with his passion and creativity, created “the third largest pizza company, with more than 2,800 pizza chain restaurants.” Papa John’s International, Reference for Business Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd edition, Oe-Pa. To achieve the goal of better pizza Papa John's has focused on the pizza eschewing pasta and sandwich items. In one article the author points out that everyone involved in the pizza business pretty much shares the techniques and activities needed to be competitive at the operations level: "Since there is no real secret to getting into and being in the pizza business all players basically have shared knowledge of what the competitive advantages are that each could hold". "The Associated Press (2009) Papa John’s successful strategies position themselves in the pizza market by offering reasonable prices, great quality, great service, and a selected menu, which aids in helping in becoming better than the competition. According to CEO Niegel Travis, Papa John’s focused on product quality and service which ensure profits. The trade-off is to avoid discounts, but by focusing on the quality of their ingredients, Papa John’s has......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3