Working Capital

In: Business and Management

Submitted By goldgenie
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Current assets and current liabilities include three accounts which are of special importance. These accounts represent the areas of the business where managers have the most direct impact:

accounts receivable (current asset) inventory (current assets), and accounts payable (current liability)

The current portion of debt (payable within 12 months) is critical, because it represents a short-term claim to current assets and is often secured by long term assets. Common types of short-term debt are bank loans and lines of credit.

An increase in working capital indicates that the business has either increased current assets (that it has increased its receivables, or other current assets) or has decreased current liabilities—for example has paid off some short-term creditors.

Implications on M&A: The common commercial definition of working capital for the purpose of a working capital adjustment in an M&A transaction (i.e. for a working capital adjustment mechanism in a sale and purchase agreement) is equal to:

Current Assets – Current Liabilities excluding deferred tax assets/liabilities, excess cash, surplus assets and/or deposit balances.

Cash balance items often attract a one-for-one, purchase-price adjustment.
Working capital management
Corporate finance
Looking north from the Empire State Building, New York City, 2005
Working capital

Cash conversion cycle Return on capital Economic Value Added Just-in-time Economic order quantity Discounts and allowances Factoring

Capital budgeting

Capital investment decisions The investment decision The financing decision


Managerial finance Financial accounting Management accounting Mergers and acquisitions Balance sheet analysis Business plan Corporate action

Societal components…...

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